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The MLS SO2 Product

Contact: William Read



Basic Information
MLS can measure SO2 injected into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere by explosive volcanoes. Starting with its reaction with OH, SO2 is converted into sulfate aerosol which can impact climate.
The SO2 Molecule
SO2 molecule visualization



How it is part of MLS Science Objectives


The study of Earth's climate is an MLS science objective. Volcanic SO2 is converted to sulfate aerosol which can impact climate.




SO2 Information fromt he Spectroscopy Database



Quick Product Information for data version v4.2

  • Swath Name: SO2
  • Status Flag: Only use profiles for which the Status field is an even number.
  • Useful Range: 215 - 10 hPa
  • DAAC Short Name: ML2SO2
  • Precision: Values with negative precision can be used, though with caution.
  • Quality Threshold: >0.95
  • Convergence Threshold: <1.03
Download EOS Aura MLS SO2 v4.2 data



Publications related to the MLS SO2 data product

Future Publications

  1. Höpfner, M., C.D. Boone, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, U. Grabowski, A. Günther, S. Kellmann, M. Kiefer, A. Linden, S. Lossow, H.C. Pumphrey, W.G. Read, A. Roiger, G. Stiller, H. Schlager, T. von Clarmann, K. Wissmüller, "Sulfur dioxide SO2 from MIPAS in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere 2002–2012", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions 15, 5801-5847, doi:10.5194/acpd-15-5801-2015, Not yet published.

2016

  1. Carn, S.A., L. Clarisse, A.J. Prata, "Multi-decadal satellite measurements of global volcanic degassing", J. Volcanology Geotherm. Res. 311, 99-134, doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2016.01.002, 2016. reprint
  2. Jones, A., J. Haywood, A. Jones, V. Aquila, "Sensitivity of volcanic aerosol dispersion to meteorological conditions: A Pinatubo case study", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 121, 12, 6892-6908, doi:10.1002/2016jd025001, 2016. reprint

2015

  1. Carn, S.A., K. Yang, A.J. Prata, N.A. Krotkov, "Extending the long-term record of volcanic SO2 emissions with the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite OMPS Nadir Mapper", Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1002/2014/GL062437, 2015.
  2. Hopfner, M., C.D. Boone, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, U. Grabowski, A. Gunther, S. Kellmann, M. Kiefer, A. Linden, S. Lossow, H.C. Pumphrey, W.G. Read, A. Roiger, G. Stiller, H. Schlager, T. von Clarmann, K. Wissmuller, "Sulfur Dioxide SO2 from MIPAS in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere 2002--2012", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 15, 5801-5847, doi:10.5194/acp-15-7017-2015, 2015. reprint
  3. Kristiansen, N.I., A.J. Prata, A. Stohl, S.A. Carn, "Stratospheric volcanic ash emissions from the 13 February 2014 Kelut eruption", Geophysical Research Letters 42, doi:10.1002/2014GL062307, 2015. reprint
  4. Pumphrey, H.C., W.G. Read, N.J. Livesey, K. Yang, "Observations of volcanic SO2 from MLS on Aura", Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 8, 195-209, doi:10.5194/amt-8-195-2015, 2015. reprint

2014

  1. Clarisse, L., P.F. Coheur, N. Theys, D. Hurtmans, C. Clerbaux, "The 2011 Nabro eruption, a SO2 plume height analysis using IASI measurements", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 14, 3095-3111, doi:10.5194/acp-14-3095-2014, 2014. reprint
  2. Fromm, M., G. Kablick, G. Nedoluha, E. Carboni, R. Grainger, J. Campbell, J. Lewis, "Correcting the record of volcanic stratospheric aerosol impact: Nabro and Sarychev Peak", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 119, 17, 10343-10364, doi:10.1002/2014JD021507, 2014. reprint
  3. Theys, N., I.D. Smedt, M.V. Roozendael, L. Froidevaux, L. Clarisse, F. Hendrick, "First satellite detection of volcanic OClO after the eruption of Puyehue-Cordón Caulle", Geophysical Research Letters 41, 2, 667-672, doi:10.1002/2013GL058416, 2014. reprint

2013

  1. Bourassa, A.E., A. Robock, W.J. Randel, T. Deshler, L.A. Rieger, N.D. Lloyd, E.J. Llewellyn, D.A. Degenstein, "Response to Comments on "Large Volcanic Aerosol Load in the Stratosphere Linked to Asian Monsoon Transport"", Science 339, 6120, 647-647, doi:10.1126/science.1227961, 2013. reprint
  2. Fromm, M., G. Nedoluha, Z. Charvat, "Comment on "Large Volcanic Aerosol Load in the Stratosphere Linked to Asian Monsoon Transport"", Science 339, 6120, 647-647, doi:10.1126/science.1228605, 2013. reprint

2012

  1. Aquila, V., L. Oman, R. Stolarski, P. Colarco, P. Newman, "Dispersion of the volcanic sulfate cloud from a Mount Pinatubo-like eruption", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 117, D6, doi:10.1029/2011jd016968, 2012. reprint

2010

  1. Massie, S.T., J.C. Gille, C. Craig, R. Khosravi, J. Barnett, W. Read, D. Winker, "HIRDLS and CALIPSO observations of tropical cirrus", Journal of Geophysical Research 114, D00H11, doi:10.1029/2009JD012100, 2010. reprint

2006

  1. Cofield, R.E., P.C. Stek, "Design and field-of-view calibration of 114-660 GHz optics of the Earth Observing System Microwave Limb Sounder", IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 44, no. 5, 1166-1181, doi:10.1109/TGRS.2006.873234, 2006. reprint

1993

  1. Read, W.G., L. Froidevaux, J.W. Waters, "Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) measurements of SO2 from Mt. Pinatubo volcano", Geophysical Research Letters 20, 1299-1302, doi:10.1029/93GL00831, 1993. reprint




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