Skip navigation

Microwave Limb Sounder


The Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) experiments measure naturally-occurring microwave thermal emission from the limb (edge) of Earth's atmosphere to remotely sense vertical profiles of atmospheric gases, temperature, pressure, and cloud ice. The overall objective of these experiments is to provide information that will help improve our understanding of Earth's atmosphere and global change.


Start Date
End Date
CO N2O GPH Temperature HNO3 All


Current GMT day:    
Maps @ 46hPa; SO2 @ 147hPa and CO @ 215hPa

Latest Publications

  1. Dionisi, D., P. Keckhut, Y. Courcoux, A. Hauchecorne, J. Porteneuve, J.L. Baray, J.L.d. Bellevue, H. Vérèmes, F. Gabarrot, G. Payen, R. Decoupes, and J.P. Cammas, "Water vapor observations up to the lower stratosphere through the Raman lidar during the MAïdo LIdar Calibration Campaign," Atmospheric Measurement Techniques Discussions 7, 10.5194/amtd-7-10361-2014, in review.

  2. Dessler, A.E., M.R. Schoeberl, T. Wang, M. Davis, K.H. Rosenlof, and J.P. Vernier, "Variations of stratospheric water vapor over the past three decades," Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 119, 10.1002/2014JD021712, 2014.   reprint  

  3. Jain, S., A.R. Jain, and T.K. Mandal, "Dry phase of tropical lower stratospheric water vapor: Role of the BDC, convection, and ozone variability," J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. 121, 257-270, 10.1016/j.jasp.2014.08.018, 2014.   reprint  

  4. Virolainen, Y., Y. Timofeyev, A. Polyakov, D. Ionov, and A. Poberovsky, "Intercomparison of satellite and ground-based measurements of ozone, NO2, HF, and HCl near Saint Petersburg, Russia," Int. Jnl. Remote Sensing 35, 15, 5677-5697, 10.1080/01431161.2014.945009, 2014.   reprint  

  5. Mahieu, E., M.P. Chipperfield, J. Notholt, T. Reddmann, J. Anderson, P.F. Bernath, T. Blumenstock, M.T. Coffey, S.S. Dhomse, W. Feng, B. Franco, L. Froidevaux, D.W.T. Griffith, J.W. Hannigan, F. Hase, R. Hossaini, N.B. Jones, I. Morino, I. Murata, H. Nakajima, M. Palm, C. Paton-Walsh, J.M. Russell III, M. Schneider, C. Servais, D. Smale, and K.A.W. , "Recent Northern Hemisphere stratospheric HCl increase due to atmospheric circulation changes," Nature 104, 515, 10.1038/nature13857, 2014.   reprint  

> More Publications

Mobile Website

mobile home
MLS now has a website that has been optimized for many mobile devices. On this site you can quickly look up information on data products, publications, and even view selected daily plots. Check it out on your iPhone, BlackBerry, or other web-enabled phone today!

>MLS Mobile Site

Site Manager: Nathaniel Livesey
Webmaster: Brian Knosp
JPL Clearance: CL# 97-0564