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The MLS N2O Product

Contact: Alyn Lambert

Basic Information

Nitrous oxide (N2O) is produced almost entirely at the Earth's surface, about 70% from biological processes (natural decay process of land and ocean) and the rest from human activities (e.g. agricultural fertilization and fossil-fuel burning) Since the 1950's an increase in N2O of about 0.3%/year has been seen in this important greenhouse gas.

The N2O concentration is greatest (typically 310 ppbv) in the troposphere where it is a well-mixed gas and gradually decreases with height in the stratosphere due to destruction primarily by photolysis with ultraviolet light to yield N2 and atomic O3. Another destruction pathway is via reactions with excited oxygen atoms which yields NO molecules.

N2O is a good tracer of the movement of air parcels because its long life-time (over 100 years at 20 km) is much greater than that of atmospheric dynamical processes.
The N2O Molecule
N2O Molecule Visualization

How it is part of MLS Science Objectives

N2O studies contribute to the further investigation of stratospheric ozone layer stability. MLS measurements of nitrous oxide are important in understanding the transport of air and therefore are used in tracking dynamical processes and differentiating these effects from chemical processes that affect ozone destruction.

How EOS MLS measures N2O

The standard product for N2O is taken from the 190 GHz retrieval.

N2O Information from the Spectroscopy Database

Quick Product Information for data version v4.2

  • Swath Name: N2O
  • Status Flag: Only use profiles for which the Status field is an even number.
  • Useful Range: 68 - 0.46 hPa
  • DAAC Short Name: ML2N2O
  • Precision: Only use values for which the estimated precision is a positive number.
  • Quality Threshold: >1.3
  • Convergence Threshold: <2.0

Download EOS Aura MLS N2O v4.2 data

Publications related to the MLS N2O data product


  1. Douglass, A., S. Strahan, L. Oman, R. Stolarski, "Multi-decadal records of stratospheric composition and their relationship to stratospheric circulation change", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 17, 19, 12081-12096, doi:10.5194/acp-17-12081-2017, 2017. reprint
  2. Linz, M., R.A. Plumb, E. Gerber, F. Haenel, G. Stiller, D. Kinnison, A. Ming, J. Neu, "The strength of the meridional overturning circulation of the stratosphere", Nature Geoscience 10, 9, 663-667, doi:10.1038/ngeo3013, 2017. reprint
  3. Meek, C.E., A.H. Manson, J.R. Drummond, "Comparison of Aura MLS stratospheric chemical gradients with north polar vortex edges calculated by two methods", Advances in Space Research, doi:10.1016/j.asr.2017.06.009, 2017.
  4. Park, M., W.J. Randel, D.E. Kinnison, A.E. Bourassa, D.A. Degenstein, C.Z. Roth, C.A. McLinden, C.E. Sioris, N.J. Livesey, M.L. Santee, "Variability of Stratospheric Reactive Nitrogen and Ozone Related to the QBO", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, doi:10.1002/2017jd027061, 2017. reprint
  5. Wohltmann, I., R. Lehmann, M. Rex, "A quantitative analysis of the reactions involved in stratospheric ozone depletion in the polar vortex core", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 17, 17, 10535-10563, doi:10.5194/acp-17-10535-2017, 2017. reprint


  1. Errera, Q., S. Ceccherini, Y. Christophe, S. Chabrillat, M. Hegglin, A. Lambert, R. Ménard, P. Raspollini, S. Skachko, M. van Weele, K. Walker, "Harmonisation and diagnostics of MIPAS ESA CH<sub>4</sub> and N<sub>2</sub>O profiles using data assimilation", Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 9, 12, 5895-5909, doi:10.5194/amt-9-5895-2016, 2016. reprint
  2. Gu, Y., K.N. Liou, J.H. Jiang, R. Fu, S. Lu, Y. Xue, "A GCM Investigation of Impact of Aerosols on the Precipitation in Amazon during the Dry to Wet Transition", Climate Dynamics, doi:10.1007/s00382-016-3211-7, 2016. reprint
  3. Huang, L., J.H. Jiang, L. Murry, M. Damon, H. Su, N. Livesey, "Evaluation of UTLS carbon monoxide simulations in GMI and GEOS-Chem chemical transport models using Aura MLS observations", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 16, 5641-5663, doi:10.5194/acp-16-5641-2016, 2016. reprint
  4. Jiang, Z., K. Miyazaki, J. Worden, J. Liu, D. Jones, D. Henze, "Impacts of anthropogenic and natural sources on free tropospheric ozone over the Middle East", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 16, 10, 6537-6546, doi:10.5194/acp-16-6537-2016, 2016. reprint
  5. Manney, G.L., Z.D. Lawrence, "The major stratospheric final warming in 2016: Dispersal of vortex air and termination of Arctic chemical ozone loss", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 16, 15371-15396, doi:10.5194/acp-2016-633, 2016.
  6. Plieninger, J., A. Laeng, S. Lossow, T. von Clarmann, G. Stiller, S. Kellmann, A.  Linden, M. Kiefer, K. Walker, S. Noël, M. Hervig, M. McHugh, A. Lambert, J. Urban, J. Elkins, D. Murtagh, "Validation of revised methane and nitrous oxide profiles from MIPAS–ENVISAT", Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 9, 2, 765-779, doi:10.5194/amt-9-765-2016, 2016. reprint
  7. Skachko, S., R. Menard, Q. Errera, Y. Christophe, S. Chabrillat, "EnKF and 4D-Var data assimilation with chemical transport model BASCOE version 05.06", Geosci. Model Dev. 9, 8, 2893-2908, doi:10.5194/gmd-9-2893-2016, 2016. reprint
  8. Strahan, S.E., A.R. Douglass, S.D. Steenrod, "Chemical and dynamical impacts of stratospheric sudden warmings on Arctic ozone variability", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 121, 19, 11,836-11,851, doi:10.1002/2016jd025128, 2016. reprint


  1. Agol, E., T. Jansen, B. Lacy, T. Robinson, V. Meadows, "The Center of Light: Spectroastrometric Detection of Exomoons", The Astrophysical Journal 812, 1, 5, doi:10.1088/0004-637x/812/1/5, 2015. reprint
  2. Froidevaux, L., J. Anderson, H.J. Wang, R.A. Fuller, M.J. Schwartz, M.L. Santee, N.J. Livesey, H.C. Pumphrey, P.F. Bernath, J.M. Russell, M.P. McCormick, "Global OZone Chemistry And Related trace gas Data records for the Stratosphere GOZCARDS: methodology and sample results with a focus on HCl, H2O, and O3", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, doi:10.5194/acp-15-10471-2015, 2015. reprint
  3. Kuttippurath, J., S. Godin-Beekmann, F. Lefevre, M.L. Santee, L. Froidevaux, A. Hauchecorne, "Variability in Antarctic ozone loss in the last decade 2004-2013: high-resolution simulations compared to Aura MLS observations", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 15, 10385-10397, doi:10.5194/acp-15-10385-2015, 2015. reprint
  4. Livesey, N.J., M.L. Santee, G.L. Manney, "A Match-based approach to the estimation of polar stratospheric ozone loss using Aura Microwave Limb Sounder observations", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 15, 0045-9963, doi:10.5194/acp-15-9945-2015, 2015. reprint
  5. Manney, G., Z. Lawrence, M. Santee, W. Read, N. Livesey, A. Lambert, L. Froidevaux, H. Pumphrey, M. Schwartz, "A minor sudden stratospheric warming with a major impact: Transport and polar processing in the 2014/2015 Arctic winter", Geophysical Research Letters 42, 18, 7808-7816, doi:10.1002/2015gl065864, 2015. reprint
  6. Manney, G.L., Z.D. Lawrence, M.L. Santee, N.J. Livesey, A. Lambert, M.C. Pitts, "Polar processing in a split vortex: Arctic ozone loss in early winter 2012/2013", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 15, 5381– 5403, doi:10.5194/acp-15-5381-2015, 2015. reprint
  7. Minschwaner, K., G.L. Manney, "Derived Methane in the Stratosphere and Lower Mesosphere from Aura Microwave Limb Sounder Measurements of Nitrous Oxide, Water Vapor, and Carbon Monoxide", Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, doi:10.1007/s10874-015-9299-z, 2015. reprint
  8. Nedoluha, G.E., D.E. Siskind, A. Lambert, C. Boone, "The decrease in mid-stratospheric tropical ozone since 1991", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions 15, 1, 4215–4224, doi:10.5194/acp-15-4215-2015, 2015. reprint
  9. Nedoluha, G.E., I.S. Boyd, A. Parrish, R.M. Gomez, D.R. Allen, L. Froidevaux, B.J. Connor, R.R. Querel, "Unusual stratospheric ozone anomalies observed in 22 years of measurements from Lauder, New Zealand", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 15, 12, 6817-6826, doi:10.5194/acp-15-6817-2015, 2015. reprint
  10. Prather, M., J. Hsu, N. DeLuca, C. Jackman, L. Oman, A. Douglass, E. Fleming, S. Strahan, S. Steenrod, O.A. Søvde, I. Isaksen, L. Froidevaux, B. Funke, "Measuring and modeling the lifetime of nitrous oxide including its variability", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 120, doi:10.1002/2015jd023267, 2015. reprint
  11. Strahan, S.E., L.D. Oman, A.R. Douglass, L. Coy, "Modulation of Antarctic vortex composition by the quasi-biennial oscillation", Geophysical Research Letters 42, 4216–4223, doi:10.1002/2015GL063759, 2015.
  12. Tao, M., P. Konopka, F. Ploeger, J.U. Grooß, R. Müller, C.M. Volk, K.A. Walker, M. Riese, "Impact of the 2009 major stratospheric sudden warming on the composition of the stratosphere", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 15, 8695-8715, doi:10.5194/acp-15-8695-2015, 2015. reprint


  1. Stolarski, R.S., D.W. Waugh, L. Wang, L.D. Oman, A.R. Douglass, P.A. Newman, "Seasonal variation of ozone in the tropical lower stratosphere: Southern tropics are different from northern tropics", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 119, 10, 6196–6206, doi:10.1002/2013JD021294, 2014. reprint
  2. Strahan, S.E., A.R. Douglass, P.A. Newman, S.D. Steenrod, "Inorganic chlorine variability in the Antarctic vortex and implications for ozone recovery", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 119, doi:10.1002/2014JD022295, 2014. reprint


  1. Allen, D.R., A.R. Douglass, S.E. Strahan, "The large-scale frozen-in anticyclone in the 2011 Arctic summer stratosphere", Journal of Geophysical Research 118, 2656–2672, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50256, 2013. reprint
  2. Brakebusch, M., C.E. Randall, D.E. Kinnison, S. Tilmes, M.L. Santee, G.L. Manney, "Evaluation of Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model simulations of ozone during Arctic winter 2004–2005", Journal of Geophysical Research 118, 6, 2673-2688, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50226, 2013. reprint
  3. Khosrawi, F., R. Müller, J. Urban, M.H. Proffitt, G. Stiller, M. Kiefer, S. Lossow, D. Kinnison, F. Olschewski, M. Riese, D. Murtagh, "Assessment of the interannual variability and influence of the QBO and upwelling on tracer–tracer distributions of N2O and O3 in the tropical lower stratosphere", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 13, 3619-3641, doi:10.5194/acp-13-3619-2013, 2013. reprint
  4. Santee, M.L., N.J. Livesey, G.L. Manney, A. Lambert, W.G. Read, "Methyl chloride from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder: First global climatology and assessment of variability in the upper troposphere and stratosphere", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 118, 24, 13532-13560, doi:10.1002/2013JD020235, 2013. reprint
  5. Strahan, S.E., A.R. Douglass, P.A. Newman, "The contributions of chemistry and transport to low arctic ozone in March 2011 derived from Aura MLS observations", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 118, 3, 1563-1576, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50181, 2013. reprint
  6. Wohltmann, I., T. Wegner, R. Mueller, R. Lehmann, M. Rex, G.L. Manney, M.L. Santee, P. Bernath, O. Suminska-Ebersoldt, F. Strohl, M. von Hobe, C.M. Volk, E. Hoesen, F. Ravegnani, A. Ulanovsky, V. Yushkov, "Uncertainties in modelling heterogeneous chemistry and Arctic ozone depletion in the winter 2009/2010", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 13, 3909-3929, doi:10.5194/acp-13-3909-2013, 2013. reprint


  1. Damiani, A., B. Funke, D.R. Marsh, M. Lopez-Puertas, M.L. Santee, L. Froidevaux, S. Wang, C.H. Jackman, T. von Clarmann, A. Gardini, R.R. Cordero, M. Storini, "Impact of January 2005 solar proton events on chlorine species", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12, 4159–4179, doi:10.5194/acp-12-4159-2012, 2012. reprint
  2. Jones, A., K.A. Walker, J.J. Jin, J.R. Taylor, C.D. Boone, P.F. Bernath, S. Brohede, G.L. Manney, S. McLeod, R. Hughes, W.H. Daffer, "Technical Note: A trace gas climatology derived from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer ACE-FTS data set", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12, 5207-5220, doi:10.5194/acp-12-5207-2012, 2012. reprint
  3. Kvissel, O.K., Y.J. Orsolini, F. Stordal, I.S.A. Isaksen, M.L. Santee, "Formation of stratospheric nitric acid by a hydrated ion cluster reaction: Implications for the effect of energetic particle precipitation on the middle atmosphere", Journal of Geophysical Research 117, doi:10.1029/2011JD017257, 2012. reprint
  4. Sovde, O.A., M.J. Prather, I.S.A. Isaksen, T.K. Berntsen, F. Stordal, X. Zhu, C.D. Holmes, J. Hsu, "The chemical transport model Oslo CTM3", Geosci. Model Dev. 5, 1441-1469, doi:10.5194/gmd-5-1441-2012, 2012. reprint


  1. Allen, D.R., A.R. Douglass, G.L. Manney, S.E. Strahan, J.C. Krosschell, J.V. Trueblood, J.E. Nielsen, S. Pawson, Z. Zhu, "Modeling the Frozen-In Anticyclone in the 2005 Arctic Summer Stratosphere", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 11, 4557-4576, doi:10.5194/acp-11-4557-2011, 2011. reprint
  2. Feng, W., M.P. Chipperfield, S. Davies, G.W. Mann, K.S. Carslaw, S. Dhomse, L. Harvey, C. Randall, M.L. Santee, "Modelling the effect of denitrification on polar ozone depletion for Arctic winter 2004/2005", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 11, 6559-6573, doi:10.5194/acp-11-6559-2011, 2011. reprint
  3. Palazzi, E., F. Fiereli, G.P. Stiller, J. Urban, "Probability density functions of long-lived tracer observations from satellite in the subtropical barrier region: data intercomparison", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 11, 10579-10598, doi:10.5194/acp-11-10579-2011, 2011. reprint
  4. Thieblemont, R., N. Huret, Y.J. Orsolini, A. Hauchecoren, M.A. Drouin, "Frozen‐in anticyclones occurring in polar Northern Hemisphere during springtime: Characterization, occurrence and link with quasi‐biennial oscillation", Journal of Geophysical Research 116, D20110, doi:10.1029/2011JD016042, 2011. reprint


  1. Bencherif, H., L. El Amraoui, G. Kirgis, J. Leclair De Bellevue, A. Hauchecorne, M. Mze, T. Portafaix, A. Pazmino, F. Goutail, "Analysis of a rapid increase of stratospheric ozone during late austral summer 2008 over Kerguelen (49.4S, 70.3E)", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 11, 363-373, doi:10.5194/acpd-10-17727-2010, 2010. reprint
  2. Ishijima, K., P.J. Patra, M. Takigawa, T. Machida, H. Matsueda, Y. Sawa, L.P. Steele, P.B. Krummel, R.L. Langenfelds, S. Aoki, T. Nakazawa, "Stratospheric influences on the seasonal cycle of nitrous oxide in the troposphere as deduced from aircraft observations and model simulations", Journal of Geophysical Research 115, D20308, doi:10.1029/2009JD013322, 2010. reprint
  3. Olsen, M.A., A.R. Douglass, M.R. Schoeberl, J.M. Rodriguez, Y. Yoshida, "Interannual variability of ozone in the winter lower stratosphere and the relationaship to lamina and irrerversible transport", Journal of Geophysical Research 115, D15305, doi:10.1029/2009JD013004, 2010. reprint


  1. Chauhan, S., M. Hoepfner, G.P. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, U. Grabowski, A. Linden, S. Kellmann, M. Milz, T. Steck, H. Fischer, L. Froidevaux, A. Lambert, M. Santee, M. Schwartz, W.G. Read, N.J. Livesey, "MIPAS reduced spectral resolution UTLS-1 mode measurements of temperature, O3, HNO3, N2O, H2O and relative humidity over ice: retrievals and comparison to MLS", Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 2, 337-353, doi:10.5194/amt-2-337-2009, 2009. reprint
  2. Jin, J.J., K. Semeniuk, S.R. Beagley, V.I. Fomichev, A.I. Jonsson, J.C. McConnell, J. Urban, D. Murtagh, G.L. Manney, C.D. Boone, P.F. Bernath, K.A. Walker, B. Barret, P. Ricaud, E. Dupuy, "Comparison of CMAM simulations of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4) with observations from Odin/SMR, ACE-FTS, and Aura/MLS", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 9, 3233-3252, doi:10.5194/acp-9-3233-2009, 2009. reprint
  3. Manney, G.L., M.J. Schwartz, K. Krueger, M.L. Santee, S. Pawson, J.N. Lee, W.H. Daffer, R.A. Fuller, N.J. Livesey, "Aura Microwave Limb Sounder Observations of Dynamics and Transport During the Record-breaking 2009 Arctic Stratospheric Major Warming", Geophysical Research Letters 36, doi:10.1029/2009GL038586, 2009. reprint
  4. Manney, G.L., R.S. Harwood, I.A. MacKenzie, K. Minschwaner, D.R. Allen, M.L. Santee, K.A. Walker, M.I. Hegglin, A. Lambert, H.C. Pumphrey, P.F. Bernath, C.D. Boone, M.J. Schwartz, N.J. Livesey, W.H. Daffer, R.A. Fuller, "Satellite Observations and Modelling of Transport in the Upper Troposphere through the Lower Mesosphere During the 2006 Major Stratospheric Sudden Warming", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 9, 4775-4795, doi:10.5194/acp-9-4775-2009, 2009. reprint


  1. Coffey, M.T., J.W. Hannigan, A. Goldman, D.E. Kinnison, J.C. Gille, J. Barnett, L. Froidevaux, A. Lambert, M.L. Santee, N.J. Livesey, B.M. Fisher, S.S. Kulawik, R. Beer, "Airborne Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) observations in support of EOS Aura validation", Journal of Geophysical Research 113, D16S42, doi:10.1029/2007JD008833, 2008. reprint
  2. El Amraoui, L., N. Semane, V.-H. Peuch, M.L. Santee, "Investigation of dynamical processes in the polar stratospheric vortex during the unusually cold winter 2004/2005", Geophysical Research Letters 35, L03803, doi:10.1029/2007GL031251, 2008. reprint
  3. Manney, G.L., W.H. Daffer, K.B. Strawbridge, K.A. Walker, C.D. Boone, P.F. Bernath, T. Kerzenmacher, M.J. Schwartz, K. Strong, R.J. Sica, K. Kruger, H.C. Pumphrey, L. Froidevaux, A. Lambert, M.L. Santee, N.J. Livesey, E.E. Remsberg, M.G. Mlynczak, J.M. Russell, "The High Arctic in Extreme Winters: Vortex, Temperature, and MLS and ACE-FTS Trace Gas Evolution", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 8, 505-522, doi:10.5194/acp-8-505-2008, 2008. reprint
  4. Manson, A.H., C.E. Meek, T. Chshyolkova, "Regional stratospheric warmings in the Pacific-Western Canada (PWC) sector during winter 2004/2005: implications for temperatures, winds, chemical constituents and the characterization of the Polar vortex", Annales Geophysicae 26, 3597-3622, doi:10.5194/angeo-26-3597-2008, 2008. reprint
  5. Santee, M.L., I.A. MacKenzie, G.L. Manney, M.P. Chipperfield, P.F. Bernath, K.A. Walker, C.D. Boone, L. Froidevaux, N.J. Livesey, J.W. Waters, "A study of stratospheric chlorine partitioning based on new", Journal of Geophysical Research 113, D12307, doi:10.1029/2007JD009057, 2008. reprint
  6. Schoeberl, M.R., A.R. Douglass, P.A. Newman, L.R. Lait, D. Lary, J. Waters, N. Livesey, L. Froidevaux, A. Lambert, W. Read, M.J. Filipiak, H.C. Pumphrey, "QBO and Annual Cycle Variations in Tropical Lower Stratosphere Trace Gases from HALOE and Aura MLS Observations", Journal of Geophysical Research 113, D05301, doi:10.1029/2007JD008678, 2008. reprint
  7. Strong, K., M.A. Wolff, T.E. Kerzenmacher, K.A. Walker, P.F. Bernath, T. Blumenstock, C. Boone, V. Catoire, M. Coffey, M. De Maziere, P. Demoulin, P. Duchatelet, E. Dupuy, J. Hannigan, M. Hopfner, N. Glatthor, D.T. Griffith, J.J. Jin, N. Jones, K. Jucks, H. Kuellmann, J. Kuttippurath, A. Lambert, E. Mahieu, J.C. McConnell, J. Mellqvist, S. Mikuteit, D.P. Murtagh, J. Notholt, C. Piccolo, P. Raspollini, M. Ridolfi, C. Robert, M. Schneider, O. Schrems, K. Semeniuk, C. Senten, G.P. Stiller, A. Strandberg, J. Taylor, C. Tetard, M. Toohey, J. Urban, T. Warneke, S. Wood, "Validation of ACE-FTS N2O measurements", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 8, 4759-4786, doi:10.5194/acp-8-4759-2008, 2008. reprint


  1. Lambert, A., W.G. Read, N.J. Livesey, M.L. Santee, G.L. Manney, L. Froidevaux, D.L. Wu, M.J. Schwartz, H.C. Pumphrey, C. Jimenez, G.E. Nedoluha, R.E. Cofield, D.T. Cuddy, W.H. Daffer, B.J. Drouin, R.A. Fuller, R.F. Jarnot, B.W. Knosp, H.M. Pickett, V.S. Perun, W.V. Snyder, P.C. Stek, R.P. Thurstans, P.A. Wagner, J.W. Waters, K.W. Jucks, G.C. Toon, R.A. Stachnik, P.F. Bernath, C.D. Boone, K.A. Walker, J. Urban, D. Murtagh, J.W. Elkins, E. Atlas, "Validation of the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder middle atmosphere water vapor and nitrous oxide measurements", Journal of Geophysical Research 112, D24S36, doi:10.1029/2007JD008724, 2007. reprint
  2. Manney, G.L., W.H. Daffer, J.M. Zawodny, P.F. Bernath, K.W. Hoppel, K.A. Walker, B.W. Knosp, C. Boone, E.E. Remsberg, M.L. Santee, V. Lynn Harvey, S. Pawson, D.R. Jackson, L. Deaver, C.T. McElroy, C.A. McLinden, J.R. Drummond, H.C. Pumphrey, A. Lambert, M.J. Schwartz, L. Froidevaux, S. McLeod, L.L. Takacs, M.J. Suarez, C.R. Trepte, D.T. Cuddy, N.J. Livesey, R.S. Harwood, J.W. Waters, "Solar Occultation Satellite Data and Derived Meteorological Products: Sampling Issues and Comparisons with Aura MLS", Journal of Geophysical Research 112, D24S50, doi:10.1029/2007JD008709, 2007. reprint
  3. Strahan, S.E., B.N. Duncan, P. Hoor, "Observationally derived transport diagnostics for the lowermost stratosphere and their application to the GMI chemistry and transport model", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 7, 2435-2445, doi:10.5194/acp-7-2435-2007, 2007. reprint


  1. Barret, B., P. Ricaud, M.L. Santee, J-L. Attie, J. Urban, E. Le Flochmoen, G. Berthet, D. Murtagh, P. Eriksson, A. Jones, J. de La Noe, E. Dupuy, L. Froidevaux, N.J. Livesey, J.W. Waters, M.J. Filipiak, "Intercomparisons of Trace Gas Profiles from the Odin/SMR and Aura/MLS Limb Sounders", Journal of Geophysical Research 111, D21302, doi:10.1029/2006JD007305, 2006. reprint
  2. Cofield, R.E., P.C. Stek, "Design and field-of-view calibration of 114-660 GHz optics of the Earth Observing System Microwave Limb Sounder", IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 44, no. 5, 1166-1181, doi:10.1109/TGRS.2006.873234, 2006. reprint
  3. Froidevaux, L., N.J. Livesey, W.G. Read, Y.B. Jiang, C.J. Jimenez, M.J. Filipiak, M.J. Schwartz, M.L. Santee, H.C. Pumphrey, J.H. Jiang, D.L. Wu, G.L. Manney, B.J. Drouin, J.W. Waters, E.J. Fetzer, P.F. Bernath, C.D. Boone, K.A. Walker, K.W. Jucks, G.C. Toon, J.J. Margitan, B. Sen, C.R. Webster, L.E. Christensen, J.W. Elkins, E. Atlas, R.A. Lueb, R. Hendershot, "Early validation analyses of atmospheric profiles from EOS MLS on the Aura satellite", IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 44, no. 5, doi:10.1109/TGRS.2006.864366, 2006. reprint
  4. Manney, G.L., N.J. Livesey, C.J. Jimenez, H.C. Pumphrey, M.L. Santee, I.A. MacKenzie, J.W. Waters, "EOS Microwave Limb Sounder Observations of 'frozen-in' anticyclone air in Arctic summer", Geophysical Research Letters 33, L06810, doi:10.1029/2005GL025418, 2006. reprint
  5. Manney, G.L., M.L. Santee, L. Froidevaux, K. Hoppel, N.J. Livesey, J.W. Waters, "EOS MLS observations of ozone loss in the 2004-2005 Arctic winter", Geophysical Research Letters 33, L04802, doi:10.1029/2005GL024494, 2006. reprint


  1. Manney, G.L., M.L. Santee, N.J. Livesey, L. Froidevaux, W.G. Read, H.C. Pumphrey, J.W. Waters, S. Pawson, "EOS Microwave Limb Sounder Observations of the Antarctic Polar Vortex Breakup in 2004", Geophysical Research Letters 32, L12811, doi:10.1029/2005GL022823, 2005. reprint
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