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Microwave Limb Sounder


The Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) experiments measure naturally-occurring microwave thermal emission from the limb (edge) of Earth's atmosphere to remotely sense vertical profiles of atmospheric gases, temperature, pressure, and cloud ice. The overall objective of these experiments is to provide information that will help improve our understanding of Earth's atmosphere and global change.


Start Date
End Date
N2O GPH Temperature HNO3 All


Current GMT day:    
Maps @ 46hPa; SO2 @ 147hPa and CO @ 215hPa

Latest Publications

  1. Nedoluha, G., R.M. Gomez, I. Boyd, H. Neal, A. Parrish, B. Connor, T. Mooney, D. Siskind, H. Sagawa, and M. Santee, "Initial Results and Diurnal Variations Measured by a new Microwave Stratospheric ClO Instrument at Mauna Kea," Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 125, doi:10.1029/2020jd033097, 2020.   reprint  

  2. von Clarmann, T., D. Degenstein, N. Livesey, S. Bender, A. Braverman, A. Butz, S. Compernolle, R. Damadeo, S. Dueck, P. Eriksson, B. Funke, M. Johnson, Y. Kasai, A. Keppens, A. Kleinert, N. Kramarova, A. Laeng, B. Langerock, V. Payne, A. Rozanov, T. Sato, M. Schneider, P. Sheese, V. Sofieva, G. Stiller, C. von Savigny, and D. Zawada, "Overview: Estimating and reporting uncertainties in remotely sensed atmospheric composition and temperature," Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 13, 8, 4393-4436, doi:10.5194/amt-13-4393-2020, 2020.   reprint  

  3. Wang, Z., N. Hase, J. Notholt, B. Dils, M. Saunois, T. Warneke, and W. Tian, "Diagnosing Mixing Properties in Model Simulations for CH4 in the Stratosphere," Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 125, 15, doi:10.1029/2020jd032524, 2020.   reprint  

  4. Yamazaki, Y., Y. Miyoshi, C. Xiong, C. Stolle, G. Soares, and A. Yoshikawa, "Whole Atmosphere Model Simulations of Ultrafast Kelvin Wave Effects in the Ionosphere and Thermosphere," Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics 125, 7, doi:10.1029/2020ja027939, 2020.   reprint  

  5. Berhe, T.Y., G.M. Tsidu, T. Blumenstock, F. Hase, and G. Stiller, "Methane and nitrous oxide from ground-based FTIR at Addis Ababa: observations, error analysis, and comparison with satellite data," Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 13, 7, 4079-4096, doi:10.5194/amt-13-4079-2020, 2020.   reprint  

> More Publications

MLS v5 Data Release

The Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) team is pleased to announce the release of a new "version 5" MLS dataset.

Reprocessing of the entire 15+ year MLS record with the v5 algorithms is expected to complete in mid-to-late 2021. Until that reprocessing is complete, incoming MLS data will continue to be processed using older v4 algorithms as well as v5, in order to facilitate scientific analyses using a continuous dataset.

A preliminary assessment of the MLS v5 data quality, along with guidelines for appropriate use of the data, is given in the data quality document. Updates to this document are planned in the coming months, when more v5 data will be available for characterization and re-validation and updated estimates of systematic uncertainty are completed.

Data, available from the GES-DISC, can be found through NASA's Earth Data Search tool.

> Full Announcement

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