Skip navigation

Microwave Limb Sounder


The Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) experiments measure naturally-occurring microwave thermal emission from the limb (edge) of Earth's atmosphere to remotely sense vertical profiles of atmospheric gases, temperature, pressure, and cloud ice. The overall objective of these experiments is to provide information that will help improve our understanding of Earth's atmosphere and global change.


Start Date
End Date
N2O GPH Temperature HNO3 All


Current GMT day:    
Maps @ 46hPa; SO2 @ 147hPa and CO @ 215hPa

Latest Publications

  1. Manney, G.L., and Z.D. Lawrence, "The major stratospheric final warming in 2016: Dispersal of vortex air and termination of Arctic chemical ozone loss," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16, doi:10.5194/acp-2016-633, in press.

  2. Sheese, P., K. Walker, C. Boone, P. Bernath, L. Froidevaux, B. Funke, P. Raspollini, and T. von Clarmann, "ACE-FTS ozone, water vapour, nitrous oxide, nitric acid, and carbon monoxide profile comparisons with MIPAS and MLS," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 186, 63-80, doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2016.06.026, 2017.   reprint  

  3. Akiyoshi, H., T. Nakamura, T. Miyasaka, M. Shiotani, and M. Suzuki, "A nudged chemistry-climate model simulation of chemical constituent distribution at northern high-latitude stratosphere observed by SMILES and MLS during the 2009/2010 stratospheric sudden warming," Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, doi:10.1002/2015jd023334, in press.

  4. Minschwaner, K., G.L. Manney, I. Petropavlovskikh, L.A. Torres, Z.D. Lawrence, B. Sutherland, A.M. Thompson, B.J. Johnson, Z. Butterfield, M.K. Dubey, L. Froidevaux, A. Lambert, W.G. Read, and M.J. Schwartz, "Signature of a tropical Pacific cyclone in the composition of the upper troposphere over Socorro, NM," Geophys. Res. Lett. undefined, doi:10.1002/2015gl065824, in press.

  5. Medvedeva, I., A. Medvedev, K. Ratovsky, A. Shcherbakov, and M. Tolstikov, "Comprehensive study of disturbances of the neutral atmosphere and ionosphere parameters over Eastern Siberia during the 2013 January major sudden stratospheric warming," Adv. Space Res. undefined, doi:10.1016/j.asr.2015.06.008, in press.

> More Publications

New MLS Level 3 (v4) BrO and HO2 pre-average radiances products

The science team for the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the Aura satellite is pleased to announce the release of new bromine monoxide (BrO) and hydroperoxyl (HO2) MLS "Version 4" pre-average radiances datasets. The retrieval algorithm produces a pair of zonal mean abundance fields each day - one for the daytime part of the orbit and the other for the nighttime part - from 10o latitude bin zonal mean radiances. By sacrificing spatial resolution, the noise level and the biases in the retrieved profiles are greatly reduced.

Notable advantages over the standard level 2 products include the first long-term nighttime HO2 satellite record and a wider pressure range (21 - 0.003 hPa) for the HO2 dataset (the standard Level 2 product covers only 21 - 0.046 hPa). Further information can be found at Millán et al. (2012) and Millán et al. (2015).

These new datasets are available at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC): ML3DZMBRO and ML3DZMHO2. Users are urged to read their data quality documents (available from the same location) and contact the MLS science team with any questions.

Site Manager: Nathaniel Livesey
Webmaster: Brian Knosp
JPL Clearance: CL# 97-0564