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Microwave Limb Sounder


The Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) experiments measure naturally-occurring microwave thermal emission from the limb (edge) of Earth's atmosphere to remotely sense vertical profiles of atmospheric gases, temperature, pressure, and cloud ice. The overall objective of these experiments is to provide information that will help improve our understanding of Earth's atmosphere and global change.


Start Date
End Date
N2O GPH Temperature HNO3 All


Current GMT day:    
Maps @ 46hPa; SO2 @ 147hPa and CO @ 215hPa

Latest Publications

  1. Pancheva, D., P. Mukhtarov, D. Siskind, and A. Smith, "Global distribution and variability of quasi 2 day waves based on the NOGAPS-ALPHA reanalysis model," Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics 121, doi:10.1002/2016ja023381, 2016.   reprint  

  2. Manney, G.L., and Z.D. Lawrence, "The major stratospheric final warming in 2016: Dispersal of vortex air and termination of Arctic chemical ozone loss," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16, doi:10.5194/acp-2016-633, in press.

  3. Huntrieser, H., M. Lichtenstern, M. Scheibe, H. Aufmhoff, H. Schlager, T. Pucik, A. Minikin, B. Weinzierl, K. Heimerl, I.B. Pollack, J. Peischl, T.B. Ryerson, A.J. Weinheimer, S. Honomichl, B.A. Ridley, M.I. Biggerstaff, D.P. Betten, J.W. Hair, C.F. Butler, M.J. Schwartz, and M.C. Barth, "Injection of lightning-produced NOx, water vapor, wildfire emissions, and stratospheric air to the UT/LS as observed from DC3 measurements," Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 121, 11, 6638-6668, doi:10.1002/2015jd024273, 2016.   reprint  

  4. Verkhoglyadova, O.P., J.M. Wissing, S. Wang, M.B. Kallenrode, and G.P. Zank, "Nighttime mesospheric hydroxyl enhancements during SEP events and accompanying geomagnetic storms: Ionization rate modeling and Aura satellite observations," Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics 121, 7, 6017-6030, doi:10.1002/2015ja022217, 2016.   reprint  

  5. Hou, X., B. Zhu, D. Fei, X. Zhu, H. Kang, and D. Wang, "Simulation of tropical tropospheric ozone variation from 1982 to 2010: The meteorological impact of two types of ENSO event," Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 121, 15, 9220-9236, doi:10.1002/2016jd024945, 2016.   reprint  

> More Publications

New MLS Level 3 (v4) BrO and HO2 pre-average radiances products

The science team for the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the Aura satellite is pleased to announce the release of new bromine monoxide (BrO) and hydroperoxyl (HO2) MLS "Version 4" pre-average radiances datasets. The retrieval algorithm produces a pair of zonal mean abundance fields each day - one for the daytime part of the orbit and the other for the nighttime part - from 10o latitude bin zonal mean radiances. By sacrificing spatial resolution, the noise level and the biases in the retrieved profiles are greatly reduced.

Notable advantages over the standard level 2 products include the first long-term nighttime HO2 satellite record and a wider pressure range (21 - 0.003 hPa) for the HO2 dataset (the standard Level 2 product covers only 21 - 0.046 hPa). Further information can be found at Millán et al. (2012) and Millán et al. (2015).

These new datasets are available at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC): ML3DZMBRO and ML3DZMHO2. Users are urged to read their data quality documents (available from the same location) and contact the MLS science team with any questions.

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