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Microwave Limb Sounder


The Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) experiments measure naturally-occurring microwave thermal emission from the limb (edge) of Earth's atmosphere to remotely sense vertical profiles of atmospheric gases, temperature, pressure, and cloud ice. The overall objective of these experiments is to provide information that will help improve our understanding of Earth's atmosphere and global change.


Start Date
End Date
N2O GPH Temperature HNO3 All


Current GMT day:    
Maps @ 46hPa; SO2 @ 147hPa and CO @ 215hPa

Latest Publications

  1. Eswaraiah, S., Y. Kim, J. Hong, J. Kim, M.V. Ratnam, A. Chandran, S.V.B. Rao, and D. Riggin, "Mesospheric signatures observed during 2010 minor stratospheric warming at King Sejong Station 62°S, 59°W," J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. 140, 55-64, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2016.02.007, 2016.   reprint  

  2. Hubert, D., J. Lambert, T. Verhoelst, J. Granville, A. Keppens, J. Baray, A. Bourassa, U. Cortesi, D. Degenstein, L. Froidevaux, S. Godin-Beekmann, K. Hoppel, B. Johnson, E. Kyrölä, T. Leblanc, G. Lichtenberg, M. Marchand, C.T. McElroy, D. Murtagh, H. Nakane, T. Portafaix, R. Querel, J. Russell III, J. Salvador, H. Smit, K. Stebel, W. Steinbrecht, K. Strawbridge, R. Stübi, D. Swart, G. Taha, D. Tarasick, A. Thompson, J. Urban, J. van Gijsel, R.V. Malderen, P.D. von Gathen, K. Walker, E. Wolfram, and J. Zawodny, "Ground-based assessment of the bias and long-term stability of 14 limb and occultation ozone profile data records," Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 9, 6, 2497-2534, doi:10.5194/amt-9-2497-2016, 2016.   reprint  

  3. Millán, L., N. Livesey, M. Santee, J. Neu, G. Manney, and R. Fuller, "Case studies of the impact of orbital sampling on stratospheric trend detection and derivation of tropical vertical velocities: solar occultation vs. limb emission sounding," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16, 18, 11521-11534, doi:10.5194/acp-16-11521-2016, 2016.   reprint  

  4. Li, K.F., H. Su, S. Mak, T.M. Chang, J.H. Jiang, J.R. Norris, and Y.L. Yung, "An analysis of high cloud variability: imprints from the El Niño–Southern Oscillation," Climate Dynamics, 2016.   reprint  

  5. Guo, J., H. Liu, F. Wang, J. Huang, F. Xia, M. Lou, Y. Wu, J.H. Jiang, T. Xie, Y. Zhaxi, and Y. Yung, "Three-dimensional structure of aerosol in China: A perspective from multi-satellite observations," Atmos. Res. 178, doi:, 2016.   reprint  

> More Publications

New MLS Level 3 (v4) BrO and HO2 pre-average radiances products

The science team for the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the Aura satellite is pleased to announce the release of new bromine monoxide (BrO) and hydroperoxyl (HO2) MLS "Version 4" pre-average radiances datasets. The retrieval algorithm produces a pair of zonal mean abundance fields each day - one for the daytime part of the orbit and the other for the nighttime part - from 10o latitude bin zonal mean radiances. By sacrificing spatial resolution, the noise level and the biases in the retrieved profiles are greatly reduced.

Notable advantages over the standard level 2 products include the first long-term nighttime HO2 satellite record and a wider pressure range (21 - 0.003 hPa) for the HO2 dataset (the standard Level 2 product covers only 21 - 0.046 hPa). Further information can be found at Millán et al. (2012) and Millán et al. (2015).

These new datasets are available at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC): ML3DZMBRO and ML3DZMHO2. Users are urged to read their data quality documents (available from the same location) and contact the MLS science team with any questions.

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