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The MLS Temperature Product

Contact: Michael Schwartz

Basic Information

Temperature plays central roles throughout atmospheric science. It is a key parameter in the radiative balance of the atmosphere. Temperature at a given pressure determines density and thus buoyancy, driving dynamics on all scales. Temperature controls chemical reaction rates and radiative transfer. Temperature is critically important in the hydrological cycle, controlling of cloud formation and the distribution of humidity. MLS measurements of atmospheric composition require knowledge of temperature, but at the frequencies of MLS observations, thermal emission is roughly linear in gas temperature, so small fractional errors in inferred absolute temperature generally lead to correspondingly small errors in inferred constituent abundance.
MLS Tempearature Map
Sample temperature retrieval

How it is part of MLS Science Objectives

Temperature measurements are vitally important for addressing questions of radiative balance involved in climate change. Upper tropospheric temperature is particularly important to climate feedbacks involving the regulation of humidity and clouds. Some models show temperature in the mesosphere to be particularly sensitive to climate change. Temperatures required for the formation of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are at the extreme low end of those found in the northern polar winter. PSCs play multiple roles in the catalytic destruction of ozone, and here MLS mission objectives of understanding stratospheric ozone layer stability and climate change are linked through temperature.

How EOS MLS measures Temperature

MLS measures temperature primarily from thermal emission by oxygen, which is well mixed with a known atmospheric mixing ratio. The standard product for temperature is taken from a retrieval phase that combines radiances near the 118-GHz oxygen line, providing temperature from 90 km down to about 16 km, with radiances near the 239-GHz isotopic oxygen line, extending the profile down to about 9 km.

Quick Product Information for data version v4.2

  • Swath Name: Temperature
  • Status Flag: Only use profiles for which the Status field is an even number.
  • Useful Range: 261 - 0.001 hPa
  • DAAC Short Name: ML2T
  • Precision: Only use values for which the estimated precision is a positive number.
  • Quality Threshold: >0.2 for 83hPa and smaller; >0.9 for 100hPa and larger
  • ConvergenceThreshold: <1.03
Download EOS Aura MLS Temperature v4.2 data

Publications related to the MLS Temperature data product

Future Publications

  1. Holmen, S.E., C.M. Hall, M. Tsutsumi, "Neutral atmosphere temperature change at 90 km, 70° N, 19° E, 2003–2014", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions 15, 11, 15,289-15,317, doi:10.5194/acpd-15-15289-2015, Not yet published.
  2. Lu, X., X. Chu, C. Chen, V. Nguyen, A. Smith, "First Observations of Short-Period Eastward Propagating Planetary Waves From the Stratosphere to the Lower Thermosphere 110 km in Winter Antarctica", Geophysical Research Letters 44, 20, 10,744-10,753, doi:10.1002/2017gl075641, Not yet published.
  3. Matthias, V., M. Ern, "On the origin of the mesospheric quasi-stationary planetary wavesin the unusual Arctic winter 2015/16", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, 1-20, doi:10.5194/acp-2017-1051, Not yet published.
  4. Sakazaki, T., M. Fujiwara, M. Shiotani, "Representation of solar tides in the stratosphere and lowermesosphere in state-of-the-art reanalyses and in satelliteobservations", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, 1-42, doi:10.5194/acp-2017-750, Not yet published.


  1. Lambert, A., M. Santee, "Accuracy and precision of polar lower stratospheric temperatures from reanalyses evaluated from A-Train CALIOP and MLS, COSMIC GPS RO, and the equilibrium thermodynamics of supercooled ternary solutions and ice clouds", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 18, 3, 1945-1975, doi:10.5194/acp-18-1945-2018, 2018. reprint
  2. Medvedeva, I., K. Ratovsky, "Effects of the 2016 February minor sudden stratospheric warming on the MLT and ionosphere over Eastern Siberia", Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 1-10, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2017.09.007, 2018.
  3. Millán, L., N. Livesey, M. Santee, T. von Clarmann, "Characterizing sampling and quality screening biases in infrared and microwave limb sounding", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 18, 6, 4187-4199, doi:10.5194/acp-18-4187-2018, 2018. reprint
  4. Polichtchouk, I., T.G. Shepherd, R.J. Hogan, P. Bechtold, "Sensitivity of the Brewer-Dobson circulation and polar vortex variability to parametrized nonorographic gravity-wave drag in a high-resolution atmospheric model", Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, doi:10.1175/jas-d-17-0304.1, 2018.
  5. Raj, S.A., M.V. Ratnam, D.N. Rao, B.K. Murthy, "Long-term trends in stratospheric ozone, temperature, and water vapor over the Indian region", Annales Geophysicae 36, 1, 149-165, doi:10.5194/angeo-36-149-2018, 2018. reprint
  6. Yi, W., I. Reid, X. Xue, D. Murphy, C. Hall, M. Tsutsumi, B. Ning, G. Li, J. Younger, T. Chen, X. Dou, "High- and Middle-Latitude Neutral Mesospheric Density Response to Geomagnetic Storms", Geophysical Research Letters 45, 1, 436-444, doi:10.1002/2017gl076282, 2018. reprint
  7. Zülicke, C., E. Becker, V. Matthias, D. Peters, H. Schmidt, H. Liu, L.D.l.T. Ramos, D. Mitchell, "Coupling of stratospheric warmings with mesospheric coolings in observations and simulations", Journal of Climate 31, 1107-1133, doi:10.1175/jcli-d-17-0047.1, 2018. reprint


  1. Eswaraiah, S., Y. Kim, H. Liu, M.V. Ratnam, J. Lee, "Do minor sudden stratospheric warmings in the Southern Hemisphere SH impact coupling between stratosphere and mesosphere–lower thermosphere MLT like major warmings?", Earth, Planets and Space 69, 1, doi:10.1186/s40623-017-0704-5, 2017. reprint
  2. Funke, B., W. Ball, S. Bender, A. Gardini, V.L. Harvey, A. Lambert, M. López-Puertas, D. Marsh, K. Meraner, H. Nieder, S. Päivärinta, K. Pérot, C. Randall, T. Reddmann, E. Rozanov, H. Schmidt, A. Seppälä, M. Sinnhuber, T. Sukhodolov, G. Stiller, N. Tsvetkova, P. Verronen, S. Versick, T. von Clarmann, K. Walker, V. Yushkov, "HEPPA-II model–measurement intercomparison project: EPP indirect effects during the dynamically perturbed NH winter 2008&ndash2009", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 17, 5, 3573-3604, doi:10.5194/acp-17-3573-2017, 2017. reprint
  3. Gisinger, S., A. Dörnbrack, V. Matthias, J. Doyle, S. Eckermann, B. Ehard, L. Hoffmann, B. Kaifler, C. Kruse, M. Rapp, "Atmospheric Conditions during the Deep Propagating Gravity Wave Experiment DEEPWAVE", Monthly Weather Review 145, 10, 4249-4275, doi:10.1175/mwr-d-16-0435.1, 2017. reprint
  4. Hocke, K., "Response of the middle atmosphere to the geomagnetic storm of November 2004", Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 154, 86-91, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2016.12.013, 2017. reprint
  5. Jain, S., A.R. Jain, T.K. Mandal, "Appearance of the persistently low tropopause temperature and ozone over the Bay of Bengal region", Meteorol Atmos Phys, doi:10.1007/s00703-017-0554-5, 2017. reprint
  6. Jiang, J.H., Q. Yue, H. Su, S.C. Reising, P.P. Kangaslahti, W.R. Deal, E.T. Schlecht, L. Wu, K.F. Evans, "[PDF] from A Simulation of Ice Cloud Particle Size, Humidity and Temperature Measurements from the TWICE CubeSat", Earth and Space Science,2017. reprint
  7. Kam, H., G. Jee, Y. Kim, Y. Ham, I. Song, "Statistical analysis of mesospheric gravity waves over King Sejong Station, Antarctica 62.2°S, 58.8°W", Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 155, 86-94, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2017.02.006, 2017. reprint
  8. Kim, G., J. Kim, Y. Kim, Y. Lee, "Long-term trend of mesospheric temperatures over Kiruna 68°N, 21°E during 2003–2014", Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 161, 83-87, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2017.06.018, 2017. reprint
  9. Kim, G., Y. Kim, Y. Lee, "Mesospheric Temperatures over Apache Point Observatory 32°N, 105°W Derived from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Spectra", Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences 34, 2, 119-125, doi:10.5140/jass.2017.34.2.119, 2017. reprint
  10. Laskar, F.I., J.L. Chau, J.P. St.-Maurice, G. Stober, C.M. Hall, M. Tsutsumi, J. Höffner, P. Hoffmann, "Experimental Evidence of Arctic Summer Mesospheric Upwelling and Its Connection to Cold Summer Mesopause", Geophysical Research Letters 44, 18, 9151-9158, doi:10.1002/2017gl074759, 2017. reprint
  11. Lee, C., G. Jee, Q. Wu, J. Shim, D. Murphy, I. Song, H. Kwon, J. Kim, Y. Kim, "Polar Thermospheric Winds and Temperature Observed by Fabry-Perot Interferometer at Jang Bogo Station, Antarctica", Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics 122, 9, 9685-9695, doi:10.1002/2017ja024408, 2017. reprint
  12. Long, C., M. Fujiwara, S. Davis, D. Mitchell, C. Wright, "Climatology and interannual variability of dynamic variables in multiple reanalyses evaluated by the SPARC Reanalysis Intercomparison Project S-RIP", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 17, 23, 14,593-14,629, doi:10.5194/acp-17-14593-2017, 2017. reprint
  13. McCormack, J., K. Hoppel, D. Kuhl, R.D. Wit, G. Stober, P. Espy, N. Baker, P. Brown, D. Fritts, C. Jacobi, D. Janches, N. Mitchell, B. Ruston, S. Swadley, K. Viner, T. Whitcomb, R. Hibbins, "Comparison of mesospheric winds from a high-altitude meteorological analysis system and meteor radar observations during the boreal winters of 2009–2010 and 2012–2013", Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 154, 132-166, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2016.12.007, 2017. reprint
  14. Navas-Guzmán, F., N. Kämpfer, F. Schranz, W. Steinbrecht, A. Haefele, "Intercomparison of stratospheric temperature profiles from a ground-based microwave radiometer with other techniques", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 17, 22, 14085-14104, doi:10.5194/acp-17-14085-2017, 2017. reprint
  15. Ochiai, S., P. Baron, T. Nishibori, Y. Irimajiri, Y. Uzawa, T. Manabe, H. Maezawa, A. Mizuno, T. Nagahama, H. Sagawa, M. Suzuki, M. Shiotani, "SMILES-2 Mission for Temperature, Wind, and Composition in the Whole Atmosphere", SOLA 13A, Special Edition, 13-18, doi:10.2151/sola.13a-003, 2017. reprint
  16. Orsolini, Y., V. Limpasuvan, K. Pérot, P. Espy, R. Hibbins, S. Lossow, K.R. Larsson, D. Murtagh, "Modelling the descent of nitric oxide during the elevated stratopause event of January 2013", Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 155, 50-61, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2017.01.006, 2017. reprint
  17. Randel, W., L. Polvani, F. Wu, D. Kinnison, C. Zou, C. Mears, "Troposphere-Stratosphere Temperature Trends Derived From Satellite Data Compared With Ensemble Simulations From WACCM", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 122, 18, 9651-9667, doi:10.1002/2017jd027158, 2017. reprint
  18. Reid, I., A. Spargo, J. Woithe, A. Klekociuk, J. Younger, G. Sivjee, "Seasonal MLT-region nightglow intensities, temperatures, and emission heights at a Southern Hemisphere midlatitude site", Annales Geophysicae 35, 3, 567-582, doi:10.5194/angeo-35-567-2017, 2017. reprint
  19. Sato, K., M. Kohma, M. Tsutsumi, T. Sato, "Frequency spectra and vertical profiles of wind fluctuations in the summer Antarctic mesosphere revealed by MST radar observations", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 122, 1, 3-19, doi:10.1002/2016jd025834, 2017. reprint
  20. Savigny, C., M. DeLand, M. Schwartz, "First identification of lunar tides in satellite observations of noctilucent clouds", Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 162, 116-121, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2016.07.002, 2017. reprint
  21. Shi, C., W. Cai, D. Guo, "Composition and Thermal Structure of the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere in a Penetrating Mesoscale Convective Complex Determined by Satellite Observations and Model Simulations", Advances in Meteorology 2017, 1-9, doi:10.1155/2017/6404796, 2017. reprint
  22. Stober, G., V. Matthias, C. Jacobi, S. Wilhelm, J. Höffner, J. Chau, "Exceptionally strong summer-like zonal wind reversal in the upper mesosphere during winter 2015/16", Annales Geophysicae 35, 3, 711-720, doi:10.5194/angeo-35-711-2017, 2017. reprint
  23. Su, H., J.H. Jiang, J.D. Neelin, T.J. Shen, C. Zhai, Q. Yue, Z. Wang, L. Huang, Y.S. Choi, G.L. Stephens, Y.L. Yung, "Tightening of tropical ascent and high clouds key to precipitation change in a warmer climate", Nature Communications, doi:DOI: 10.1038/ncomms15771, 2017. reprint
  24. Yi, W., I. Reid, X. Xue, J. Younger, A. Spargo, D. Murphy, T. Chen, X. Dou, "First observation of mesosphere response to the solar wind high-speed streams", Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, doi:10.1002/2017ja024446, 2017. reprint
  25. Zhu, Y., O. Toon, M. Pitts, A. Lambert, C. Bardeen, D. Kinnison, "Comparing simulated PSC optical properties with CALIPSO observations during the 2010 Antarctic winter", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 122, 2, 1175-1202, doi:10.1002/2016jd025191, 2017. reprint


  1. Dolinar, E.K., X. Dong, B. Xi, J.H. Jiang, N.G. Loeb, "A clear-sky radiation closure study using a one-dimensional radiative transfer model and collocated satellite-surface-reanalysis data sets", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 121, 13,698–13,714, doi:10.1002/2016JD025823, 2016. reprint
  2. Elsaesser, G.S., A.D. Genio, J.H. Jiang, M. van Lier-Walqui, "An Improved Convective Ice Parameterization for the NASA GISS Global Climate Model and Impacts on Cloud Ice Simulation", Journal of Climate, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D, 2016. reprint
  3. Ern, M., Q. Trinh, M. Kaufmann, I. Krisch, P. Preusse, J. Ungermann, Y. Zhu, J. Gille, M. Mlynczak, J. Russell, M. Schwartz, M. Riese, "Satellite observations of middle atmosphere gravity wave absolute momentum flux and of its vertical gradient during recent stratospheric warmings", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 16, 15, 9983-10019, doi:10.5194/acp-16-9983-2016, 2016. reprint
  4. Eswaraiah, S., Y. Kim, J. Hong, J. Kim, M.V. Ratnam, A. Chandran, S.V.B. Rao, D. Riggin, "Mesospheric signatures observed during 2010 minor stratospheric warming at King Sejong Station 62°S, 59°W", Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 140, 55-64, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2016.02.007, 2016. reprint
  5. Harada, Y., H. Kamahori, C. Kobayashi, H. Endo, S. Kobayashi, Y. Ota, H. Onoda, K. Onogi, K. Miyakoa, K. Takahashi, "The JRA-55 Reanalysis: Representation of Atmospheric Circulation and Climate Variability", Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan 94, 3, 269-302, doi:10.2151/jmsj.2016-015, 2016. reprint
  6. Hervig, M., M. Gerding, M. Stevens, R. Stockwell, S. Bailey, J. Russell, G. Stober, "Mid-latitude mesospheric clouds and their environment from SOFIE observations", Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 149, 1-14, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2016.09.004, 2016. reprint
  7. Khosrawi, F., J. Urban, S. Lossow, G. Stiller, K. Weigel, P. Braesicke, M.C. Pitts, A. Rozanov, J.P. Burrows, D. Murtagh, "Sensitivity of polar stratospheric cloud formation to changes in water vapour and temperature", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 16, 1, 101-121, doi:10.5194/acp-16-101-2016, 2016. reprint
  8. Kishore, P., I. Velicogna, M.V. Ratnam, G. Basha, T.B.M.J. Ourda, S.P. Namboothiri, J.H. Jiang, T.C. Sutterley, G.N. Madhavi, S.V.B. Rao, "Sudden stratospheric warmings observed in the last decade by satellite measurements", Remote Sensing of Environment 184, 263-275, doi:10.1016/j.rse.2016.07.008, 2016. reprint
  9. Kozlovsky, A., R. Lukianova, S. Shalimov, M. Lester, "Mesospheric temperature estimation from meteor decay times during Geminids meteor shower", Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics 121, 2, 1669-1679, doi:10.1002/2015ja022222, 2016. reprint
  10. Liu, X., J. Yue, J. Xu, W. Yuan, J. Russell, M.E. Hervig, T. Nakamura, "Persistent longitudinal variations in 8 years of CIPS/AIM polar mesospheric clouds", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 121, 14, 8390-8409, doi:10.1002/2015jd024624, 2016. reprint
  11. Matthias, V., A. Dörnbrack, G. Stober, "The extraordinarily strong and cold polar vortex in the early northern winter 2015/2016", Geophysical Research Letters 43, 23, 12,287-12,294, doi:10.1002/2016gl071676, 2016. reprint
  12. Millan, L., N. Livesey, M. Santee, J. Neu, G. Manney, R. Fuller, "Case studies of the impact of orbital sampling on stratospheric trend detection and derivation of tropical vertical velocities: solar occultation vs. limb emission sounding", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 16, 18, 11521-11534, doi:10.5194/acp-16-11521-2016, 2016. reprint
  13. Pancheva, D., P. Mukhtarov, D. Siskind, A. Smith, "Global distribution and variability of quasi 2 day waves based on the NOGAPS-ALPHA reanalysis model", Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics 121, doi:10.1002/2016ja023381, 2016. reprint
  14. Randel, W., A. Smith, F. Wu, C. Zou, H. Qian, "Stratospheric Temperature Trends over 1979–2015 Derived from Combined SSU, MLS, and SABER Satellite Observations", Journal of Climate 29, 13, 4843-4859, doi:10.1175/jcli-d-15-0629.1, 2016. reprint
  15. Ratnam, M.V., A.H. Kumar, A. Jayaraman, "Validation of INSAT-3D sounder data with in situ measurements and other similar satellite observations over India", Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 9, 12, 5735-5745, doi:10.5194/amt-9-5735-2016, 2016. reprint
  16. Sridharan, S., M. Sandhya, "Long-term 2004–2015 tendencies and variabilities of tropical UTLS water vapor mixing ratio and temperature observed by AURA/MLS using multivariate regression analysis", Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 147, 156-165, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2016.08.001, 2016. reprint
  17. Strahan, S.E., A.R. Douglass, S.D. Steenrod, "Chemical and dynamical impacts of stratospheric sudden warmings on Arctic ozone variability", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 121, 19, 11,836-11,851, doi:10.1002/2016jd025128, 2016. reprint
  18. Takahashi, H., H. Su, J.H. Jiang, "Error analysis of upper tropospheric water vapor in CMIP5 models using “A-Train” satellite observations and reanalysis data", Climate Dynamics, doi:10.1007/s00382-015-2732-9, 2016. reprint
  19. Ugolnikov, O., I. Maslov, B. Kozelov, J. Dlugach, "Noctilucent cloud polarimetry: Twilight measurements in a wide range of scattering angles", Planetary and Space Science 125, 105-113, doi:10.1016/j.pss.2016.03.010, 2016. reprint
  20. Ugolnikov, O.S., B.V. Kozelov, "Study of the mesosphere using wide-field twilight polarization measurements: Early results beyond the polar circle", Cosmic Research 54, 4, 279-284, doi:10.1134/s0010952516040079, 2016. reprint
  21. Wang, Y., H. Su, J.H. Jiang, N.J. Livesey, M.L. Santee, P.C. Stek, L. Froidevaux, W.G. Read, J. Anderson, "The linkage between stratospheric water vapor and surface temperature in an observation-constrained coupled general circulation model", Climate Dynamics, doi:10.1007/s00382-016-3231-3, 2016. reprint
  22. Wright, C., N. Hindley, N. Mitchell, "Combining AIRS and MLS observations for three-dimensional gravity wave measurement", Geophysical Research Letters 43, 2, 884-893, doi:10.1002/2015gl067233, 2016. reprint
  23. Wright, C.J., N.P. Hindley, A.C. Moss, N.J. Mitchell, "Multi-instrument gravity-wave measurements over Tierra del Fuego and the Drake Passage – Part 1: Potential energies and vertical wavelengths from AIRS, COSMIC, HIRDLS, MLS-Aura, SAAMER, SABER and radiosondes", Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, doi:10.5194/amt-9-877-2016, 2016. reprint
  24. Yan, X., J.S. Wright, X. Zheng, N.J. Livesey, H. Vömel, X. Zhou, "Validation of Aura MLS retrievals of temperature, water vapour and ozone in the upper troposphere and lower–middle stratosphere over the Tibetan Plateau during boreal summer", Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 9, 3547-3566, doi:10.5194/amt-9-3547-2016, 2016. reprint
  25. Yi, W., X. Xue, J. Chen, X. Dou, T. Chen, N. Li, "Estimation of mesopause temperatures at low latitudes using the Kunming meteor radar", Radio Science 51, 3, 130-141, doi:10.1002/2015rs005722, 2016. reprint


  1. Agol, E., T. Jansen, B. Lacy, T. Robinson, V. Meadows, "The Center of Light: Spectroastrometric Detection of Exomoons", The Astrophysical Journal 812, 1, 5, doi:10.1088/0004-637x/812/1/5, 2015. reprint
  2. de Wit, R.J., R.E. Hibbons, P.J. Espy, E.A. Hennum, "Coupling in the middle atmosphere related to the 2013 major sudden stratospheric warming", Annales Geophysicae 33, 309-319, doi:10.5194/angeo-33-309-2015, 2015. reprint
  3. Fiedler, J., G. Baumgarten, U. Berger, A. Gabriel, R. Latteck, F.J. Lübken, "On the early onset of the NLC season 2013 as observed at ALOMAR", Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 127, 73-77, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2014.07.011, 2015. reprint
  4. France, J.A., V.L. Harvey, C.E. Randall, R.L. Collins, A.K. Smith, E. Peck, X. Fang, "A Climatology of Planetary Wave-Driven Mesospheric Inversion Layers in the Extratropical Winter", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 120, doi:10.1002/2014JD022244, 2015. reprint
  5. Froidevaux, L., J. Anderson, H.J. Wang, R.A. Fuller, M.J. Schwartz, M.L. Santee, N.J. Livesey, H.C. Pumphrey, P.F. Bernath, J.M. Russell, M.P. McCormick, "Global OZone Chemistry And Related trace gas Data records for the Stratosphere GOZCARDS: methodology and sample results with a focus on HCl, H2O, and O3", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, doi:10.5194/acp-15-10471-2015, 2015. reprint
  6. Geller, M.A., T. Zhou, P.T. Love, "Tropical Gravity Wave Momentum Fluxes and Latent Heating Distributions", Journal of Atmospheric Sciences,2015. reprint
  7. Jiang, J.H., H. Su, C. Zhai, L. Wu, K. Minschwaner, A.M. Molod, A.M. Tompkins, "An assessment of upper-troposphere and lower-stratosphere water vapor in MERRA, MERRA2 and ECMWF reanalyses using Aura MLS observations", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 120, doi:10.1002/2015JD023752, 2015. reprint
  8. Klimenko, M.V., V.V. Klimenko, F.S. Bessarab, Y. Korenkov, H. Liu, L.P. Goncharenko, M.V. Tolstikov, "Study of the thermospheric and ionospheric response to the 2009 sudden stratospheric warming using TIME-GCM and GSM TIP models: First results", Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics 120, 9, 7873-7888, doi:10.1002/2014ja020861, 2015. reprint
  9. Lee, Y., S. Kirkwood, Y. Kwak, G. Shepherd, K. Kim, T. Yang, A. Kero, "Characteristics of PMSE associated with the geomagnetic disturbance driven by corotating interaction region and high-speed solar wind streams in the declining solar cycle 23", Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics 120, 4, 3198-3206, doi:10.1002/2015ja021144, 2015. reprint
  10. Lieberman, R.S., D.M. Riggin, D.A. Ortland, J. Oberheide, D.E. Siskind, "Global observations and modeling of nonmigrating diurnal tides generated by tide-planetary wave interactions", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 120, 11,419–11,437, doi:10.1002/2015jd023739, 2015. reprint
  11. Lukianova, R., A. Kozlovsky, S. Shalimov, T. Ulich, M. Lester, "Thermal and dynamical perturbations in the winter polar mesosphere-lower thermosphere region associated with sudden stratospheric warmings under conditions of low solar activity", Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics 120, 6, 5226-5240, doi:10.1002/2015ja021269, 2015. reprint
  12. Madhavi, G.N., P. Kishore, S.V.B. Rao, I. Velicogna, G. Basha, "Two-day wave observations over the middle and high latitudes in the NH and SH using COSMIC GPSRO measurements", Advances in Space Research 55, 2, 722-731, doi:10.1016/j.asr.2014.09.032, 2015. reprint
  13. Manney, G., Z. Lawrence, M. Santee, W. Read, N. Livesey, A. Lambert, L. Froidevaux, H. Pumphrey, M. Schwartz, "A minor sudden stratospheric warming with a major impact: Transport and polar processing in the 2014/2015 Arctic winter", Geophysical Research Letters 42, 18, 7808-7816, doi:10.1002/2015gl065864, 2015. reprint
  14. Medvedeva, I., A. Medvedev, K. Ratovsky, A. Shcherbakov, M. Tolstikov, "Comprehensive study of disturbances of the neutral atmosphere and ionosphere parameters over Eastern Siberia during the 2013 January major sudden stratospheric warming", Advances in Space Research 56, 9, doi:10.1016/j.asr.2015.06.008, 2015. reprint
  15. Minschwaner, K., G.L. Manney, I. Petropavlovskikh, L.A. Torres, Z.D. Lawrence, B. Sutherland, A.M. Thompson, B.J. Johnson, Z. Butterfield, M.K. Dubey, L. Froidevaux, A. Lambert, W.G. Read, M.J. Schwartz, "Signature of a tropical Pacific cyclone in the composition of the upper troposphere over Socorro, NM", Geophysical Research Letters 42, 21, 9530-9537, doi:10.1002/2015gl065824, 2015. reprint
  16. Nath, O., S. Sridharan, "Equatorial middle atmospheric chemical composition changes during sudden stratospheric warming events", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions 15, 17, 23969-23988, doi:10.5194/acpd-15-23969-2015, 2015. reprint
  17. Strahan, S.E., L.D. Oman, A.R. Douglass, L. Coy, "Modulation of Antarctic vortex composition by the quasi-biennial oscillation", Geophysical Research Letters 42, 4216–4223, doi:10.1002/2015GL063759, 2015.
  18. Vargin, P.N., I.V. Medvedeva, "Temperature and Dynamical Regimes of the Northern Hemisphere Extratropical Atmosphere during Sudden Stratospheric Warming in Winter 2012–2013", Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics 51, 1, 12-29, doi:10.1134/S0001433814060176, 2015. reprint
  19. Younger, J.P., I.M. Reid, R.A. Vincent, D.J. Murphy, "A method for estimating the height of a mesospheric density level using meteor radar", Geophysical Research Letters 42, 14, 6106-6111, doi:10.1002/2015gl065066, 2015. reprint


  1. Bhawar, R.L., J.H. Jiang, H. Su, M.J. Schwartz, "Variation of upper tropospheric clouds and water vapour over the Indian Ocean", International Journal of Climatology 34, 15, 3840-3848, doi:10.1002/joc.3942, 2014. reprint
  2. Carminati, F., P. Ricaud, J.P. Pommereau, E. Riviere, S. Khaykin, J.L. Attie, J. Warner, "Impact of tropical land convection on the water vapour budget in the tropical tropopause layer", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 14, 6195–6211, doi:10.5194/acp-14-6195-2014, 2014. reprint
  3. Chernigovskaya, M.A., V.I. Kurkina, V.N. Marichevb, S.V. Nikolashkinc, V.V. Bychkovd, O.S. Kochetkovaa, "Lidar and satellite temperature measurements during the sudden stratospheric warmings over Siberia and the Russian Far East in 2008-2012", International Journal of Remote Sensing 35, 15, 5854-5877, doi:10.1080/01431161.2014.945005, 2014. reprint
  4. Damiani, A., B. Funke, M.L. Puertas, A. Gardini, T. von Clarmann, M.L. Santee, L. Froidevaux, R.R. Cordero, "Changes in the composition of the northern polar upper stratosphere in February 2009 after a sudden stratospheric warming", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 119, 19, 11429-11444, doi:10.1002/2014JD021698, 2014. reprint
  5. Dolinar, E.K., X. Dong, B. Xi, J.H. Jiang, H. Su, "Evaluation of CMIP5 simulated clouds and TOA radiation budgets using NASA satellite observations", Climate Dynamics, doi:10.1007/s00382-014-2158-9, 2014. reprint
  6. García-Comas, M., B. Funke, A. Gardini, M. López-Puertas, A. Jurado-Navarro, T. von Clarmann, G. Stiller, M. Kiefer, C.D. Boone, T. Leblanc, B.T. Marshall, M.J. Schwartz, P.E. Sheese, "MIPAS temperature from the stratosphere to the lower thermosphere: comparison of version vM21 with ACE-FTS, MLS, OSIRIS, SABER, SOFIE and lidar measurements", Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, doi:10.5194/amt-7-3633-2014, 2014. reprint
  7. Jain, S., A.R. Jain, T.K. Mandal, "Dry phase of tropical lower stratospheric water vapor: Role of the BDC, convection, and ozone variability", Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 121, 257-270, doi:10.1016/j.jasp.2014.08.018, 2014. reprint
  8. Millan, L., M. Lebsock, N.J. Livesey, S. Tanellin, G. Stephens, "Differential absorption radar techniques: surface pressure", Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 7, 3959-3970, doi:10.5194/amt-7-3959-2014, 2014. reprint
  9. Pedatella, N.M., K. Raeder, J.L. Anderson, H.L. Liu, "Ensemble data assimilation in the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 119, 16, 9793-9809, doi:10.1002/2014JD021776, 2014. reprint
  10. Pertsev, N., P. Dalin, V. Perminov, V. Romejko, A. Dubietis, R. Balčiunas, K. Černis, M. Zalcik, "Noctilucent clouds observed from the ground: sensitivity to mesospheric parameters and long-term time series", Earth, Planets and Space 66, 98, doi:10.1186/1880-5981-66-98, 2014. reprint
  11. Polyakova, A.S., M.A. Chernigovskaya, N.P. Perevalova, "Ionospheric effects of sudden stratospheric warmings in eastern Siberia region", Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 120, 15-23, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2014.08.011, 2014. reprint
  12. Rong, P.P., J.M. Russell, C.E. Randall, S.M. Bailey, A. Lambert, "Northern PMC brightness zonal variability and its correlation with temperature and water vapor", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 119, 5, 2390, doi:10.1002/2013JD020513, 2014. reprint
  13. Strahan, S.E., A.R. Douglass, P.A. Newman, S.D. Steenrod, "Inorganic chlorine variability in the Antarctic vortex and implications for ozone recovery", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 119, doi:10.1002/2014JD022295, 2014. reprint
  14. Su, H., J.H. Jiang, C. Zhai, T.J. Shen, J.D. Neelin, G.L. Stephens, L.Y. Yung, "Weakening and Strengthening Structures in the Hadley Circulation Change under Global Warming and Implications for Cloud Response and Climate Sensitivity ", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 119, 10, 5787–5805, doi:10.1002/2014JD021642, 2014. reprint
  15. Tolstikov, M.V., A.V. Medvedev, K.G. Ratovsky, I.V. Medvedeva, "Studies of dynamic characteristics of atmospheric planetary waves during stratospheric warmings 2006-2013", IEEE Xplore, from: General Assembly and Scientific Symposium URSI GASS, 2014 XXXIth URSI , doi:10.1109/URSIGASS.2014.6929752, 2014. reprint
  16. Vignon, E., D.M. Mitchell, "The stratopause evolution during different types of sudden stratospheric warming event", Climate Dynamics, published online, doi:10.1007/s00382-014-2292-4, 2014.
  17. Younger, J.P., C.S. Lee, I.M. Reid, R.A. Vincent, Y.H. Kim, D.J. Murphy, "The effects of deionization processes on meteor radar diffusion coefficients below 90 km", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 119, 16, 10027-10043, doi:10.1002/2014JD021787, 2014. reprint


  1. Brakebusch, M., C.E. Randall, D.E. Kinnison, S. Tilmes, M.L. Santee, G.L. Manney, "Evaluation of Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model simulations of ozone during Arctic winter 2004–2005", Journal of Geophysical Research 118, 6, 2673-2688, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50226, 2013. reprint
  2. Evan, S., K.H. Rosenlof, J. Dudhia, B. Hassler, S.M. Davis, "The representation of the TTL in a tropical channel version of the WRF model", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 118, 7, 2835-2848, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50288, 2013. reprint
  3. France, J.A., V.L. Harvey, "A climatology of the stratopause in WACCM and the zonally asymmetric elevated stratopause", Journal of Geophysical Research 118, 5, 2241–2254, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50218, 2013. reprint
  4. Fueglistaler, S., Y.S. Liu, T.J. Flannaghan, P.H. Haynes, D.P. Dee, W.J. Read, E.E. Remsberg, L.W. Thomason, D.F. Hurst, J.R. Lanzante, P.F. Bernath, "The relation between atmospheric humidity and temperature trends for stratospheric water", Journal of Geophysical Research 118, 2, 1052-1074, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50157, 2013. reprint
  5. Hitchcock, P., T.G. Shepherd, G.L. Manney, "Statistical characterization of Arctic Polar-night Jet Oscillation Events", Journal of Climate 26, 6, 2096-2116, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00202.1, 2013. reprint
  6. Hoppel, K.W., S.D. Eckermann, L. Coy, G.E. Nedoluha, D.R. Allen, S.D. Swadley, N.L. Baker, "Evaluation of SSMIS Upper Atmosphere Sounding Channels for High-Altitude Data Assimilation", Monthly Weather Review 141, 10, 3314–3330, doi:10.1175/MWR-D-13-00003.1, 2013. reprint
  7. Jain, S., A.R. Jain, T.K. Mandal, "Role of convection in hydration of tropical UTLS: implication of AURA MLS long-term observations", Annales Geophysicae 31, 967-981, doi:10.5194/angeo-31-967-2013, 2013. reprint
  8. Jiménez, C., S. Gulkis, G. Beaudin, T. Encrenaz, P. Eriksson, L. Kamp, S. Lee, S.A. Buehler, "Sub-millimeter observations of the terrestrial atmosphere during an Earth flyby of the MIRO sounder on the Rosetta spacecraft", Planetary and Space Science 82-83, 99-112, doi:10.1016/j.pss.2013.03.016, 2013. reprint
  9. Matthias, V., P. Hoffmann, A. Manson, C. Meek, G. Stober, P. Brown, M. Rapp, "The impact of planetary waves on the latitudinal displacement of sudden stratospheric warmings", Annales Geophysicae 31, 8, doi:10.5194/angeo-31-1397-2013, 2013. reprint
  10. McLandress, C., J.F. Scinocca, T.G. Shepherd, M.C. Reader, G.L. Manney, "Dynamical control of the mesosphere by orographic and non-orographic gravity wave drag during the extended northern winters of 2006 and 2009", Journal of Atmospheric Sciences 70, 7, 2152-2169, doi:10.1175/JAS-D-12-0297.1, 2013. reprint
  11. McLandress, C., J.F. Scinocca, T.G. Shepherd, M.C. Reader, G.L. Manney, "Dynamical Control of the Mesosphere by Orographic and Nonorographic Gravity Wave Drag during the Extended Northern Winters of 2006 and 2009", Journal of Atmospheric Sciences 70, 7, 2152-2169, doi:10.1175/JAS-D-12-0297.1, 2013.
  12. Millan, L., A. Dudhia, "A non-iterative linear retrieval for infrared high-resolution limb sounders", Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 6, 1381-1396, doi:10.5194/amt-6-1381-2013, 2013. reprint
  13. Schwartz, M.J., W.J. Read, M.L. Santee, N.J. Livesey, L. Froidevaux, A. Lambert, G.L. Manney, "Convectively Injected Water Vapor in the North American Summer Lowermost Stratosphere", Geophysical Research Letters 40, 10, 2316–2321, doi:10.1002/grl.50421, 2013. reprint
  14. Stähli, O., A. Murk, N. Kämpfer, C. Mätzler, P. Eriksson, "Microwave radiometer to retrieve temperature profiles from the surface to the stratopause", Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 6, 2477–2494, doi:10.5194/amt-6-2477-2013, 2013. reprint
  15. Su, H., J.H. Jiang, C. Zhai, V.S. Perun, J.T. Shen, A.D. Genio, L.S. Nazarenko, L.J. Donner, L. Horowitz, C. Seman, C. Morcrette, J. Petch, M. Ringer, J. Cole, M. Mesquita, T. Iversen, J.E. Kristjansson, A. Gettelman, L. Rotstayn, S. Jeffrey, J.L. Dufresne, M. Watanabe, H. Kawai, T. Koshiro, T. Wu, E.M. Volodin, T. L'Ecuyer, J. Teixeira, G.L. Stephens, "Diagnosis of Regime-dependent Cloud Simulation Errors in CMIP5 Models Using A-Train Satellite Observations", Journal of Geophysical Research 118, 7, 2762-2780, doi:10.1029/2012JD018575, 2013. reprint
  16. Takahashi, H., H. Su, J.H. Jiang, Z.J. Luo, S.P. Xie, J. Hafner, "Tropical water vapor variations during the 2006–2007 and 2009–2010 El Niños: Satellite observation and GFDL AM2.1 simulation", Journal of Geophysical Research 118, 16, 8910–8920, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50684, 2013. reprint
  17. Verronen, P.T., R. Lehmann, "Analysis and parameterisation of ionic reactions affecting middle atmospheric HOx and NOy during solar proton events", Annales Geophysicae 31, 5, 909-956, doi:10.5194/angeo-31-909-2013, 2013. reprint
  18. Wang, L., C. Zou, "Inter-comparison of SSU Temperature Data Records with Lidar, GPS RO, and MLS Observations", Journal of Geophysical Research 118, 4, 1747–1759, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50162, 2013. reprint
  19. Xiong, J.G., W.F. Wan, F. Ding, L.B. Liu, B.Q. Ning, X.J. Niu, "Coupling between mesosphere and ionosphere over Beijing through semidiurnal tides during the 2009 sudden stratospheric warming", Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics 118, 5, 2511-2521, doi:10.1002/jgra.50280, 2013. reprint


  1. Damiani, A., B. Funke, D.R. Marsh, M. Lopez-Puertas, M.L. Santee, L. Froidevaux, S. Wang, C.H. Jackman, T. von Clarmann, A. Gardini, R.R. Cordero, M. Storini, "Impact of January 2005 solar proton events on chlorine species", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12, 4159–4179, doi:10.5194/acp-12-4159-2012, 2012. reprint
  2. Das, S.S., K.K. Kumar, S. Das, C. Vineeth, T.K. Pant, G. Ramkumar, "Variability of mesopause temperature derived from two independent methods using meteor radar and its comparison with SABER and EOS MLS and a collocated multi-wavelength dayglow photometer over an equatorial station, Thumba 8.5N, 76.5E", International Journal of Remote Sensing 33, 14, 4634-4647, doi:10.1080/01431161.2011.643461, 2012. reprint
  3. Day, K.A., M.J. Taylor, N.J. Mitchell, "Mean winds, temperatures and the 16- and 5-day planetary waves in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere over Bear Lake Observatory 42 N, 111 W", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12, 1571–1585, doi:10.5194/acp-12-1571-2012, 2012. reprint
  4. Douglass, A.R., R.S. Stolarski, S.E. Strahan, L.D. Oman, "Understanding differences in upper stratospheric ozone response to changes in chlorine and temperature as computed using CCMVal-2 models", Journal of Geophysical Research 117, doi:10.1029/2012JD017483, 2012. reprint
  5. Flury, T., D.L. Wu, W.G. Read, "Correlation among cirrus ice content, water vapor, and temperature in the TTL as observed by CALIPSO and Aura/MLS", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12, 683--691, doi:10.5194/acp-12-683-2012, 2012. reprint
  6. Flury, T., D.L. Wu, W.G. Read, "Variability of the Brewer-Dobson circulation", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions 12, 21291-21320, doi:10.5194/acpd-12-21291-2012, 2012. reprint
  7. France, J.A., V.L. Harvey, C.E. Randall, M.H. Hitchman, M.J. Schwartz, "A climatology of stratopause temperature and height in the polar vortex and anticyclones", Journal of Geophysical Research 117, D06116, doi:10.1029/2011JD016893, 2012. reprint
  8. Kishore, P., I. Velicogna, M.V. Ratnam, J.H. Jiang, G.N. Madhavi, "Planetary waves in the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere during 2009 Arctic major stratospheric warming", Annales Geophysicae 30, 1529-1538, doi:10.5194/angeo-30-1529-2012, 2012. reprint
  9. Matthias, V., P. Hoffmann, M. Rapp, G. Baumgarten, "Composite analysis of the temporal development of waves in the polar MLT region during stratospheric warmings", Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 90-91, 86-96, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2012.04.004, 2012. reprint
  10. Rong, P.P., J.M. Russell, M.E. Hervig, S.M. Bailey, "The roles of temperature and water vapor at different stages of the polar mesospheric cloud season", Journal of Geophysical Research 117, D04208, doi:10.1029/2011JD016464, 2012. reprint
  11. Sofieva, V.F., N. Kalakoski, P.T. Verronen, S.M. Paivarinta, E. Kyrola, L. Backman, J. Tamminen, "Polar-night O3, NO2 and NO3 distributions during sudden stratospheric warmings in 2003–2008 as seen by GOMOS/Envisat", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12, 1051-1066, doi:10.5194/acp-12-1051-2012, 2012. reprint
  12. Stiller, G.P., M. Kiefer, E. Eckert, T. von Clarmann, S. Kellmann, M. Garcia-Comas, B. Funke, T. Leblanc, E. Fetzer, L. Froidevaux, M. Gomez, E. Hall, D. Hurst, A. Jordan, N. Kampfer, A. Lambert, I.S. McDermid, T. McGee, L. Miloshevich, G. Nedoluha, W. Read, M. Schneider, M. Schwartz, C. Straub, G. Toon, L.W. Twigg, K. Walker, D.N. Whiteman, "Validation of MIPAS IMK/IAA temperature, water vapor, and ozone profiles with MOHAVE-2009 campaign measurements", Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 5, 289-320, doi:10.5194/amt-5-289-2012, 2012. reprint
  13. Winkler, H., C. von Savigny, J.P. Burrows, J.M. Wissing, M.J. Schwartz, A. Lambert, M. Garcia-Comas, "Impacts of the January 2005 solar particle event on noctilucent clouds and water at the polar summer mesopause", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12, 5633, doi:10.5194/acp-12-5633-2012, 2012. reprint
  14. Yi, M., Y. Fu, P. Liu, Z. Heng, Y. Gao, X. Hong, "Analysis of the variation of atmospheric composition in the upper troposphere during a strong convection in eastern China in summer", Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences 36, 5, doi:10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2012.11124, 2012.


  1. Alexander, S.P., A.R. Klekociuk, M.C. Pitts, A.J. McDonald, A. Arevalo-Torres, "The effect of orographic gravity waves on Antarctic polar stratospheric cloud occurrence and composition", Journal of Geophysical Research 116, D06109, doi:10.1029/2010JD015184, 2011. reprint
  2. Bhawar, R.L., J.H. Jiang, H. Su, "Variation of upper tropospheric clouds and water vapor over the Indian ocean", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, 11, 21769-21787, doi:10.5194/acpd-11-21769-2011, 2011. reprint
  3. Chae, J.H., D.L. Wu, W.G. Read, S.C. Sherwood, "The role of tropical deep convective clouds on temperature, water vapor, and dehydration in the tropical tropopause layer TTL", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 11, 3811--3821, doi:10.5194/acp-11-3811-2011, 2011. reprint
  4. Dalin, P., N. Pertsev, A. Dubietis, M. Zalcik, A. Zadorozhny, M. Connors, I. Schofield, T. McEwan, I. McEachran, S. Frandsen, O. Hansen, H. Andersen, V. Sukhodoev, V. Perminov, R. Balciunas, V. Romejko, "A comparison between ground-based observations of noctilucent clouds and Aura satellite data", Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2011.01.020, 2011. reprint
  5. Day, K.A., R.E. Hibbins, N.J. Mitchell, "Aura MLS observations of the westward-propagating s=1, 16-day planetary wave in the stratosphere, mesosphere and lower thermosphere", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 11, 4149–4161, doi:10.5194/acp-11-4149-2011, 2011. reprint
  6. Klekociuk, A.R., M.B. Tully, S.P. Alexander, R.J. Dargaville, L.L. Deschamps, P.J. Fraser, H.P. Gies, S.I. Henderson, J. Javorniczky, P.B. Krummel, S.V. Petelina, J.D. Shanklin, J.M. Siddaway, K.A. Stone, "The Antarctic ozone hole during 2010", Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Journal 61, 253-267, 2011.
  7. Kohma, M., K. Sato, "The effects of atmospheric waves on the amounts of polar stratospheric clodus", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 11, 11535-11552, doi:10.5194/acp-11-11535-2011, 2011. reprint
  8. Laat, A.T.J.d., M. van Weele, "The 2010 Antarctic ozone hole: Observed reduction in ozone destruction by minor sudden stratospheric warmings", Scientific Reports 1, 38, 1-8, doi:10.1038/srep00038, 2011. reprint
  9. Liang, C.K., A. Eldering, A. Gettelman, B. Tian, S. Wong, E.J. Fetzer, K.N. Liou, "Record of tropical interannual variability of temperature and water vapor from a combined AIRS-MLS data set", Journal of Geophysical Research 116, D06103, doi:10.1029/2010JD014841, 2011. reprint
  10. McDonald, A.J., R.E. Hibbins, M.J. Jarvis, "Properties of the quasi 16 day wave derived form EOS MLS observations", Journal of Geophysical Research 116, D06112, doi:10.1029/2010JD014719, 2011. reprint
  11. Morris, R.J., A.R. Klekociuk, D.A. Holdsworth, "First observations of Southern Hemisphere polar mesosphere winter echoes including conjugate observations at ~69°S latitude", Geophysical Research Letters 38, L03811, doi:10.1029/2010GL046298, 2011. reprint
  12. Nielsen, K., G.E. Nedoluhab, A. Chandran, L.C. Chang, J. Barker-Tvedtnes, M.J. Taylor, N.J. Mitchell, A. Lambert, M.J. Schwartz, J.M. Russell, "On the origin of mid-latitude mesospheric clouds: The July 2009 cloud outbreak", Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 73, 14-15, 2118-2124, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2010.10.015, 2011. reprint
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  14. Ren, S., S. Polavarupu, S.R. Beagley, Y. Nezlin, Y.J. Rochon, "The impact of gravity wave drag on mesospheric analyses of the 2006 stratospheric major warming", Journal of Geophysical Research 116, D19116, doi:10.1029/2011JD015943, 2011. reprint
  15. Su, H., J.H. Jiang, X. Liu, J.E. Penner, W.G. Read, S.T. Massie, M.R. Schoeberl, P. Colarco, N.J. Livesey, M.L. Santee, "Observed Increase of TTL Temperature and Water Vapor in Polluted Clouds over Asia", Journal of Climate 24, 11, 2728-2736, doi:10.1175/2010JCLI3749.1, 2011. reprint
  16. Tunbridge, V.M., D.J. Sandford, N.J. Mitchell, "Zonal wave numbers of the summertime 2 day planetary wave observed in the mesosphere by EOS Aura Microwave Limb Sounder", Journal of Geophysical Research 116, D1103, doi:10.1029/2010JD014567, 2011. reprint
  17. Wachter, E.D., K. Hocke, T. Flury, D. Scheiben, N. Kampfer, S. Ka, J.J. Oh, "Signatures of the Sudden Stratospheric Warming events of January-February 2008 in Seoul, S. Korea", Advances in Space Research 48, 10, 1631-1637, doi:10.1016/j.asr.2011.08.002, 2011. reprint
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  1. Damiani, A., M. Storini, C. Rafanelli, P. Diego, "The hydroxyl radical as an indicator of SEP fluxes in the high-latitude terrestrial atmosphere", Advances in Space Research 46, 9, 1225-1235, doi:10.1016/j.asr.2010.06.022, 2010. reprint
  2. Damiani, A., M. Storini, M.L. Santee, S. Wang, "Variability of the nighttime OH layer and mesospheric ozone at high latitudes during northern winter: influence of meteorology", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 10, 10291-10303, doi:10.5194/acp-10-10291-2010, 2010. reprint
  3. Dyrland, M.E., C.M. Hall, F.J. Mulligan, M. Tsutsumi, "Improved estimates for neutral air temperatures at 90 km and 78°N using satellite and meteor radar data", Radio Science 45, doi:10.1029/2009RS004344, 2010. reprint
  4. Fadnavis, S., G. Beig, "Features of SAO in ozone and temperature over tropical stratosphere by wavelet analysis", International Journal of Remote Sensing 31, 2, 299-311, doi:10.1080/01431160902882660, 2010. reprint
  5. French, W.J.R., F.J. Mulligan, "Stability of temperatures from TIMED/SABER v1.07 (2002–2009) and Aura/MLS v2.2 (2004–2009) compared with OH(6-2) temperatures observed at Davis Station, Antarctica", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 10, 11439-11446, doi:10.5194/acp-10-11439-2010, 2010. reprint
  6. Jiang, J.H., H. Su, S. Pawson, H.C. Liu, W. Read, J.W. Waters, M. Santee, D.L. Wu, M. Schwartz, N. Livesey, A. Lambert, R. Fuller, J.N. Lee, "Five-year (2004-2009) Observations of Upper Tropospheric Water Vapor and Cloud Ice from MLS and Comparisons with GEOS-5 analyses", Journal of Geophysical Research 115, D15103, doi:10.1029/2009JD013256, 2010. reprint
  7. Massie, S.T., J.C. Gille, C. Craig, R. Khosravi, J. Barnett, W. Read, D. Winker, "HIRDLS and CALIPSO observations of tropical cirrus", Journal of Geophysical Research 114, D00H11, doi:10.1029/2009JD012100, 2010. reprint
  8. Minschwaner, K., G.L. Manney, N.J. Livesey, H.C. Pumphrey, H.M. Pickett, L. Froidevaux, A. Lambert, M.J. Schwartz, P.F. Bernath, K.A. Walker, C.D. Boone, "The photochemistry of carbon monoxide in the stratosphere and mesosphere evaluated from observations by the Microwave Limb Sounder on the Aura satellite", Journal of Geophysical Research 115, D13303, doi:10.1029/2009JD012654, 2010. reprint
  9. Ott, L., B. Duncan, S. Pawson, P. Colarco, M. Chin, C. Randles, T. Diehl, E. Nielsen, "Influence of the 2006 Indonesian biomass burning aerosols on tropical dynamics studies with the GEOS-5 AGCM", Journal of Geophysical Research 115, D14121, doi:10.1029/2009JD013181, 2010. reprint
  10. Robert, C.E., C. von Savigny, N. Rahpoe, H. Bovensmann, J.P. Burrows, M.T. DeLand, M.J. Schwartz, "First evidence of a 27 day solar signature in noctilucent cloud occurrence frequency", Journal of Geophysical Research 115, D00I12, doi:10.1029/2009JD012359, 2010. reprint
  11. Shettle, E.P., G.E. Nedoluha, M.T. DeLand, G.E. Thomas, J.J. Olivero, "SBUV observations of polar mesospheric clouds compared with MLS temperature and water vapor measurements", Geophysical Research Letters 37, L18810, doi:10.1029/2010GL044132, 2010. reprint


  1. Belova, A., S. Kirkwood, D. Murtagh, "Planetary waves in ozone and temperature in the Northern Hemisphere winters of 2002/2003 and early 2005", Annales Geophysicae 27, 1189-1206, doi:10.5194/angeo-27-1189-2009, 2009. reprint
  2. Chernigovskaya, M.A., "Morphological features of the atmosphere temperature regime in the south region of East Siberia", Proceedings of SPIE 7296, 72960K, doi:10.1117/12.823815, 2009. reprint
  3. Eckermann, S.D., K.W. Hoppel, L. Coy, J.P. McCormack, D.E. Sisskind, K. Nielsen, A. Kochenash, M.H. Stevens, C.R. Englert, W. Singer, M. Hervig, "High-altitude data assimilation system experiments for the northern summer mesosphere season of 2007", Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 71, 531-551, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2008.09.036 , 2009. reprint
  4. Fadnavis, S., G. Beig, "Quasi-biennial oscillation in ozone and temperature over tropics", Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 71, 257-263, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2008.11.012, 2009. reprint
  5. Haefele, A., E. De Wachter, K. Hocke, N. Kampfer, G.E. Nedoluha, R.M. Gomez, P. Eriksson, P. Forkman, A. Lambert, M.J. Schwartz, "Validation of ground-based microwave radiometers at 22 GHz for stratospheric and mesospheric water vapor", Journal of Geophysical Research 114, D23305, doi:10.1029/2009JD011997 , 2009. reprint
  6. Hegglin, M.I., C.D. Boone, G.L. Manney, K.A. Walker, "A global view of the extratropical tropopause transition layer from Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer O3, H2O, and CO", Journal of Geophysical Research 114, D00B11, doi:10.1029/2008JD009984, 2009. reprint
  7. Karlsson, B., C.E. Randall, S. Benze, M. Mills, V.L. Harvey, S.M. Bailey, "Intra-seasonal variability of polar mesospheric clouds due to inter-hemispheric coupling", Geophysical Research Letters 36, L20802, doi:10.1029/2009GL040348, 2009. reprint
  8. Kishore, P., S.P. Namboothiri, J.H. Jiang, V. Sivakumar, K. Igarashi, "Global temperature estimates in the troposphere and stratosphere: a validation study of COSMIC/FORMOSAT-3 measurements", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 9, 897-908, doi:10.5194/acp-9-897-2009, 2009. reprint
  9. Limpasuvan, V., D. Wu, "Anomalous Two-day Wave Behavior during the 2006 Austral Summer", Geophysical Research Letters 36, L04807, doi:10.1029/2008GL036387, 2009. reprint
  10. Manney, G.L., M.J. Schwartz, K. Krueger, M.L. Santee, S. Pawson, J.N. Lee, W.H. Daffer, R.A. Fuller, N.J. Livesey, "Aura Microwave Limb Sounder Observations of Dynamics and Transport During the Record-breaking 2009 Arctic Stratospheric Major Warming", Geophysical Research Letters 36, doi:10.1029/2009GL038586, 2009. reprint
  11. Meek, C.E., A.H. Manson, "Summer planetary-scale oscillations: Aura MLS temperature compared with ground-based radar wind", Annales Geophysicae 27, 1763-1774, doi:10.5194/angeo-27-1763-2009, 2009. reprint
  12. Morris, R.J., A.R. Klekociuk, R. Latteck, W. Singer, D.A. Holdsworth, D.J. Murphy, "Inter-hemispheric asymmetry in polar mesosphere summer echoes and temperature at 69<°> latitude", Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 71, 464-469, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2008.09.042, 2009. reprint
  13. Morris, R.J., A.R. Klekociuk, D.A. Holdsworth, "Low latitude 2-day planetary wave impact on austral polar mesopause temperatures: revealed by a January diminution in PMSE above Davis, Antarctica", Geophysical Research Letters 36, L11807, doi:10.1029/2009GL037817, 2009. reprint
  14. Xu, X., A.H. Manson, C.E. Meek, T. Chshyolkova, J.R. Drummond, C.M. Hall, Ch. Jacobi, D. Riggin, R.E. Hibbins, M. Tsutsumi, W.K. Hocking, W.E. Ward, "Relationship between variability of the semidiurnal tide in the Northern Hemisphere mesosphere and quasi-stationary planetary waves throughout the global middle atmosphere", Annales Geophysicae 27, 11, 4239–4256, doi:10.5194/angeo-27-4239-2009, 2009. reprint
  15. Xu, X., A.H. Manson, C.E. Meek, T. Chshyolkova, J.R. Drummond, C.M. Hall, D.M. Riggin, R.E. Hibbins, "Vertical and interhemispheric links in the stratosphere-mesosphere as revealed by the day-to-day variability of Aura-MLS temperature data", Annales Geophysicae 27, 3387-3409, doi:10.5194/angeo-27-3387-2009, 2009. reprint


  1. Alexander, M.J., J.C. Gille, C. Cavanaugh, M.T. Coffey, C. Craig, T. Eden, G. Francis, C. Halvorson, J.W. Hannigan, R. Khosravi, D.E. Kinnison, H. Lee, S.T. Massie, B. Nardi, J.J. Barnett, C. Hepplewhite, A. Lambert, V. Dean, "Global Estimates of Gravity Wave Momentum Flux from High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) Observations", Journal of Geophysical Research 113, D15S18, doi:10.1029/2007JD008807, 2008. reprint
  2. Gille, J., J.J. Barnett, P. Arter, M. Barker, P.F. Bernath, C.D. Boone, C. Cavanaugh, J. Chow, M.T. Coffey, J. Craft, C. Craig, M. Dials, V. Dean, T. Eden, D.P. Edwards, G. Francis, C. Halvorson, V.L. Harvey, C. Hepplewhite, R. Khosravi, D.E. Kinnison, C. Krinsky, A. Lambert, H. Lee, L.V. Lyjak, J. Loh, W.G. Mankin, S.T. Massie, J.M. McInerney, J. Moorhouse, B. Nardi, D. Packman, C.E. Randall, J. Reburn, W. Rudolf, M.J. Schwartz, J. Serafin, K. Stone, B. Torpy, K.A. Walker, A.M. Waterfall, R. Watkins, J. Whitney, D. Woodard, G. Young, "High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS): Experiment Overview, recovery and validation of initial temperature data", Journal of Geophysical Research 113, D16S43, doi:10.1029/2007JD008824, 2008. reprint
  3. Hoppel, K.W., N.L. Baker, L. Coy, S.D. Eckermann, J.P. McCormack, G.E. Nedoluha, E. Siskind, "Assimilation of stratospheric and mesospheric temperatures from MLS and SABER into a global NWP model", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 8, 6103-61116, doi:10.5194/acp-8-6103-2008, 2008. reprint
  4. Manney, G.L., K. Kruger, S. Pawson, K. Minschwaner, M.J. Schwartz, W.H. Daffer, N.J. Livesey, M.G. Mlynczak, E.E. Remsberg, J.M. Russell, J.W. Waters, "The evolution of the stratopause during the 2006 major warming: Satellite Data and Assimilated Meteorological Analyses", Journal of Geophysical Research 113, D11115, doi:10.1029/2007JD00909, 2008. reprint
  5. Manney, G.L., W.H. Daffer, K.B. Strawbridge, K.A. Walker, C.D. Boone, P.F. Bernath, T. Kerzenmacher, M.J. Schwartz, K. Strong, R.J. Sica, K. Kruger, H.C. Pumphrey, L. Froidevaux, A. Lambert, M.L. Santee, N.J. Livesey, E.E. Remsberg, M.G. Mlynczak, J.M. Russell, "The High Arctic in Extreme Winters: Vortex, Temperature, and MLS and ACE-FTS Trace Gas Evolution", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 8, 505-522, doi:10.5194/acp-8-505-2008, 2008. reprint
  6. Manson, A.H., C.E. Meek, T. Chshyolkova, "Regional stratospheric warmings in the Pacific-Western Canada (PWC) sector during winter 2004/2005: implications for temperatures, winds, chemical constituents and the characterization of the Polar vortex", Annales Geophysicae 26, 3597-3622, doi:10.5194/angeo-26-3597-2008, 2008. reprint
  7. Nilsson, H., S. Kirkwood, R.J. Morris, R. Latteck, A.R. Klekociuk, D.J. Murphy, M. Zecha, E. Belova, "Simultaneous observations of Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes at two different latitudes in Antarctica", Annales Geophysicae 26, 3783-3792, doi:10.5194/angeo-26-3783-2008, 2008. reprint
  8. Read, W.G., M.J. Schwartz, A. Lambert, H. Su, N.J. Livesey, W.H. Daffer, C.D. Boone, "The roles of convection, extratropical mixing, and in situ freeze-drying in the tropical tropopause layer", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 8, 6051-6067, doi:10.5194/acp-8-6051-2008, 2008. reprint
  9. Schwartz, M.J., A. Lambert, G.L. Manney, W.G. Read, N.J. Livesey, L. Froidevaux, C.O. Ao, P.F. Bernath, C.D. Boone, R.E. Cofield, W.H. Daffer, B.J. Drouin, E.J. Fetzer, R.A. Fuller, R.F. Jarnot, J.H. Jiang, Y.B. Jiang, B.W. Knosp, K. Kruger, J.L.F. Li, M.G. Mlynczak, S. Pawson, J.M. Russell, M.L. Santee, W.V. Snyder, P.C. Stek, R.P. Thurstans, A.M. Tompkins, P.A. Wagner, K.A. Walker, J.W. Waters, D.L. Wu, "Validation of the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder Temperature and Geopotential Height Measurements", Journal of Geophysical Research 113, D15S11, doi:10.1029/2007JD008783, 2008. reprint


  1. Feng, L., R.S. Harwood, R. Brugge, A. O'Neill, L. Froidevaux, M. Schwartz, J.W. Waters, "Equatorial Kelvin waves as revealed by EOS Microwave Limb Sounder observations and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts analyses: Evidence for slow Kelvin waves of zonal wave number 3", Journal of Geophysical Research 112, D16106, doi:10.1029/2006JD008329, 2007. reprint
  2. Manney, G.L., W.H. Daffer, J.M. Zawodny, P.F. Bernath, K.W. Hoppel, K.A. Walker, B.W. Knosp, C. Boone, E.E. Remsberg, M.L. Santee, V. Lynn Harvey, S. Pawson, D.R. Jackson, L. Deaver, C.T. McElroy, C.A. McLinden, J.R. Drummond, H.C. Pumphrey, A. Lambert, M.J. Schwartz, L. Froidevaux, S. McLeod, L.L. Takacs, M.J. Suarez, C.R. Trepte, D.T. Cuddy, N.J. Livesey, R.S. Harwood, J.W. Waters, "Solar Occultation Satellite Data and Derived Meteorological Products: Sampling Issues and Comparisons with Aura MLS", Journal of Geophysical Research 112, D24S50, doi:10.1029/2007JD008709, 2007. reprint
  3. Ruzmaikin, A., M.L. Santee, M.J. Schwartz, L. Froidevaux, H.M. Pickett, "The 27-day variations in stratospheric ozone and temperature: New MLS Data", Geophysical Research Letters 34, L02819, doi:10.1029/2006GL028419, 2007. reprint
  4. von Savigny, C., M. Sinnhuber, H. Bovensmann, J.P. Burrows, M.B. Kallenrode, M. Schwartz, "On the disappearance of noctilucent clouds during the January 2005 solar proton events", Geophysical Research Letters 34, L02805, doi:10.1029/2006GL028106, 2007. reprint


  1. Cofield, R.E., P.C. Stek, "Design and field-of-view calibration of 114-660 GHz optics of the Earth Observing System Microwave Limb Sounder", IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 44, no. 5, 1166-1181, doi:10.1109/TGRS.2006.873234, 2006. reprint
  2. Forbes, J.M., D.L. Wu, "Solar Tides as Revealed by Measurements of Mesosphere Temperature by the MLS Experiment on UARS", Journal of Atmospheric Sciences 63, 1776-1797, doi:10.1175/JAS3724.1, 2006. reprint
  3. Froidevaux, L., N.J. Livesey, W.G. Read, Y.B. Jiang, C.J. Jimenez, M.J. Filipiak, M.J. Schwartz, M.L. Santee, H.C. Pumphrey, J.H. Jiang, D.L. Wu, G.L. Manney, B.J. Drouin, J.W. Waters, E.J. Fetzer, P.F. Bernath, C.D. Boone, K.A. Walker, K.W. Jucks, G.C. Toon, J.J. Margitan, B. Sen, C.R. Webster, L.E. Christensen, J.W. Elkins, E. Atlas, R.A. Lueb, R. Hendershot, "Early validation analyses of atmospheric profiles from EOS MLS on the Aura satellite", IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 44, no. 5, doi:10.1109/TGRS.2006.864366, 2006. reprint
  4. Jimenez, C.J., H.C. Pumphrey, I.A. MacKenzie, G.L. Manney, M.L. Santee, M.J. Schwartz, R.S. Harwood, J.W. Waters, "EOS MLS observations of dehydration in the 2004-2005 polar winters", Geophysical Research Letters 33, L16806, doi:10.1029/2006GL025926, 2006. reprint
  5. McCormack, J.P., S.D. Eckermann, D.E. Siskind, T.J. McGee, "CHEM2D-OPP: A new linearized gas-phase ozone photochemistry parameterization for high-altitude NWP and climate models", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 6, 4943-4972, doi:10.5194/acp-6-4943-2006, 2006. reprint
  6. Schwartz, M.J., W.G. Read, W.V. Snyder, "EOS MLS forward model polarized radiative transfer for Zeeman-split oxygen lines", IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 44, 5 , 1182-1191, doi:10.1109/TGRS.2005.862267, 2006. reprint


  1. Jiang, J.H., S.D. Eckermann, D.L. Wu, K. Hocke, B. Wang, Y. Zhang, "Seasonal variation of gravity wave sources from satellite observation", Advances in Space Research 35, 1925-1932, doi:10.1016/j.asr.2005.01.099, 2005. reprint
  2. Santee, M.L., G.L. Manney, N.J. Livesey, L. Froidevaux, H.C. Pumphrey, W.G. Read, M.J. Schwartz, J.W. Waters, "Polar processing and development of the 2004 Antarctic ozone hole: First results from Aura MLS", Geophysical Research Letters 32, L12817, doi:10.1029/2005GL022582, 2005. reprint


  1. Jiang, J.H., D.Y. Wang, L.J. Romans, C.O. Ao, M.J. Schwartz, G.P. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, L.J. Romans, B. Funke, S. Gil-Lopez, N. Glatthor, U. Grabowski, M. Hopfner, S. Kellmann, M. Kiefer, A. Linden, G. Mengistu Tsidu, M. Milz, T. Steck, H. Fischer, "Comparison of GPOS/SAC-C and MIPAS/ENVISAT Temperature Profiles and Its Possible Implementation for EOS MLS Observations", CHAMP Mission Results for Gravity and Magnetic Field Mapping, and GPS Atmospheric Sounding, 573-578, doi:10.1007/3-540-26800-6_91, 2004. reprint
  2. Mote, P.W., T.J. Dunkerton, "Kelvin wave signatures in stratospheric trace constituents", Journal of Geophysical Research 109, D03101, doi:10.1029/2002JD003370, 2004. reprint


  1. Limpasuvan, V., D.L. Wu, "Two-day wave observations of UARS Microwave Limb Sounder mesospheric water vapor and temperature", Journal of Geophysical Research 108, D10, 4307, doi:10.1029/2002JD002903, 2003. reprint


  1. Azeem, S M.I., S.E. Pablo, D.L. Wu, L. Froidevaux, "Observations of the 2-day wave in UARS MLS temperature and ozone measurements", Geophysical Research Letters 28, D16, 3147-3150, doi:10.1029/2001GL013119, 2001. reprint


  1. Sassi, F., M. Salby, "Diurnal variations in the middle atmosphere observed by UARS", Journal of Geophysical Research 104, D3, 3729-3739, doi:10.1029/1998JD100068, 1999. reprint


  1. Hood, L.L., S. Zhou, "Stratospheric effects of 27-day solar ultraviolet variations: An analysis of UARS MLS ozone and temperature data", Journal of Geophysical Research 103, D3, 3629-3638, doi:10.1029/97JD02849, 1998. reprint


  1. Massie, S.T., J.C. Gille, D.P. Edwards, P.L. Bailey, L.V. Lyjak, C.A. Craig, C.P. Cavanaugh, J.L. Mergenthaler, A.E. Roche, J.B. Kumer, A. Lambert, R.G. Grainger, C.D. Rodgers, F.W. Taylor, J.M. Russell, J.H. Park, T. Deshler, M.E. Hervig, E.F. Fishbein, J.W. Waters, W.A. Lahoz, "Validation studies using multiwavelength Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) observations of stratospheric aerosol", Journal of Geophysical Research 101, D6, 9757-9773, doi:10.1029/95JD03225, 1996. reprint


  1. Canziani, P.O., J.R. Holton, E. Fishbein, L. Froidevaux, "Equatorial Kelvin wave variability during 1992 and 1993", Journal of Geophysical Research 100, D3, 5193-5202, doi:10.1029/94JD02330, 1995. reprint
  2. Ricaud, P.D., E.S. Carr, R.S. Harwood, W.A. Lahoz, L. Froidevaux, W.G. Read, J.W. Waters, J.L. Mergenthaler, J.B. Kumer, A.E. Roche, G.E. Peckham, "Polar stratospheric clouds as deduced from MLS and CLAES measurements", Geophysical Research Letters 22, 2033-2036, doi:10.1029/95GL00479, 1995. reprint


  1. Canziani, P.O., J.R. Holton, E.F. Fishbein, L. Froidevaux, J.W. Waters, "Equatorial Kelvin Waves: A UARS MLS View", Journal of Atmospheric Sciences 51, 13, 3053-3076, doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1994)051<3053:EKWAUM>2.0.CO;2, 1994. reprint

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