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Microwave Limb Sounder


The Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) experiments measure naturally-occurring microwave thermal emission from the limb (edge) of Earth's atmosphere to remotely sense vertical profiles of atmospheric gases, temperature, pressure, and cloud ice. The overall objective of these experiments is to provide information that will help improve our understanding of Earth's atmosphere and global change.


Start Date
End Date
N2O GPH Temperature HNO3 All


Current GMT day:    
Maps @ 46hPa; SO2 @ 147hPa and CO @ 215hPa

Latest Publications

  1. Girach, I., P. Nair, N. Ojha, and L. Sahu, "Tropospheric carbon monoxide over the northern Indian Ocean during winter: influence of inter-continental transport," Climate Dynamics, doi:10.1007/s00382-020-05269-4, 2020.   reprint  

  2. Fujinawa, T., T. Sato, T. Yamada, S. Nara, Y. Uchiyama, K. Takahashi, N. Yoshida, and Y. Kasai, "Validation of acetonitrile CH3CN measurements in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere from the SMILES instrument on the International Space Station," Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 13, 4, 2119-2129, doi:10.5194/amt-13-2119-2020, 2020.   reprint  

  3. Kulikov, Y., A.V. Poberovskii, V.G. Ryskin, and V.A. Yushkov, "Detection of Large Fluctuations in Ozone Content in the Middle Atmosphere during Sudden Stratospheric Warmings and Subpolar Latitudes of the Arctic," Geomagnetism and Aeronomy 60, 2, 254-262, doi:10.1134/s0016793220020097, 2020.   reprint  

  4. Dong, W.H., Y.L. Lin, M.H. Zhang, and X.M. Huang, "Footprint of Tropical Mesoscale Convective System Variability on Stratospheric Water Vapor," Geophys. Res. Lett. 47, 5, doi:10.1029/2019gl086320, 2020.   reprint  

  5. Robinson, J., A. Kotsakis, F. Santos, R. Swap, K.E. Knowland, G. Labow, V. Connors, M. Tzortziou, N. Abuhassan, M. Tiefengraber, and A. Cede, "Using networked Pandora observations to capture spatiotemporal changes in total column ozone associated with stratosphere-to-troposphere transport," Atmos. Res. 238, 104872, doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2020.104872, 2020.   reprint  

> More Publications

New MLS v4.2 Level 3 Gridded Data Products Released

The Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) Science Team and the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) are pleased to announce the release of the Version 4.0 MLS Level 3 gridded data products. MLS is one of four instruments flown aboard the Aura satellite. Level 3 data are supplied for most MLS standard products found in Level 2. BrO and HO2 are excluded, as they are available in a different Level 3 data product. Also excluded are CH3CN and CH3OH, in light of the narrow range over which these products are recommended for scientific use. The MLS Level 3 gridded products are divided into three types:
  • Daily Binned Files
  • Monthly Binned Files
  • Zonal Mean Binned Files
Products showing diurnal variation (ClO, HOCl, O3, and OH) are further subdivided into groups with all valid, ascending orbit, descending orbit, daytime (Solar Zenith Angle (SZA) < 90), and nighttime (SZA > 110) profiles. For more detailed information, please see Chapter 4 of the MLS Version 4.2x Data Quality and Description Document.

For additional information on these products, please the GES-DISC.

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Webmaster: Brian Knosp
JPL Clearance: CL# 97-0564