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The MLS Temperature Product

Contact: Michael Schwartz

Basic Information

Temperature plays central roles throughout atmospheric science. It is a key parameter in the radiative balance of the atmosphere. Temperature at a given pressure determines density and thus buoyancy, driving dynamics on all scales. Temperature controls chemical reaction rates and radiative transfer. Temperature is critically important in the hydrological cycle, controlling of cloud formation and the distribution of humidity. MLS measurements of atmospheric composition require knowledge of temperature, but at the frequencies of MLS observations, thermal emission is roughly linear in gas temperature, so small fractional errors in inferred absolute temperature generally lead to correspondingly small errors in inferred constituent abundance.
MLS Tempearature Map
Sample temperature retrieval

How it is part of MLS Science Objectives

Temperature measurements are vitally important for addressing questions of radiative balance involved in climate change. Upper tropospheric temperature is particularly important to climate feedbacks involving the regulation of humidity and clouds. Some models show temperature in the mesosphere to be particularly sensitive to climate change. Temperatures required for the formation of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are at the extreme low end of those found in the northern polar winter. PSCs play multiple roles in the catalytic destruction of ozone, and here MLS mission objectives of understanding stratospheric ozone layer stability and climate change are linked through temperature.

How EOS MLS measures Temperature

MLS temperature is retrieved primarily frombands near O2 spectral lines at 118GHz and 239GHz that aremeasured with MLS radiometers R1A/B and R3, respectively. Thee isotopic 239GHz line is the primary source of temperature information in the troposphere, while the 118GHz line is the primary source of temperature in the stratosphere and above.

Quick Product Information for data version v5

  • Swath Name: Temperature
  • Status Flag: Only use profiles for which the Status field is an even number.
  • Useful Range: 261 - 0.00046 hPa
  • DAAC Short Name: ML2T
  • Precision: See v5 data quality document.
  • Quality Threshold: See v5 data quality document.
  • ConvergenceThreshold: <1.03
Download EOS Aura MLS Temperature v5 data

Publications related to the MLS Temperature data product

Future Publications

  1. Nishiyama, T., M. Taguchi, H. Suzuki, P. Dalin, Y. Ogawa, U. Brändström, T. Sakanoi, "Temporal Evolutions of N2+ Meinel 1,2 Band Near 1.5 μm Associated with Aurora Breakup and their Effects on Mesopause Temperature Estimations from OH Meinel 3,1 Band", Earth, Planets, and Space, doi:10.21203/, Not yet published.


  1. Emmert, J.T., D.P. Drob, J.M. Picone, D.E. Siskind, M. Jones, M.G. Mlynczak, P.F. Bernath, X. Chu, E. Doornbos, B. Funke, L.P. Goncharenko, M.E. Hervig, M.J. Schwartz, P.E. Sheese, F. Vargas, B.P. Williams, T. Yuan, "NRLMSIS 2.0: A Whole‐Atmosphere Empirical Model of Temperature and Neutral Species Densities", Earth and Space Science 8, 3, doi:10.1029/2020ea001321, 2021. reprint
  2. Lieberman, R.S., J. France, D.A. Ortland, S.D. Eckermann, "The role of inertial instability in cross-hemispheric coupling", Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 78, 4, 1113-1127, doi:10.1175/jas-d-20-0119.1, 2021. reprint
  3. Nishiyama, T., M. Taguchi, H. Suzuki, P. Dalin, Y. Ogawa, U. Brändström, T. Sakanoi, "Temporal evolutions of $$\text {N}_2^+$$ Meinel 1,2 band near $$1.5.\,\upmu \text {m}$$ associated with aurora breakup and their effects on mesopause temperature estimations from OH Meinel 3,1 band", Earth, Planets and Space 73, 1, doi:10.1186/s40623-021-01360-0, 2021. reprint
  4. Qin, Y., S. Gu, C. Teng, X. Dou, Y. Yu, N. Li, "Comprehensive Study of the Climatology of the Quasi‐6‐Day Wave in the MLT Region Based on Aura/MLS Observations and SD‐WACCM‐X Simulations", Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics 126, 1, doi:10.1029/2020ja028454, 2021. reprint
  5. Yi, W., X. Xue, I. Reid, D. Murphy, C. Hall, M. Tsutsumi, B. Ning, G. Li, G. Yang, N. Li, T. Chen, X. Dou, "Climatology of interhemispheric mesopause temperatures using the high‐ and middle‐latitude meteor radars", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, doi:10.1029/2020jd034301, 2021.


  1. Dolgii, S., A. Nevzorov, A. Nevzorov, Y. Gridnev, O. Kharchenko, "Temperature Correction of the Vertical Ozone Distribution Retrieval at the Siberian Lidar Station Using the MetOp and Aura Data", Atmosphere 11, 11, 1139, doi:10.3390/atmos11111139, 2020. reprint
  2. Eswaraiah, S., C. Lee, W. Lee, Y. Kim, K. Kumar, V. Medineni, "Temperature tele‐connections between the tropical and polar middle atmosphere in the Southern Hemisphere during the 2010 minor sudden stratospheric warming", Atmospheric Science Letters, doi:10.1002/asl.1010, 2020. reprint
  3. French, W.J.R., F. Mulligan, A. Klekociuk, "Analysis of 24 years of mesopause region OH rotational temperature observations at Davis, Antarctica – Part 1: long-term trends", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 20, 11, 6379-6394, doi:10.5194/acp-20-6379-2020, 2020. reprint
  4. French, W.J.R., A. Klekociuk, F. Mulligan, "Analysis of 24 years of mesopause region OH rotational temperature observations at Davis, Antarctica – Part 2: Evidence of a quasi-quadrennial oscillation (QQO) in the polar mesosphere", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 20, 14, 8691-8708, 10.5194/acp-20-8691-2020, 2020. reprint
  5. García‐Comas, M., B. Funke, M. López‐Puertas, F. González‐Galindo, M. Kiefer, M. Höpfner, "First detection of a Brief Mesoscale Elevated Stratopause in very early winter", Geophysical Research Letters 47, 4, 1-10, doi:10.1029/2019GL086751, 2020. reprint
  6. Gordon, E., A. Seppälä, J. Tamminen, "Evidence for energetic particle precipitation and quasi-biennial oscillation modulations of the Antarctic NO<sub>2</sub> springtime stratospheric column from OMI observations", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 20, 11, 6259-6271, doi:10.5194/acp-20-6259-2020, 2020. reprint
  7. Griffith, M., D. Jackson, D. Griffin, C. Budd, "Stable extension of the unified model into the mesosphere and lower thermosphere", Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate 10, 19, doi:10.1051/swsc/2020018, 2020. reprint
  8. Kablick, G.P., D.R. Allen, M.D. Fromm, G.E. Nedoluha, "Australian pyroCb smoke generates synoptic‐scale stratospheric anticyclones", Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2020gl088101, 2020. reprint
  9. Kim, J.H., G. Jee, H. Choi, B.M. Kim, S.J. Kim, "Vertical Structures of Temperature and Ozone Changes in the Stratosphere and Mesosphere during Stratospheric Sudden Warmings", Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences 37, 1, 69-75, doi:10.5140/JASS.2020.37.1.69, 2020. reprint
  10. Kurkin, V., I. Medvedeva, A. Naumenko, A. Podlesnyi, L. Chistyakova, A. Poddelsky, Y. Teslyuk, "Investigation of medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances over the Asian region of Russia during solar cycle 24", Proceedings Volume 11560, 26th International Symposium on Atmospheric and Ocean Optics, Atmospheric , doi:10.1117/12.2575513, 2020. reprint
  11. Lee, Y., Y. Kwak, K. Kim, Y. Kim, "Dynamically Unstable Strong Wind Shears Observed in the Polar Mesosphere Summer Echo Layer Associated With Geomagnetic Disturbances", Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics 125, 2, doi:10.1029/2019ja027013, 2020. reprint
  12. RavindraBabu, S., S.T.A. Raj, G. Basha, M.V. Ratnam, "Recent trends in the UTLS temperature and tropical tropopause parameters over tropical South Indian region", Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 197, 105164, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2019.105164, 2020. reprint
  13. Rong, P., C. von Savigny, C. Zhang, C. Hoffmann, M. Schwartz, "Response of middle atmospheric temperature to the 27 d solar cycle: an analysis of 13 years of microwave limb sounder data", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 20, 3, 1737-1755, doi:10.5194/acp-20-1737-2020, 2020. reprint
  14. Shepherd, M., C. Meek, W. Hocking, C. Hall, N. Partamies, F. Sigernes, A. Manson, W. Ward, "Multi-instrument study of the mesosphere-lower thermosphere dynamics at 80°N during the major SSW in January 2019", Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 210, 105427, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2020.105427, 2020. reprint
  15. Simmons, A., C. Soci, J. Nicolas, B. Bell, P. Berrisford, R. Dragani, J. Flemming, L. Haimberger, S. Healy, H. Hersbach, A. Horanyi, A. Inness, J. Munoz-Sabater, R. Radu, D. Schepers, "Global stratospheric temperature bias and other stratospheric aspects of ERA5 and ERA5.1", ECMWF Technical Memo 859, 1-38, doi:10.21957/rcxqfmg0, 2020. reprint
  16. Stephan, C.C., H. Schmidt, C. Zülicke, V. Matthias, "Oblique Gravity Wave Propagation During Sudden Stratospheric Warmings", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 125, 1, doi:10.1029/2019jd031528, 2020. reprint
  17. Tweedy, O., L. Oman, D. Waugh, "Seasonality of the MJO impact on upper troposphere/lower stratosphere temperature, circulation and composition.", Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 77, 1455-1473, doi:10.1175/jas-d-19-0183.1, 2020. reprint
  18. Yamazaki, Y., Y. Miyoshi, C. Xiong, C. Stolle, G. Soares, A. Yoshikawa, "Whole Atmosphere Model Simulations of Ultrafast Kelvin Wave Effects in the Ionosphere and Thermosphere", Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics 125, 7, doi:10.1029/2020ja027939, 2020. reprint


  1. Bazhenov, O., "Increased humidity in the stratosphere as a possible factor of ozone destruction in the Arctic during the spring 2011 using Aura MLS observations", International Journal of Remote Sensing 40, 9, 3448-3460, doi:10.1080/01431161.2018.1547449, 2019. reprint
  2. Diniz, F., R. Todling, "Assessing the impact of observations in a multi‐year reanalysis", Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 1-24, 10.1002/qj.3705, 2019. reprint
  3. Dion, I., P. Ricaud, P. Haynes, F. Carminati, T. Dauhut, "Ice injected into the tropopause by deep convection – Part 1: In the austral convective tropics", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 19, 9, 6459-6479, doi:10.5194/acp-19-6459-2019, 2019. reprint
  4. Gong, Y., H. Wang, Z. Ma, S. Zhang, Q. Zhou, C. Huang, K. Huang, "A Statistical Analysis of the Propagating Quasi 16‐Day Waves at High Latitudes and Their Response to Sudden Stratospheric Warmings From 2005 to 2018", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, doi:10.1029/2019jd031482, 2019. reprint
  5. Harada, Y., K. Sato, T. Kinoshita, R. Yasui, T. Hirooka, H. Naoe, "Diagnostics of a WN2‐type Major Sudden Stratospheric Warming Event in February 2018 using a new Three‐Dimensional Wave Activity Flux", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, doi:10.1029/2018jd030162, 2019. reprint
  6. Harvey, V.L., C. Randall, E. Becker, A. Smith, C. Bardeen, J. France, L. Goncharenko, "Evaluation of the Mesospheric Polar Vortices in WACCM", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 124, 20, 10626-10645, 10.1029/2019jd030727, 2019. reprint
  7. Hervig, M., D. Siskind, S. Bailey, A. Merkel, M. DeLand, J. Russell, "The Missing Solar Cycle Response of the Polar Summer Mesosphere", Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2019gl083485, 2019. reprint
  8. Jiang, J.H., Q. Yue, H. Su, P. Kangaslahti, M. Lebsock, S. Reising, M. Schoeberl, L. Wu, R.L. Herman, "Simulation of Remote Sensing of Clouds and Humidity From Space Using a Combined Platform of Radar and Multifrequency Microwave Radiometers", Earth and Space Science 6, 7, 1234-1243, doi:, 2019. reprint
  9. Kam, H., Y. Kim, N. Mitchell, J. Kim, C. Lee, "Evaluation of estimated mesospheric temperatures from 11-year meteor radar datasets of King Sejong Station 62°S, 59°W and Esrange 68°N, 21°E", Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 196, 105148, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2019.105148, 2019. reprint
  10. Macotela, E., M. Clilverd, J. Manninen, T. Moffat-Griffin, D. Newnham, T. Raita, C. Rodger, "D-Region High-Latitude Forcing Factors", Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics 124, 1, 765-781, doi:10.1029/2018ja026049, 2019. reprint
  11. Macotela, E., M. Clilverd, J. Manninen, N. Thomson, D. Newnham, T. Raita, "The Effect of Ozone Shadowing on the D Region Ionosphere During Sunrise", Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, doi:10.1029/2018ja026415, 2019. reprint
  12. Po‐Chedley, S., M. Zelinka, N. Jeevanjee, T. Thorsen, B. Santer, "Climatology explains intermodel spread in tropical upper tropospheric cloud and relative humidity response to greenhouse warming", Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2019gl084786, 2019. reprint
  13. Schoeberl, M.R., E.J. Jensen, L. Pfister, R. Ueyama, T. Wang, H. Selkirk, M. Avery, T. Thornberry, A.E. Dessler, "Water Vapor, Clouds, and Saturation in the Tropical Tropopause Layer", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 124, 7, 3984-4003, doi:10.1029/2018jd029849, 2019. reprint
  14. Siddiqui, T.A., A. Maute, N.M. Pedatella, "On the Importance of Interactive Ozone Chemistry in Earth‐System Models for Studying Mesophere‐Lower Thermosphere Tidal Changes during Sudden Stratospheric Warmings", Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics 124, 12, 10690-10707, doi:10.1029/2019ja027193, 2019. reprint
  15. Vincent, R.A., S. Kovalam, D.J. Murphy, I.M. Reid, J.P. Younger, "Trends and Variability in Vertical Winds in the Southern Hemisphere Summer Polar Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, doi:10.1029/2019jd030735, 2019. reprint
  16. Wang, H., S. Chai, X. Tang, B. Zhou, J. Bian, H. Vömel, K. Yu, W. Wang, "Verification of satellite ozone/temperature profile products and ozone effective height/temperature over Kunming, China", Science of the Total Environment 661, 35-47, doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.01.145, 2019. reprint
  17. Wang, Y., V. Shulga, G. Milinevsky, A. Patoka, O. Evtushevsky, A. Klekociuk, W. Han, A. Grytsai, D. Shulga, V. Myshenko, O. Antyufeyev, "Winter 2018 major sudden stratospheric warming impact on midlatitude mesosphere from microwave radiometer measurements", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 19, 15, 10303-10317, doi:10.5194/acp-19-10303-2019, 2019. reprint
  18. Wright, C., "Quantifying the global impact of tropical cyclone‐associated gravity waves using HIRDLS, MLS, SABER and IBTrACS data", Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, doi:10.1002/qj.3602, 2019. reprint
  19. Yi, W., X. Xue, I. Reid, D. Murphy, C. Hall, M. Tsutsumi, B. Ning, G. Li, R. Vincent, J. Chen, J. Wu, T. Chen, X. Dou, "Climatology of the mesopause relative density using a global distribution of meteor radars", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 19, 11, 7567-7581, doi:10.5194/acp-19-7567-2019, 2019. reprint
  20. Yi, W., X. Xue, J. Chen, T. Chen, N. Li, "Quasi-90-day oscillation observed in the MLT region at low latitudes from the Kunming meteor radar and SABER", Earth and Planetary Physics 3, 1-11, doi:10.26464/epp2019013, 2019. reprint
  21. Zhao, Y., M.J. Taylor, P. Pautet, T. Moffat‐Griffin, M.E. Hervig, D.J. Murphy, W.J.R. French, H.L. Liu, W.R. Pendleton, J.M. Russell, "Investigating an Unusually Large 28‐Day Oscillation in Mesospheric Temperature Over Antarctica Using Ground‐Based and Satellite Measurements", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 124, 15, 8576-8593, 10.1029/2019jd030286, 2019. reprint


  1. France, J.A., C.E. Randall, R.S. Lieberman, V.L. Harvey, S.D. Eckermann, D.E. Siskind, J.D. Lumpe, S.M. Bailey, J.N. Carstens, J.M. Russell, "Local and Remote Planetary Wave Effects on Polar Mesospheric Clouds in the Northern Hemisphere in 2014", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 123, doi:10.1029/2017jd028224, 2018. reprint
  2. Gan, Q., J. Oberheide, N. Pedatella, "Sources, Sinks, and Propagation Characteristics of the Quasi 6-Day Wave and Its Impact on the Residual Mean Circulation", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 123, 17, 9152-9170, doi:10.1029/2018jd028553, 2018. reprint
  3. Gong, Y., C. Li, Z. Ma, S. Zhang, Q. Zhou, C. Huang, K. Huang, G. Li, B. Ning, "Study of the Quasi-5-Day Wave in the MLT Region by a Meteor Radar Chain", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 123, 17, 9474-9487, doi:10.1029/2018jd029355, 2018. reprint
  4. Harvey, V.L., C. Randall, L. Goncharenko, E. Becker, J. France, "On the Upward Extension of the Polar Vortices Into the Mesosphere", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 123, 17, 9171-9191, 10.1029/2018jd028815, 2018. reprint
  5. Hogan, R., A. Bozzo, "A Flexible and Efficient Radiation Scheme for the ECMWF Model", Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 10, 8, 1990-2008, 10.1029/2018ms001364, 2018. reprint
  6. Kablick, G., M. Fromm, S. Miller, P. Partain, D. Peterson, S. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. Lambert, Z. Li, "The Great Slave Lake PyroCb of 5 August 2014: Observations, Simulations, Comparisons With Regular Convection, and Impact on UTLS Water Vapor", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 123, 21, 12,332-12,352, doi:10.1029/2018jd028965, 2018. reprint
  7. Karlsson, B., T. Shepherd, "The improbable clouds at the edge of the atmosphere", Physics Today 71, 6, 30-36, doi:10.1063/pt.3.3946, 2018. reprint
  8. Khosrawi, F., O. Kirner, G. Stiller, M. Höpfner, M. Santee, S. Kellmann, P. Braesicke, "Comparison of ECHAM5/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry EMAC simulations of the Arctic winter 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 with Envisat/MIPAS and Aura/MLS observations", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 18, 12, 8873-8892, doi:10.5194/acp-18-8873-2018, 2018. reprint
  9. Lambert, A., M. Santee, "Accuracy and precision of polar lower stratospheric temperatures from reanalyses evaluated from A-Train CALIOP and MLS, COSMIC GPS RO, and the equilibrium thermodynamics of supercooled ternary solutions and ice clouds", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 18, 3, 1945-1975, doi:10.5194/acp-18-1945-2018, 2018. reprint
  10. Lee, C., G. Jee, J. Kim, I. Song, "Meteor echo height ceiling effect and mesospheric temperature estimation from meteor radar observations", Annales Geophysicae 36, 5, 1267-1274, 10.5194/angeo-36-1267-2018, 2018. reprint
  11. Lee, J., G. Jee, Y. Kwak, S. Hong, H. Hwang, I. Song, Y. Lee, E. Turunen, D. Lee, "Responses of Nitrogen Oxide to High‐Speed Solar Wind Stream in the Polar Middle Atmosphere", Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics 123, 11, 9788-9801, doi:10.1029/2017ja025161, 2018. reprint
  12. Liu, G., D. Janches, R. Lieberman, "Intraseasonal Variations of Nonmigrating Tides Observed Near the Mesopause", Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics 123, 11, 9921-9931, doi:10.1029/2018ja025709, 2018. reprint
  13. Matthias, V., M. Ern, "On the origin of the mesospheric quasi-stationary planetary waves in the unusual Arctic winter 2015/2016", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 18, 7, 4803-4815, 10.5194/acp-18-4803-2018, 2018. reprint
  14. Medvedeva, I., K. Ratovsky, "Effects of the 2016 February minor sudden stratospheric warming on the MLT and ionosphere over Eastern Siberia", Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 180, 116-125, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2017.09.007, 2018. reprint
  15. Millán, L., N. Livesey, M. Santee, T. von Clarmann, "Characterizing sampling and quality screening biases in infrared and microwave limb sounding", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 18, 6, 4187-4199, doi:10.5194/acp-18-4187-2018, 2018. reprint
  16. Nikolashkin, S., S. Titov, "Investigation of sudden stratospheric warming by the Rayleigh lidar in Yakutsk", SPIE Proceeding 10833, doi:10.1117/12.2504548, 2018. reprint
  17. Polichtchouk, I., T.G. Shepherd, R.J. Hogan, P. Bechtold, "Sensitivity of the Brewer-Dobson circulation and polar vortex variability to parametrized nonorographic gravity-wave drag in a high-resolution atmospheric model", Journal of Atmospheric Sciences 75, 1525-1543, doi:10.1175/jas-d-17-0304.1, 2018. reprint
  18. Raj, S.A., M.V. Ratnam, D.N. Rao, B.K. Murthy, "Long-term trends in stratospheric ozone, temperature, and water vapor over the Indian region", Annales Geophysicae 36, 1, 149-165, doi:10.5194/angeo-36-149-2018, 2018. reprint
  19. Sakazaki, T., M. Fujiwara, M. Shiotani, "Representation of solar tides in the stratosphere and lowermesosphere in state-of-the-art reanalyses and in satelliteobservations", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 18, 2, 1437-1456, doi:10.5194/acp-2017-750, 2018. reprint
  20. Sato, K., R. Yasui, Y. Miyoshi, "The Momentum Budget in the Stratosphere, Mesosphere, and Lower Thermosphere. Part I: Contributions of Different Wave Types and In Situ Generation of Rossby Waves", Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 75, 10, 3613-3633, doi:10.1175/jas-d-17-0336.1, 2018. reprint
  21. Sitnov, S., I. Mokhov, "Vertical structure of temperature variations over European Russia in 2010 derived from MLS satellite observations", Proceedings 24th International Symposium on Atmospheric and Ocean Optics: Atmospheric Physics 10833, doi:10.1117/12.2501460, 2018. reprint
  22. Tian, E., H. Su, B. Tian, J. Jiang, "Interannual variations of water vapor in the tropical uppertroposphere and the lower and middle stratosphere and theirconnections to ENSO and QBO", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, 1-25, doi:10.5194/acp-2018-1010, 2018. reprint
  23. Wing, R., A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, S. Godin-Beekmann, S. Khaykin, E. McCullough, "Lidar temperature series in the middle atmosphere as a reference data set – Part 2: Assessment of temperature observations from MLS/Aura and SABER/TIMED satellites", Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 11, 12, 6703-6717, 10.5194/amt-11-6703-2018, 2018. reprint
  24. Yi, W., X. Xue, I. Reid, D. Murphy, C. Hall, M. Tsutsumi, B. Ning, G. Li, R. Vincent, J. Chen, J. Wu, T. Chen, X. Dou, "Climatology of the mesopause density using a global distribution of meteor radars", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, 1-31, doi:10.5194/acp-2018-1040, 2018. reprint
  25. Yi, W., I. Reid, X. Xue, D. Murphy, C. Hall, M. Tsutsumi, B. Ning, G. Li, J. Younger, T. Chen, X. Dou, "High- and Middle-Latitude Neutral Mesospheric Density Response to Geomagnetic Storms", Geophysical Research Letters 45, 1, 436-444, doi:10.1002/2017gl076282, 2018. reprint
  26. Zawedde, A., H.N. Tyssøy, J. Stadsnes, M. Sandanger, "The Impact of Energetic Particle Precipitation on Mesospheric OH - Variability of the Sources and the Background Atmosphere", Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics 123, 7, 5764-5789, doi:10.1029/2017ja025038, 2018. reprint
  27. Zülicke, C., E. Becker, V. Matthias, D. Peters, H. Schmidt, H. Liu, L.D.l.T. Ramos, D. Mitchell, "Coupling of stratospheric warmings with mesospheric coolings in observations and simulations", Journal of Climate 31, 1107-1133, doi:10.1175/jcli-d-17-0047.1, 2018. reprint


  1. Eswaraiah, S., Y. Kim, H. Liu, M.V. Ratnam, J. Lee, "Do minor sudden stratospheric warmings in the Southern Hemisphere SH impact coupling between stratosphere and mesosphere–lower thermosphere MLT like major warmings?", Earth, Planets and Space 69, 1, doi:10.1186/s40623-017-0704-5, 2017. reprint
  2. Funke, B., W. Ball, S. Bender, A. Gardini, V.L. Harvey, A. Lambert, M. López-Puertas, D. Marsh, K. Meraner, H. Nieder, S. Päivärinta, K. Pérot, C. Randall, T. Reddmann, E. Rozanov, H. Schmidt, A. Seppälä, M. Sinnhuber, T. Sukhodolov, G. Stiller, N. Tsvetkova, P. Verronen, S. Versick, T. von Clarmann, K. Walker, V. Yushkov, "HEPPA-II model–measurement intercomparison project: EPP indirect effects during the dynamically perturbed NH winter 2008&ndash2009", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 17, 5, 3573-3604, doi:10.5194/acp-17-3573-2017, 2017. reprint
  3. Gisinger, S., A. Dörnbrack, V. Matthias, J. Doyle, S. Eckermann, B. Ehard, L. Hoffmann, B. Kaifler, C. Kruse, M. Rapp, "Atmospheric Conditions during the Deep Propagating Gravity Wave Experiment DEEPWAVE", Monthly Weather Review 145, 10, 4249-4275, doi:10.1175/mwr-d-16-0435.1, 2017. reprint
  4. Hocke, K., "Response of the middle atmosphere to the geomagnetic storm of November 2004", Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 154, 86-91, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2016.12.013, 2017. reprint
  5. Jain, S., A.R. Jain, T.K. Mandal, "Appearance of the persistently low tropopause temperature and ozone over the Bay of Bengal region", Meteorol Atmos Phys, doi:10.1007/s00703-017-0554-5, 2017. reprint
  6. Jiang, J.H., Q. Yue, H. Su, S.C. Reising, P.P. Kangaslahti, W.R. Deal, E.T. Schlecht, L. Wu, K.F. Evans, "[PDF] from A Simulation of Ice Cloud Particle Size, Humidity and Temperature Measurements from the TWICE CubeSat", Earth and Space Science,2017. reprint
  7. Kam, H., G. Jee, Y. Kim, Y. Ham, I. Song, "Statistical analysis of mesospheric gravity waves over King Sejong Station, Antarctica 62.2°S, 58.8°W", Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 155, 86-94, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2017.02.006, 2017. reprint
  8. Kim, G., J. Kim, Y. Kim, Y. Lee, "Long-term trend of mesospheric temperatures over Kiruna 68°N, 21°E during 2003–2014", Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 161, 83-87, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2017.06.018, 2017. reprint
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  16. Ochiai, S., P. Baron, T. Nishibori, Y. Irimajiri, Y. Uzawa, T. Manabe, H. Maezawa, A. Mizuno, T. Nagahama, H. Sagawa, M. Suzuki, M. Shiotani, "SMILES-2 Mission for Temperature, Wind, and Composition in the Whole Atmosphere", SOLA 13A, Special Edition, 13-18, doi:10.2151/sola.13a-003, 2017. reprint
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  20. Sato, K., M. Kohma, M. Tsutsumi, T. Sato, "Frequency spectra and vertical profiles of wind fluctuations in the summer Antarctic mesosphere revealed by MST radar observations", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 122, 1, 3-19, doi:10.1002/2016jd025834, 2017. reprint
  21. Savigny, C., M. DeLand, M. Schwartz, "First identification of lunar tides in satellite observations of noctilucent clouds", Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 162, 116-121, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2016.07.002, 2017. reprint
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  1. Dolinar, E.K., X. Dong, B. Xi, J.H. Jiang, N.G. Loeb, "A clear-sky radiation closure study using a one-dimensional radiative transfer model and collocated satellite-surface-reanalysis data sets", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 121, 13,698–13,714, doi:10.1002/2016JD025823, 2016. reprint
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  3. Ern, M., Q. Trinh, M. Kaufmann, I. Krisch, P. Preusse, J. Ungermann, Y. Zhu, J. Gille, M. Mlynczak, J. Russell, M. Schwartz, M. Riese, "Satellite observations of middle atmosphere gravity wave absolute momentum flux and of its vertical gradient during recent stratospheric warmings", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 16, 15, 9983-10019, doi:10.5194/acp-16-9983-2016, 2016. reprint
  4. Eswaraiah, S., Y. Kim, J. Hong, J. Kim, M.V. Ratnam, A. Chandran, S.V.B. Rao, D. Riggin, "Mesospheric signatures observed during 2010 minor stratospheric warming at King Sejong Station 62°S, 59°W", Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 140, 55-64, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2016.02.007, 2016. reprint
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  14. Pancheva, D., P. Mukhtarov, D. Siskind, A. Smith, "Global distribution and variability of quasi 2 day waves based on the NOGAPS-ALPHA reanalysis model", Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics 121, doi:10.1002/2016ja023381, 2016. reprint
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  1. Bhawar, R.L., J.H. Jiang, H. Su, M.J. Schwartz, "Variation of upper tropospheric clouds and water vapour over the Indian Ocean", International Journal of Climatology 34, 15, 3840-3848, doi:10.1002/joc.3942, 2014. reprint
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  3. Chernigovskaya, M.A., V.I. Kurkina, V.N. Marichevb, S.V. Nikolashkinc, V.V. Bychkovd, O.S. Kochetkovaa, "Lidar and satellite temperature measurements during the sudden stratospheric warmings over Siberia and the Russian Far East in 2008-2012", International Journal of Remote Sensing 35, 15, 5854-5877, doi:10.1080/01431161.2014.945005, 2014. reprint
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  1. Brakebusch, M., C.E. Randall, D.E. Kinnison, S. Tilmes, M.L. Santee, G.L. Manney, "Evaluation of Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model simulations of ozone during Arctic winter 2004–2005", Journal of Geophysical Research 118, 6, 2673-2688, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50226, 2013. reprint
  2. Evan, S., K.H. Rosenlof, J. Dudhia, B. Hassler, S.M. Davis, "The representation of the TTL in a tropical channel version of the WRF model", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 118, 7, 2835-2848, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50288, 2013. reprint
  3. France, J.A., V.L. Harvey, "A climatology of the stratopause in WACCM and the zonally asymmetric elevated stratopause", Journal of Geophysical Research 118, 5, 2241–2254, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50218, 2013. reprint
  4. Fueglistaler, S., Y.S. Liu, T.J. Flannaghan, P.H. Haynes, D.P. Dee, W.J. Read, E.E. Remsberg, L.W. Thomason, D.F. Hurst, J.R. Lanzante, P.F. Bernath, "The relation between atmospheric humidity and temperature trends for stratospheric water", Journal of Geophysical Research 118, 2, 1052-1074, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50157, 2013. reprint
  5. Hitchcock, P., T.G. Shepherd, G.L. Manney, "Statistical characterization of Arctic Polar-night Jet Oscillation Events", Journal of Climate 26, 6, 2096-2116, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00202.1, 2013. reprint
  6. Hoppel, K.W., S.D. Eckermann, L. Coy, G.E. Nedoluha, D.R. Allen, S.D. Swadley, N.L. Baker, "Evaluation of SSMIS Upper Atmosphere Sounding Channels for High-Altitude Data Assimilation", Monthly Weather Review 141, 10, 3314–3330, doi:10.1175/MWR-D-13-00003.1, 2013. reprint
  7. Jain, S., A.R. Jain, T.K. Mandal, "Role of convection in hydration of tropical UTLS: implication of AURA MLS long-term observations", Annales Geophysicae 31, 967-981, doi:10.5194/angeo-31-967-2013, 2013. reprint
  8. Jiménez, C., S. Gulkis, G. Beaudin, T. Encrenaz, P. Eriksson, L. Kamp, S. Lee, S.A. Buehler, "Sub-millimeter observations of the terrestrial atmosphere during an Earth flyby of the MIRO sounder on the Rosetta spacecraft", Planetary and Space Science 82-83, 99-112, doi:10.1016/j.pss.2013.03.016, 2013. reprint
  9. Matthias, V., P. Hoffmann, A. Manson, C. Meek, G. Stober, P. Brown, M. Rapp, "The impact of planetary waves on the latitudinal displacement of sudden stratospheric warmings", Annales Geophysicae 31, 8, doi:10.5194/angeo-31-1397-2013, 2013. reprint
  10. McLandress, C., J.F. Scinocca, T.G. Shepherd, M.C. Reader, G.L. Manney, "Dynamical control of the mesosphere by orographic and non-orographic gravity wave drag during the extended northern winters of 2006 and 2009", Journal of Atmospheric Sciences 70, 7, 2152-2169, doi:10.1175/JAS-D-12-0297.1, 2013. reprint
  11. McLandress, C., J.F. Scinocca, T.G. Shepherd, M.C. Reader, G.L. Manney, "Dynamical Control of the Mesosphere by Orographic and Nonorographic Gravity Wave Drag during the Extended Northern Winters of 2006 and 2009", Journal of Atmospheric Sciences 70, 7, 2152-2169, doi:10.1175/JAS-D-12-0297.1, 2013. reprint
  12. Millan, L., A. Dudhia, "A non-iterative linear retrieval for infrared high-resolution limb sounders", Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 6, 1381-1396, doi:10.5194/amt-6-1381-2013, 2013. reprint
  13. Schwartz, M.J., W.J. Read, M.L. Santee, N.J. Livesey, L. Froidevaux, A. Lambert, G.L. Manney, "Convectively Injected Water Vapor in the North American Summer Lowermost Stratosphere", Geophysical Research Letters 40, 10, 2316–2321, doi:10.1002/grl.50421, 2013. reprint
  14. Stähli, O., A. Murk, N. Kämpfer, C. Mätzler, P. Eriksson, "Microwave radiometer to retrieve temperature profiles from the surface to the stratopause", Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 6, 2477–2494, doi:10.5194/amt-6-2477-2013, 2013. reprint
  15. Su, H., J.H. Jiang, C. Zhai, V.S. Perun, J.T. Shen, A.D. Genio, L.S. Nazarenko, L.J. Donner, L. Horowitz, C. Seman, C. Morcrette, J. Petch, M. Ringer, J. Cole, M. Mesquita, T. Iversen, J.E. Kristjansson, A. Gettelman, L. Rotstayn, S. Jeffrey, J.L. Dufresne, M. Watanabe, H. Kawai, T. Koshiro, T. Wu, E.M. Volodin, T. L'Ecuyer, J. Teixeira, G.L. Stephens, "Diagnosis of Regime-dependent Cloud Simulation Errors in CMIP5 Models Using A-Train Satellite Observations", Journal of Geophysical Research 118, 7, 2762-2780, doi:10.1029/2012JD018575, 2013. reprint
  16. Takahashi, H., H. Su, J.H. Jiang, Z.J. Luo, S.P. Xie, J. Hafner, "Tropical water vapor variations during the 2006–2007 and 2009–2010 El Niños: Satellite observation and GFDL AM2.1 simulation", Journal of Geophysical Research 118, 16, 8910–8920, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50684, 2013. reprint
  17. Verronen, P.T., R. Lehmann, "Analysis and parameterisation of ionic reactions affecting middle atmospheric HOx and NOy during solar proton events", Annales Geophysicae 31, 5, 909-956, doi:10.5194/angeo-31-909-2013, 2013. reprint
  18. Wang, L., C. Zou, "Inter-comparison of SSU Temperature Data Records with Lidar, GPS RO, and MLS Observations", Journal of Geophysical Research 118, 4, 1747–1759, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50162, 2013. reprint
  19. Xiong, J.G., W.F. Wan, F. Ding, L.B. Liu, B.Q. Ning, X.J. Niu, "Coupling between mesosphere and ionosphere over Beijing through semidiurnal tides during the 2009 sudden stratospheric warming", Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics 118, 5, 2511-2521, doi:10.1002/jgra.50280, 2013. reprint


  1. Damiani, A., B. Funke, D.R. Marsh, M. Lopez-Puertas, M.L. Santee, L. Froidevaux, S. Wang, C.H. Jackman, T. von Clarmann, A. Gardini, R.R. Cordero, M. Storini, "Impact of January 2005 solar proton events on chlorine species", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12, 4159–4179, doi:10.5194/acp-12-4159-2012, 2012. reprint
  2. Das, S.S., K.K. Kumar, S. Das, C. Vineeth, T.K. Pant, G. Ramkumar, "Variability of mesopause temperature derived from two independent methods using meteor radar and its comparison with SABER and EOS MLS and a collocated multi-wavelength dayglow photometer over an equatorial station, Thumba 8.5N, 76.5E", International Journal of Remote Sensing 33, 14, 4634-4647, doi:10.1080/01431161.2011.643461, 2012. reprint
  3. Day, K.A., M.J. Taylor, N.J. Mitchell, "Mean winds, temperatures and the 16- and 5-day planetary waves in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere over Bear Lake Observatory 42 N, 111 W", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12, 1571–1585, doi:10.5194/acp-12-1571-2012, 2012. reprint
  4. Douglass, A.R., R.S. Stolarski, S.E. Strahan, L.D. Oman, "Understanding differences in upper stratospheric ozone response to changes in chlorine and temperature as computed using CCMVal-2 models", Journal of Geophysical Research 117, doi:10.1029/2012JD017483, 2012. reprint
  5. Flury, T., D.L. Wu, W.G. Read, "Correlation among cirrus ice content, water vapor, and temperature in the TTL as observed by CALIPSO and Aura/MLS", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12, 683--691, doi:10.5194/acp-12-683-2012, 2012. reprint
  6. France, J.A., V.L. Harvey, C.E. Randall, M.H. Hitchman, M.J. Schwartz, "A climatology of stratopause temperature and height in the polar vortex and anticyclones", Journal of Geophysical Research 117, D06116, doi:10.1029/2011JD016893, 2012. reprint
  7. García-Comas, M., B. Funke, M. López-Puertas, D. Bermejo-Pantaleón, N. Glatthor, T. von Clarmann, G. Stiller, U. Grabowski, C.D. Boone, W.J.R. French, T. Leblanc, M.J. López-González, M.J. Schwartz, "On the quality of MIPAS kinetic temperature in the middle atmosphere", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12, 13, 6009-6039, doi:10.5194/acp-12-6009-2012, 2012. reprint
  8. Kishore, P., I. Velicogna, M.V. Ratnam, J.H. Jiang, G.N. Madhavi, "Planetary waves in the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere during 2009 Arctic major stratospheric warming", Annales Geophysicae 30, 1529-1538, doi:10.5194/angeo-30-1529-2012, 2012. reprint
  9. Matthias, V., P. Hoffmann, M. Rapp, G. Baumgarten, "Composite analysis of the temporal development of waves in the polar MLT region during stratospheric warmings", Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 90-91, 86-96, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2012.04.004, 2012. reprint
  10. Rong, P.P., J.M. Russell, M.E. Hervig, S.M. Bailey, "The roles of temperature and water vapor at different stages of the polar mesospheric cloud season", Journal of Geophysical Research 117, D04208, doi:10.1029/2011JD016464, 2012. reprint
  11. Sofieva, V.F., N. Kalakoski, P.T. Verronen, S.M. Paivarinta, E. Kyrola, L. Backman, J. Tamminen, "Polar-night O3, NO2 and NO3 distributions during sudden stratospheric warmings in 2003–2008 as seen by GOMOS/Envisat", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12, 1051-1066, doi:10.5194/acp-12-1051-2012, 2012. reprint
  12. Stiller, G.P., M. Kiefer, E. Eckert, T. von Clarmann, S. Kellmann, M. Garcia-Comas, B. Funke, T. Leblanc, E. Fetzer, L. Froidevaux, M. Gomez, E. Hall, D. Hurst, A. Jordan, N. Kampfer, A. Lambert, I.S. McDermid, T. McGee, L. Miloshevich, G. Nedoluha, W. Read, M. Schneider, M. Schwartz, C. Straub, G. Toon, L.W. Twigg, K. Walker, D.N. Whiteman, "Validation of MIPAS IMK/IAA temperature, water vapor, and ozone profiles with MOHAVE-2009 campaign measurements", Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 5, 289-320, doi:10.5194/amt-5-289-2012, 2012. reprint
  13. Winkler, H., C. von Savigny, J.P. Burrows, J.M. Wissing, M.J. Schwartz, A. Lambert, M. Garcia-Comas, "Impacts of the January 2005 solar particle event on noctilucent clouds and water at the polar summer mesopause", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12, 5633, doi:10.5194/acp-12-5633-2012, 2012. reprint
  14. Yi, M., Y. Fu, P. Liu, Z. Heng, Y. Gao, X. Hong, "Analysis of the variation of atmospheric composition in the upper troposphere during a strong convection in eastern China in summer", Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences 36, 5, doi:10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2012.11124, 2012.


  1. Alexander, S.P., A.R. Klekociuk, M.C. Pitts, A.J. McDonald, A. Arevalo-Torres, "The effect of orographic gravity waves on Antarctic polar stratospheric cloud occurrence and composition", Journal of Geophysical Research 116, D06109, doi:10.1029/2010JD015184, 2011. reprint
  2. Bhawar, R.L., J.H. Jiang, H. Su, "Variation of upper tropospheric clouds and water vapor over the Indian ocean", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, 11, 21769-21787, doi:10.5194/acpd-11-21769-2011, 2011. reprint
  3. Chae, J.H., D.L. Wu, W.G. Read, S.C. Sherwood, "The role of tropical deep convective clouds on temperature, water vapor, and dehydration in the tropical tropopause layer TTL", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 11, 3811--3821, doi:10.5194/acp-11-3811-2011, 2011. reprint
  4. Dalin, P., N. Pertsev, A. Dubietis, M. Zalcik, A. Zadorozhny, M. Connors, I. Schofield, T. McEwan, I. McEachran, S. Frandsen, O. Hansen, H. Andersen, V. Sukhodoev, V. Perminov, R. Balciunas, V. Romejko, "A comparison between ground-based observations of noctilucent clouds and Aura satellite data", Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2011.01.020, 2011. reprint
  5. Day, K.A., R.E. Hibbins, N.J. Mitchell, "Aura MLS observations of the westward-propagating s=1, 16-day planetary wave in the stratosphere, mesosphere and lower thermosphere", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 11, 4149–4161, doi:10.5194/acp-11-4149-2011, 2011. reprint
  6. Klekociuk, A.R., M.B. Tully, S.P. Alexander, R.J. Dargaville, L.L. Deschamps, P.J. Fraser, H.P. Gies, S.I. Henderson, J. Javorniczky, P.B. Krummel, S.V. Petelina, J.D. Shanklin, J.M. Siddaway, K.A. Stone, "The Antarctic ozone hole during 2010", Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Journal 61, 253-267, 2011.
  7. Kohma, M., K. Sato, "The effects of atmospheric waves on the amounts of polar stratospheric clodus", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 11, 11535-11552, doi:10.5194/acp-11-11535-2011, 2011. reprint
  8. Laat, A.T.J.d., M. van Weele, "The 2010 Antarctic ozone hole: Observed reduction in ozone destruction by minor sudden stratospheric warmings", Scientific Reports 1, 38, 1-8, doi:10.1038/srep00038, 2011. reprint
  9. Liang, C.K., A. Eldering, A. Gettelman, B. Tian, S. Wong, E.J. Fetzer, K.N. Liou, "Record of tropical interannual variability of temperature and water vapor from a combined AIRS-MLS data set", Journal of Geophysical Research 116, D06103, doi:10.1029/2010JD014841, 2011. reprint
  10. McDonald, A.J., R.E. Hibbins, M.J. Jarvis, "Properties of the quasi 16 day wave derived form EOS MLS observations", Journal of Geophysical Research 116, D06112, doi:10.1029/2010JD014719, 2011. reprint
  11. Morris, R.J., A.R. Klekociuk, D.A. Holdsworth, "First observations of Southern Hemisphere polar mesosphere winter echoes including conjugate observations at ~69°S latitude", Geophysical Research Letters 38, L03811, doi:10.1029/2010GL046298, 2011. reprint
  12. Nielsen, K., G.E. Nedoluhab, A. Chandran, L.C. Chang, J. Barker-Tvedtnes, M.J. Taylor, N.J. Mitchell, A. Lambert, M.J. Schwartz, J.M. Russell, "On the origin of mid-latitude mesospheric clouds: The July 2009 cloud outbreak", Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 73, 14-15, 2118-2124, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2010.10.015, 2011. reprint
  13. Offermann, D., P. Hoffmann, P. Knieling, R. Koppmann, J. Oberheide, D.M. Riggin, V.M. Tunbridge, W. Steinbrecht, "Quasi 2 day waves in the summer mesosphere: Triple structure of amplitudes and long-term development", Journal of Geophysical Research 116, D00P002, doi:10.1029/2010JD015051, 2011. reprint
  14. Ren, S., S. Polavarupu, S.R. Beagley, Y. Nezlin, Y.J. Rochon, "The impact of gravity wave drag on mesospheric analyses of the 2006 stratospheric major warming", Journal of Geophysical Research 116, D19116, doi:10.1029/2011JD015943, 2011. reprint
  15. Su, H., J.H. Jiang, X. Liu, J.E. Penner, W.G. Read, S.T. Massie, M.R. Schoeberl, P. Colarco, N.J. Livesey, M.L. Santee, "Observed Increase of TTL Temperature and Water Vapor in Polluted Clouds over Asia", Journal of Climate 24, 11, 2728-2736, doi:10.1175/2010JCLI3749.1, 2011. reprint
  16. Tunbridge, V.M., D.J. Sandford, N.J. Mitchell, "Zonal wave numbers of the summertime 2 day planetary wave observed in the mesosphere by EOS Aura Microwave Limb Sounder", Journal of Geophysical Research 116, D1103, doi:10.1029/2010JD014567, 2011. reprint
  17. Wachter, E.D., K. Hocke, T. Flury, D. Scheiben, N. Kampfer, S. Ka, J.J. Oh, "Signatures of the Sudden Stratospheric Warming events of January-February 2008 in Seoul, S. Korea", Advances in Space Research 48, 10, 1631-1637, doi:10.1016/j.asr.2011.08.002, 2011. reprint
  18. Wright, J.S., R. Fu, S. Fueglistaler, Y.S. Liu, Y. Zhang, "The influence of summertime convection over Southeast Asia on water vapor in the tropical stratosphere", Journal of Geophysical Research 116, D12302, doi:10.1029/2010JD015416, 2011. reprint
  19. Xu, X., A.H. Manson, C.E. Meek, J.R. Drummond, "Quasi-biennial modulation of the wintertime Arctic temperature as revealed by Aura-MLS measurements", Geophysical Research Letters 38, 8, L08806, doi:10.1029/2011GL047075, 2011. reprint
  20. Zelinka, M.D., D.L. Hartmann, "The observed sensitivity of high clouds to mean surface temperature anomalies in the tropics", Journal of Geophysical Research 116, D23103, doi:10.1029/2011JD016459, 2011. reprint


  1. Damiani, A., M. Storini, C. Rafanelli, P. Diego, "The hydroxyl radical as an indicator of SEP fluxes in the high-latitude terrestrial atmosphere", Advances in Space Research 46, 9, 1225-1235, doi:10.1016/j.asr.2010.06.022, 2010. reprint
  2. Damiani, A., M. Storini, M.L. Santee, S. Wang, "Variability of the nighttime OH layer and mesospheric ozone at high latitudes during northern winter: influence of meteorology", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 10, 10291-10303, doi:10.5194/acp-10-10291-2010, 2010. reprint
  3. Dyrland, M.E., C.M. Hall, F.J. Mulligan, M. Tsutsumi, "Improved estimates for neutral air temperatures at 90 km and 78°N using satellite and meteor radar data", Radio Science 45, doi:10.1029/2009RS004344, 2010. reprint
  4. Fadnavis, S., G. Beig, "Features of SAO in ozone and temperature over tropical stratosphere by wavelet analysis", International Journal of Remote Sensing 31, 2, 299-311, doi:10.1080/01431160902882660, 2010. reprint
  5. French, W.J.R., F.J. Mulligan, "Stability of temperatures from TIMED/SABER v1.07 (2002–2009) and Aura/MLS v2.2 (2004–2009) compared with OH(6-2) temperatures observed at Davis Station, Antarctica", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 10, 11439-11446, doi:10.5194/acp-10-11439-2010, 2010. reprint
  6. Jiang, J.H., H. Su, S. Pawson, H.C. Liu, W. Read, J.W. Waters, M. Santee, D.L. Wu, M. Schwartz, N. Livesey, A. Lambert, R. Fuller, J.N. Lee, "Five-year (2004-2009) Observations of Upper Tropospheric Water Vapor and Cloud Ice from MLS and Comparisons with GEOS-5 analyses", Journal of Geophysical Research 115, D15103, doi:10.1029/2009JD013256, 2010. reprint
  7. Massie, S.T., J.C. Gille, C. Craig, R. Khosravi, J. Barnett, W. Read, D. Winker, "HIRDLS and CALIPSO observations of tropical cirrus", Journal of Geophysical Research 114, D00H11, doi:10.1029/2009JD012100, 2010. reprint
  8. Minschwaner, K., G.L. Manney, N.J. Livesey, H.C. Pumphrey, H.M. Pickett, L. Froidevaux, A. Lambert, M.J. Schwartz, P.F. Bernath, K.A. Walker, C.D. Boone, "The photochemistry of carbon monoxide in the stratosphere and mesosphere evaluated from observations by the Microwave Limb Sounder on the Aura satellite", Journal of Geophysical Research 115, D13303, doi:10.1029/2009JD012654, 2010. reprint
  9. Ott, L., B. Duncan, S. Pawson, P. Colarco, M. Chin, C. Randles, T. Diehl, E. Nielsen, "Influence of the 2006 Indonesian biomass burning aerosols on tropical dynamics studies with the GEOS-5 AGCM", Journal of Geophysical Research 115, D14121, doi:10.1029/2009JD013181, 2010. reprint
  10. Robert, C.E., C. von Savigny, N. Rahpoe, H. Bovensmann, J.P. Burrows, M.T. DeLand, M.J. Schwartz, "First evidence of a 27 day solar signature in noctilucent cloud occurrence frequency", Journal of Geophysical Research 115, D00I12, doi:10.1029/2009JD012359, 2010. reprint
  11. Shettle, E.P., G.E. Nedoluha, M.T. DeLand, G.E. Thomas, J.J. Olivero, "SBUV observations of polar mesospheric clouds compared with MLS temperature and water vapor measurements", Geophysical Research Letters 37, L18810, doi:10.1029/2010GL044132, 2010. reprint


  1. Belova, A., S. Kirkwood, D. Murtagh, "Planetary waves in ozone and temperature in the Northern Hemisphere winters of 2002/2003 and early 2005", Annales Geophysicae 27, 1189-1206, doi:10.5194/angeo-27-1189-2009, 2009. reprint
  2. Chernigovskaya, M.A., "Morphological features of the atmosphere temperature regime in the south region of East Siberia", Proceedings of SPIE 7296, 72960K, doi:10.1117/12.823815, 2009. reprint
  3. Eckermann, S.D., K.W. Hoppel, L. Coy, J.P. McCormack, D.E. Sisskind, K. Nielsen, A. Kochenash, M.H. Stevens, C.R. Englert, W. Singer, M. Hervig, "High-altitude data assimilation system experiments for the northern summer mesosphere season of 2007", Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 71, 531-551, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2008.09.036 , 2009. reprint
  4. Fadnavis, S., G. Beig, "Quasi-biennial oscillation in ozone and temperature over tropics", Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 71, 257-263, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2008.11.012, 2009. reprint
  5. Haefele, A., E. De Wachter, K. Hocke, N. Kampfer, G.E. Nedoluha, R.M. Gomez, P. Eriksson, P. Forkman, A. Lambert, M.J. Schwartz, "Validation of ground-based microwave radiometers at 22 GHz for stratospheric and mesospheric water vapor", Journal of Geophysical Research 114, D23305, doi:10.1029/2009JD011997 , 2009. reprint
  6. Hegglin, M.I., C.D. Boone, G.L. Manney, K.A. Walker, "A global view of the extratropical tropopause transition layer from Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer O3, H2O, and CO", Journal of Geophysical Research 114, D00B11, doi:10.1029/2008JD009984, 2009. reprint
  7. Karlsson, B., C.E. Randall, S. Benze, M. Mills, V.L. Harvey, S.M. Bailey, "Intra-seasonal variability of polar mesospheric clouds due to inter-hemispheric coupling", Geophysical Research Letters 36, L20802, doi:10.1029/2009GL040348, 2009. reprint
  8. Kishore, P., S.P. Namboothiri, J.H. Jiang, V. Sivakumar, K. Igarashi, "Global temperature estimates in the troposphere and stratosphere: a validation study of COSMIC/FORMOSAT-3 measurements", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 9, 897-908, doi:10.5194/acp-9-897-2009, 2009. reprint
  9. Limpasuvan, V., D. Wu, "Anomalous Two-day Wave Behavior during the 2006 Austral Summer", Geophysical Research Letters 36, L04807, doi:10.1029/2008GL036387, 2009. reprint
  10. Manney, G.L., M.J. Schwartz, K. Krueger, M.L. Santee, S. Pawson, J.N. Lee, W.H. Daffer, R.A. Fuller, N.J. Livesey, "Aura Microwave Limb Sounder Observations of Dynamics and Transport During the Record-breaking 2009 Arctic Stratospheric Major Warming", Geophysical Research Letters 36, doi:10.1029/2009GL038586, 2009. reprint
  11. Meek, C.E., A.H. Manson, "Summer planetary-scale oscillations: Aura MLS temperature compared with ground-based radar wind", Annales Geophysicae 27, 1763-1774, doi:10.5194/angeo-27-1763-2009, 2009. reprint
  12. Morris, R.J., A.R. Klekociuk, R. Latteck, W. Singer, D.A. Holdsworth, D.J. Murphy, "Inter-hemispheric asymmetry in polar mesosphere summer echoes and temperature at 69<°> latitude", Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 71, 464-469, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2008.09.042, 2009. reprint
  13. Morris, R.J., A.R. Klekociuk, D.A. Holdsworth, "Low latitude 2-day planetary wave impact on austral polar mesopause temperatures: revealed by a January diminution in PMSE above Davis, Antarctica", Geophysical Research Letters 36, L11807, doi:10.1029/2009GL037817, 2009. reprint
  14. Xu, X., A.H. Manson, C.E. Meek, T. Chshyolkova, J.R. Drummond, C.M. Hall, Ch. Jacobi, D. Riggin, R.E. Hibbins, M. Tsutsumi, W.K. Hocking, W.E. Ward, "Relationship between variability of the semidiurnal tide in the Northern Hemisphere mesosphere and quasi-stationary planetary waves throughout the global middle atmosphere", Annales Geophysicae 27, 11, 4239–4256, doi:10.5194/angeo-27-4239-2009, 2009. reprint
  15. Xu, X., A.H. Manson, C.E. Meek, T. Chshyolkova, J.R. Drummond, C.M. Hall, D.M. Riggin, R.E. Hibbins, "Vertical and interhemispheric links in the stratosphere-mesosphere as revealed by the day-to-day variability of Aura-MLS temperature data", Annales Geophysicae 27, 3387-3409, doi:10.5194/angeo-27-3387-2009, 2009. reprint


  1. Alexander, M.J., J.C. Gille, C. Cavanaugh, M.T. Coffey, C. Craig, T. Eden, G. Francis, C. Halvorson, J.W. Hannigan, R. Khosravi, D.E. Kinnison, H. Lee, S.T. Massie, B. Nardi, J.J. Barnett, C. Hepplewhite, A. Lambert, V. Dean, "Global Estimates of Gravity Wave Momentum Flux from High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) Observations", Journal of Geophysical Research 113, D15S18, doi:10.1029/2007JD008807, 2008. reprint
  2. Gille, J., J.J. Barnett, P. Arter, M. Barker, P.F. Bernath, C.D. Boone, C. Cavanaugh, J. Chow, M.T. Coffey, J. Craft, C. Craig, M. Dials, V. Dean, T. Eden, D.P. Edwards, G. Francis, C. Halvorson, V.L. Harvey, C. Hepplewhite, R. Khosravi, D.E. Kinnison, C. Krinsky, A. Lambert, H. Lee, L.V. Lyjak, J. Loh, W.G. Mankin, S.T. Massie, J.M. McInerney, J. Moorhouse, B. Nardi, D. Packman, C.E. Randall, J. Reburn, W. Rudolf, M.J. Schwartz, J. Serafin, K. Stone, B. Torpy, K.A. Walker, A.M. Waterfall, R. Watkins, J. Whitney, D. Woodard, G. Young, "High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS): Experiment Overview, recovery and validation of initial temperature data", Journal of Geophysical Research 113, D16S43, doi:10.1029/2007JD008824, 2008. reprint
  3. Hoppel, K.W., N.L. Baker, L. Coy, S.D. Eckermann, J.P. McCormack, G.E. Nedoluha, E. Siskind, "Assimilation of stratospheric and mesospheric temperatures from MLS and SABER into a global NWP model", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 8, 6103-61116, doi:10.5194/acp-8-6103-2008, 2008. reprint
  4. Manney, G.L., K. Kruger, S. Pawson, K. Minschwaner, M.J. Schwartz, W.H. Daffer, N.J. Livesey, M.G. Mlynczak, E.E. Remsberg, J.M. Russell, J.W. Waters, "The evolution of the stratopause during the 2006 major warming: Satellite Data and Assimilated Meteorological Analyses", Journal of Geophysical Research 113, D11115, doi:10.1029/2007JD00909, 2008. reprint
  5. Manney, G.L., W.H. Daffer, K.B. Strawbridge, K.A. Walker, C.D. Boone, P.F. Bernath, T. Kerzenmacher, M.J. Schwartz, K. Strong, R.J. Sica, K. Kruger, H.C. Pumphrey, L. Froidevaux, A. Lambert, M.L. Santee, N.J. Livesey, E.E. Remsberg, M.G. Mlynczak, J.M. Russell, "The High Arctic in Extreme Winters: Vortex, Temperature, and MLS and ACE-FTS Trace Gas Evolution", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 8, 505-522, doi:10.5194/acp-8-505-2008, 2008. reprint
  6. Manson, A.H., C.E. Meek, T. Chshyolkova, "Regional stratospheric warmings in the Pacific-Western Canada (PWC) sector during winter 2004/2005: implications for temperatures, winds, chemical constituents and the characterization of the Polar vortex", Annales Geophysicae 26, 3597-3622, doi:10.5194/angeo-26-3597-2008, 2008. reprint
  7. Nilsson, H., S. Kirkwood, R.J. Morris, R. Latteck, A.R. Klekociuk, D.J. Murphy, M. Zecha, E. Belova, "Simultaneous observations of Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes at two different latitudes in Antarctica", Annales Geophysicae 26, 3783-3792, doi:10.5194/angeo-26-3783-2008, 2008. reprint
  8. Read, W.G., M.J. Schwartz, A. Lambert, H. Su, N.J. Livesey, W.H. Daffer, C.D. Boone, "The roles of convection, extratropical mixing, and in situ freeze-drying in the tropical tropopause layer", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 8, 6051-6067, doi:10.5194/acp-8-6051-2008, 2008. reprint
  9. Schwartz, M.J., A. Lambert, G.L. Manney, W.G. Read, N.J. Livesey, L. Froidevaux, C.O. Ao, P.F. Bernath, C.D. Boone, R.E. Cofield, W.H. Daffer, B.J. Drouin, E.J. Fetzer, R.A. Fuller, R.F. Jarnot, J.H. Jiang, Y.B. Jiang, B.W. Knosp, K. Kruger, J.L.F. Li, M.G. Mlynczak, S. Pawson, J.M. Russell, M.L. Santee, W.V. Snyder, P.C. Stek, R.P. Thurstans, A.M. Tompkins, P.A. Wagner, K.A. Walker, J.W. Waters, D.L. Wu, "Validation of the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder Temperature and Geopotential Height Measurements", Journal of Geophysical Research 113, D15S11, doi:10.1029/2007JD008783, 2008. reprint


  1. Feng, L., R.S. Harwood, R. Brugge, A. O'Neill, L. Froidevaux, M. Schwartz, J.W. Waters, "Equatorial Kelvin waves as revealed by EOS Microwave Limb Sounder observations and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts analyses: Evidence for slow Kelvin waves of zonal wave number 3", Journal of Geophysical Research 112, D16106, doi:10.1029/2006JD008329, 2007. reprint
  2. Manney, G.L., W.H. Daffer, J.M. Zawodny, P.F. Bernath, K.W. Hoppel, K.A. Walker, B.W. Knosp, C. Boone, E.E. Remsberg, M.L. Santee, V. Lynn Harvey, S. Pawson, D.R. Jackson, L. Deaver, C.T. McElroy, C.A. McLinden, J.R. Drummond, H.C. Pumphrey, A. Lambert, M.J. Schwartz, L. Froidevaux, S. McLeod, L.L. Takacs, M.J. Suarez, C.R. Trepte, D.T. Cuddy, N.J. Livesey, R.S. Harwood, J.W. Waters, "Solar Occultation Satellite Data and Derived Meteorological Products: Sampling Issues and Comparisons with Aura MLS", Journal of Geophysical Research 112, D24S50, doi:10.1029/2007JD008709, 2007. reprint
  3. Ruzmaikin, A., M.L. Santee, M.J. Schwartz, L. Froidevaux, H.M. Pickett, "The 27-day variations in stratospheric ozone and temperature: New MLS Data", Geophysical Research Letters 34, L02819, doi:10.1029/2006GL028419, 2007. reprint
  4. von Savigny, C., M. Sinnhuber, H. Bovensmann, J.P. Burrows, M.B. Kallenrode, M. Schwartz, "On the disappearance of noctilucent clouds during the January 2005 solar proton events", Geophysical Research Letters 34, L02805, doi:10.1029/2006GL028106, 2007. reprint


  1. Cofield, R.E., P.C. Stek, "Design and field-of-view calibration of 114-660 GHz optics of the Earth Observing System Microwave Limb Sounder", IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 44, no. 5, 1166-1181, doi:10.1109/TGRS.2006.873234, 2006. reprint
  2. Forbes, J.M., D.L. Wu, "Solar Tides as Revealed by Measurements of Mesosphere Temperature by the MLS Experiment on UARS", Journal of Atmospheric Sciences 63, 1776-1797, doi:10.1175/JAS3724.1, 2006. reprint
  3. Froidevaux, L., N.J. Livesey, W.G. Read, Y.B. Jiang, C.J. Jimenez, M.J. Filipiak, M.J. Schwartz, M.L. Santee, H.C. Pumphrey, J.H. Jiang, D.L. Wu, G.L. Manney, B.J. Drouin, J.W. Waters, E.J. Fetzer, P.F. Bernath, C.D. Boone, K.A. Walker, K.W. Jucks, G.C. Toon, J.J. Margitan, B. Sen, C.R. Webster, L.E. Christensen, J.W. Elkins, E. Atlas, R.A. Lueb, R. Hendershot, "Early validation analyses of atmospheric profiles from EOS MLS on the Aura satellite", IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 44, no. 5, doi:10.1109/TGRS.2006.864366, 2006. reprint
  4. Jimenez, C.J., H.C. Pumphrey, I.A. MacKenzie, G.L. Manney, M.L. Santee, M.J. Schwartz, R.S. Harwood, J.W. Waters, "EOS MLS observations of dehydration in the 2004-2005 polar winters", Geophysical Research Letters 33, L16806, doi:10.1029/2006GL025926, 2006. reprint
  5. McCormack, J.P., S.D. Eckermann, D.E. Siskind, T.J. McGee, "CHEM2D-OPP: A new linearized gas-phase ozone photochemistry parameterization for high-altitude NWP and climate models", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 6, 4943-4972, doi:10.5194/acp-6-4943-2006, 2006. reprint
  6. Schwartz, M.J., W.G. Read, W.V. Snyder, "EOS MLS forward model polarized radiative transfer for Zeeman-split oxygen lines", IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 44, 5 , 1182-1191, doi:10.1109/TGRS.2005.862267, 2006. reprint


  1. Jiang, J.H., S.D. Eckermann, D.L. Wu, K. Hocke, B. Wang, Y. Zhang, "Seasonal variation of gravity wave sources from satellite observation", Advances in Space Research 35, 1925-1932, doi:10.1016/j.asr.2005.01.099, 2005. reprint
  2. Santee, M.L., G.L. Manney, N.J. Livesey, L. Froidevaux, H.C. Pumphrey, W.G. Read, M.J. Schwartz, J.W. Waters, "Polar processing and development of the 2004 Antarctic ozone hole: First results from Aura MLS", Geophysical Research Letters 32, L12817, doi:10.1029/2005GL022582, 2005. reprint


  1. Jiang, J.H., D.Y. Wang, L.J. Romans, C.O. Ao, M.J. Schwartz, G.P. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, L.J. Romans, B. Funke, S. Gil-Lopez, N. Glatthor, U. Grabowski, M. Hopfner, S. Kellmann, M. Kiefer, A. Linden, G. Mengistu Tsidu, M. Milz, T. Steck, H. Fischer, "Comparison of GPOS/SAC-C and MIPAS/ENVISAT Temperature Profiles and Its Possible Implementation for EOS MLS Observations", CHAMP Mission Results for Gravity and Magnetic Field Mapping, and GPS Atmospheric Sounding, 573-578, doi:10.1007/3-540-26800-6_91, 2004. reprint
  2. Mote, P.W., T.J. Dunkerton, "Kelvin wave signatures in stratospheric trace constituents", Journal of Geophysical Research 109, D03101, doi:10.1029/2002JD003370, 2004. reprint


  1. Limpasuvan, V., D.L. Wu, "Two-day wave observations of UARS Microwave Limb Sounder mesospheric water vapor and temperature", Journal of Geophysical Research 108, D10, 4307, doi:10.1029/2002JD002903, 2003. reprint


  1. Azeem, S M.I., S.E. Pablo, D.L. Wu, L. Froidevaux, "Observations of the 2-day wave in UARS MLS temperature and ozone measurements", Geophysical Research Letters 28, D16, 3147-3150, doi:10.1029/2001GL013119, 2001. reprint


  1. Sassi, F., M. Salby, "Diurnal variations in the middle atmosphere observed by UARS", Journal of Geophysical Research 104, D3, 3729-3739, doi:10.1029/1998JD100068, 1999. reprint


  1. Hood, L.L., S. Zhou, "Stratospheric effects of 27-day solar ultraviolet variations: An analysis of UARS MLS ozone and temperature data", Journal of Geophysical Research 103, D3, 3629-3638, doi:10.1029/97JD02849, 1998. reprint


  1. Massie, S.T., J.C. Gille, D.P. Edwards, P.L. Bailey, L.V. Lyjak, C.A. Craig, C.P. Cavanaugh, J.L. Mergenthaler, A.E. Roche, J.B. Kumer, A. Lambert, R.G. Grainger, C.D. Rodgers, F.W. Taylor, J.M. Russell, J.H. Park, T. Deshler, M.E. Hervig, E.F. Fishbein, J.W. Waters, W.A. Lahoz, "Validation studies using multiwavelength Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) observations of stratospheric aerosol", Journal of Geophysical Research 101, D6, 9757-9773, doi:10.1029/95JD03225, 1996. reprint


  1. Canziani, P.O., J.R. Holton, E. Fishbein, L. Froidevaux, "Equatorial Kelvin wave variability during 1992 and 1993", Journal of Geophysical Research 100, D3, 5193-5202, doi:10.1029/94JD02330, 1995. reprint
  2. Ricaud, P.D., E.S. Carr, R.S. Harwood, W.A. Lahoz, L. Froidevaux, W.G. Read, J.W. Waters, J.L. Mergenthaler, J.B. Kumer, A.E. Roche, G.E. Peckham, "Polar stratospheric clouds as deduced from MLS and CLAES measurements", Geophysical Research Letters 22, 2033-2036, doi:10.1029/95GL00479, 1995. reprint


  1. Canziani, P.O., J.R. Holton, E.F. Fishbein, L. Froidevaux, J.W. Waters, "Equatorial Kelvin Waves: A UARS MLS View", Journal of Atmospheric Sciences 51, 13, 3053-3076, doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1994)051<3053:EKWAUM>2.0.CO;2, 1994. reprint

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