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Microwave Limb Sounder


The Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) experiments measure naturally-occurring microwave thermal emission from the limb (edge) of Earth's atmosphere to remotely sense vertical profiles of atmospheric gases, temperature, pressure, and cloud ice. The overall objective of these experiments is to provide information that will help improve our understanding of Earth's atmosphere and global change.


Start Date
End Date
N2O GPH Temperature HNO3 All


Current GMT day:    
Maps @ 46hPa; SO2 @ 147hPa and CO @ 215hPa

Latest Publications

  1. Kreyling, D., I. Wohltmann, R. Lehmann, and M. Rex, "The Extrapolar SWIFT model version 1.0: fast stratospheric ozone chemistry for global climate models," Geoscientific Model Development 11, 2, 753-769, doi:10.5194/gmd-11-753-2018, 2018.   reprint  

  2. Lambert, A., and M. Santee, "Accuracy and precision of polar lower stratospheric temperatures from reanalyses evaluated from A-Train CALIOP and MLS, COSMIC GPS RO, and the equilibrium thermodynamics of supercooled ternary solutions and ice clouds," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 18, 3, 1945-1975, doi:10.5194/acp-18-1945-2018, 2018.   reprint  

  3. Yi, W., I. Reid, X. Xue, D. Murphy, C. Hall, M. Tsutsumi, B. Ning, G. Li, J. Younger, T. Chen, and X. Dou, "High- and Middle-Latitude Neutral Mesospheric Density Response to Geomagnetic Storms," Geophys. Res. Lett. 45, 1, 436-444, doi:10.1002/2017gl076282, 2018.   reprint  

  4. Noreen, A., M. Khokhar, N. Zeb, N. Yasmin, and K. Hakeem, "Spatio-temporal assessment and seasonal variation of tropospheric ozone in Pakistan during the last decade," Environmental Science and Pollution Reasearch 25, 9, 8441-8454, doi:10.1007/s11356-017-1010-2, in press.

  5. Lau, W., C. Yuan, and Z. Li, "Origin, Maintenance and Variability of the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer ATAL: The Roles of Monsoon Dynamics," Scientific Reports 8, 1, doi:10.1038/s41598-018-22267-z, 2018.   reprint  

> More Publications

Update to Level 2 v4 Data Quality Document

The Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) team has updated the "Version 4.2x Level 2 data quality and description document" with revised data screening rules for the water vapor (H2O) and nitrous oxide (N2O) products. This change improves upon the previously recommended screening approach, which inappropriately flagged a large number of H2O and N2O observations in recent years of the mission as unsuitable for scientific use. This unwarranted flagging was a consequence of a slow drift in the performance of the MLS 190 GHz receiver system making these measurements. This instrumental drift, and the related changes in the H2O and N2O products themselves (variations around 0.2-0.8%/year), is discussed further in the document. The MLS team is investigating this drift, and is working towards updated (v5) MLS algorithms that take steps to further alleviate its impacts. This latest version of the document is labeled "v4.2x-3.1" and is available here.

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