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The MLS Cloud Ice Product

Contact: Alyn Lambert

Basic Information

Cloud ice water content (IWC) is defined as cloud ice mass in unit volume of atmospheric air. It can vary largely from 0.0001 g/m3 in thin cirrus to 1 g/m3 inside convective core. The vertically integrated column of IWC is ice water path (IWP).
Illustration of MLS cloud ice
Sample ice water retrieval map

How it is part of MLS Science Objectives

Clouds are a major source of uncertainty in understanding climate change of our home planet. Important to cloud radiative and hydrological properties, IWC is the key variable that connects cloud macrophysical
and microphysical (such as ice particle sizes and shapes) properties. MLS cloud ice measurements can be used to reduce uncertainties in climate model parameterizations so that cloud physics/processes can be better represented.

MLS IWC has units of g/m^3.

How EOS MLS derives IWC
The standard product for IWC is retrieved from the 240 GHz cloud-induced radiances (Tcir) at 215 - 68 hPa. The IWC- Tcir relation is calculated using a radiative transfer model where ice particle size distribution is prescribed based on in-situ data. The modeled IWC-Tcir relation forms the basis of the operational IWC retrieval, which converts Tcir directly to IWC without any inversion.

The MLS IWC represents an average quantity over the volume of ~300 x 7 x 4 km3 (length, width, height) near the tangent point of each Tcir measurement. Cloud inhomogeneity and assumptions about particle size distribution are largest uncertainties. Averaging MLS IWC data (e.g. monthly) helps to reduce some of the inhomogeneity-induced uncertainties but the uncertainties induced by particle size assumptions (~100%) cannot be reduced.


Another sample ice water retrieval map at 147 hPa

Quick Product Information for data version v4.2

  • Swath Name: IWC
  • Status Flag: User is recommended to screen the IWC data using the Status eld in the collocated temperature profile to exclude bad retrievals.
  • Useful Range: 215 - 83 hPa
  • DAAC Short Name: ML2IWC
Download EOS Aura MLS IWC v4.2 data

Publications related to the MLS IWC data product

Future Publications

  1. Gong, J., D.L. Wu, V. Limpasuvan, "Meridionally-tilted ice cloud structures in the tropical Upper Troposphere as seen by CloudSat", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions 14, 24915, doi:10.5194/acpd-14-24915-2014, Not yet published.


  1. Jiang, J.H., Q. Yue, H. Su, S.C. Reising, P.P. Kangaslahti, W.R. Deal, E.T. Schlecht, L. Wu, K.F. Evans, "[PDF] from A Simulation of Ice Cloud Particle Size, Humidity and Temperature Measurements from the TWICE CubeSat", Earth and Space Science,2017. reprint
  2. Liu, R., K. Liou, H. Su, Y. Gu, B. Zhao, J.H. Jiang, S. Liu, "High cloud variations with surface temperature from 2002 to 2015: Contributions to atmospheric radiative cooling rate and precipitation changes", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, doi:10.1002/2016JD026303, 2017. reprint
  3. Santee, M.L., G.L. Manney, N.J. Livesey, M.J. Schwartz, J.L. Neu, W.G. Read, "A comprehensive overview of the climatological composition of the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone based on 10 years of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder measurements", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 122, doi:10.1002/2016jd026408, 2017. reprint
  4. Shi, C., W. Cai, D. Guo, "Composition and Thermal Structure of the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere in a Penetrating Mesoscale Convective Complex Determined by Satellite Observations and Model Simulations", Advances in Meteorology 2017, 1-9, doi:10.1155/2017/6404796, 2017. reprint
  5. Su, H., J.H. Jiang, J.D. Neelin, T.J. Shen, C. Zhai, Q. Yue, Z. Wang, L. Huang, Y.S. Choi, G.L. Stephens, Y.L. Yung, "Tightening of tropical ascent and high clouds key to precipitation change in a warmer climate", Nature Communications, doi:DOI: 10.1038/ncomms15771, 2017. reprint


  1. Chakraborty, S., R. Fu, S. Massie, G. Stephens, "Relative influence of meteorological conditions and aerosols on the lifetime of mesoscale convective systems", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 113, 27, 7426-7431, doi:10.1073/pnas.1601935113, 2016. reprint
  2. Elsaesser, G.S., A.D. Genio, J.H. Jiang, M. van Lier-Walqui, " An Improved Convective Ice Parameterization for the NASA GISS Global Climate Model and Impacts on Cloud Ice Simulation ", Journal of Climate, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0346.1, 2016. reprint
  3. Elsaesser, G.S., A.D. Genio, J.H. Jiang, M. van Lier-Walqui, "An Improved Convective Ice Parameterization for the NASA GISS Global Climate Model and Impacts on Cloud Ice Simulation", Journal of Climate, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D, 2016. reprint
  4. Massie, S.T., J. Delanoë, C.G. Bardeen, J.H. Jiang, L. Huang, "Changes in the shape of cloud ice water content vertical structure due to aerosol variations", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 16, 9, 6091-6105, doi:10.5194/acp-16-6091-2016, 2016. reprint
  5. Takahashi, H., H. Su, J.H. Jiang, "Error analysis of upper tropospheric water vapor in CMIP5 models using “A-Train” satellite observations and reanalysis data", Climate Dynamics, doi:10.1007/s00382-015-2732-9, 2016. reprint
  6. Wang, Y., H. Su, J.H. Jiang, N.J. Livesey, M.L. Santee, P.C. Stek, L. Froidevaux, W.G. Read, J. Anderson, "The linkage between stratospheric water vapor and surface temperature in an observation-constrained coupled general circulation model", Climate Dynamics, doi:10.1007/s00382-016-3231-3, 2016. reprint
  7. Wright, C.J., N.P. Hindley, A.C. Moss, N.J. Mitchell, "Multi-instrument gravity-wave measurements over Tierra del Fuego and the Drake Passage – Part 1: Potential energies and vertical wavelengths from AIRS, COSMIC, HIRDLS, MLS-Aura, SAAMER, SABER and radiosondes", Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, doi:10.5194/amt-9-877-2016, 2016. reprint


  1. Geller, M.A., T. Zhou, P.T. Love, "Tropical Gravity Wave Momentum Fluxes and Latent Heating Distributions", Journal of Atmospheric Sciences,2015. reprint
  2. Huang, L., J.H. Jiang, Z. Wang, H. Su, M. Deng, S. Massie, "Climatology of Cloud Water Content Associated with Different Cloud Types Observed by A-Train Satellites", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 120, doi:10.1002/2014JD022779, 2015. reprint
  3. Jiang, J.H., H. Su, C. Zhai, L. Wu, K. Minschwaner, A.M. Molod, A.M. Tompkins, "An assessment of upper-troposphere and lower-stratosphere water vapor in MERRA, MERRA2 and ECMWF reanalyses using Aura MLS observations", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 120, doi:10.1002/2015JD023752, 2015. reprint
  4. Jiang, J.H., H. Su, C. Zhai, T.J. Shen, T. Wu, J. Zhang, J. Cole, K. von Salzen, L.J. Donner, C. Seman, A.D. Genio, L.S. Nazarenko, J.L. Dufresne, M. Watanabe, C. Morcrette, T. Koshiro, H. Kawai, A. Gettelman, L. Millan, W.G. Read, N.J. Livesey, Y. Kasai, M. Shiotani, "Evaluating the diurnal cycle of upper tropospheric ice clouds in climate models using SMILES observations", Journal of Atmospheric Sciences 72, 1022–1044, doi:10.1175/JAS-D-14-0124.1, 2015. reprint
  5. Kristiansen, N.I., A.J. Prata, A. Stohl, S.A. Carn, "Stratospheric volcanic ash emissions from the 13 February 2014 Kelut eruption", Geophysical Research Letters 42, doi:10.1002/2014GL062307, 2015. reprint
  6. Lee, J., J. Worden, D. Noone, J.H. Chae, C. Frankenberg, "Isotopic changes due to convective moistening of the lower troposphere associated with variations in the ENSO and IOD from 2005 to 2006", Tellus B Chemical and Physical Meteorology 67, doi:10.3402/tellusb.v67.26177, 2015. reprint
  7. Minschwaner, K., G.L. Manney, I. Petropavlovskikh, L.A. Torres, Z.D. Lawrence, B. Sutherland, A.M. Thompson, B.J. Johnson, Z. Butterfield, M.K. Dubey, L. Froidevaux, A. Lambert, W.G. Read, M.J. Schwartz, "Signature of a tropical Pacific cyclone in the composition of the upper troposphere over Socorro, NM", Geophysical Research Letters 42, 21, 9530-9537, doi:10.1002/2015gl065824, 2015. reprint
  8. Stanfield, R.E., J.H. Jiang, X. Dong, B. Xi, H. Su, L. Donner, L. Rotstayn, T. Wu, J. Cole, E. Shindo, "A Quantitative Assessment of Precipitation Associated With the ITCZ in the CMIP5 GCM Simulations Climate Dynamics", Climate Dynamics, doi:10.1007/s00382-015-2937-y, 2015. reprint
  9. Zhai, C., J.H. Jiang, H. Su, "Long term cloud change imprinted in seasonal cloud variation: more evidence of high climate sensitivity", Geophysical Research Letters 42, 9729-8737, doi:10.1002/2015GL065911, 2015. reprint


  1. Bhawar, R.L., J.H. Jiang, H. Su, M.J. Schwartz, "Variation of upper tropospheric clouds and water vapour over the Indian Ocean", International Journal of Climatology 34, 15, 3840-3848, doi:10.1002/joc.3942, 2014. reprint
  2. Carminati, F., P. Ricaud, J.P. Pommereau, E. Riviere, S. Khaykin, J.L. Attie, J. Warner, "Impact of tropical land convection on the water vapour budget in the tropical tropopause layer", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 14, 6195–6211, doi:10.5194/acp-14-6195-2014, 2014. reprint
  3. Dolinar, E.K., X. Dong, B. Xi, J.H. Jiang, H. Su, "Evaluation of CMIP5 simulated clouds and TOA radiation budgets using NASA satellite observations", Climate Dynamics, doi:10.1007/s00382-014-2158-9, 2014. reprint
  4. Huang, L., R. Fu, J.H. Jiang, "Impacts of Fire Emissions and Transport Pathways on the Interannual Variation of CO in the Tropical Upper Troposphere", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 14, 4087-4099, doi:10.5194/acp-14-4087-2014, 2014. reprint
  5. Millan, L., M. Lebsock, N.J. Livesey, S. Tanellin, G. Stephens, "Differential absorption radar techniques: surface pressure", Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 7, 3959-3970, doi:10.5194/amt-7-3959-2014, 2014. reprint
  6. Rong, P.P., J.M. Russell, C.E. Randall, S.M. Bailey, A. Lambert, "Northern PMC brightness zonal variability and its correlation with temperature and water vapor", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 119, 5, 2390, doi:10.1002/2013JD020513, 2014. reprint
  7. Stanfield, R.E., X. Dong, B. Xi, A. Kennedy, A.D.D. Genio, P. Minnis, J.H. Jiang, "Assessment of NASA GISS CMIP5 and Post-CMIP5 Simulated Clouds and TOA Radiation Budgets Using Satellite Observations: Part I: Cloud fraction and properties", Journal of Climate, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00558.1, 2014. reprint
  8. Wu, D.L., A. Lambert, W.G. Read, P. Eriksson, J. Gong, "MLS and CALIOP Cloud Ice Measurements in the Upper Troposphere: A Constraint from Microwave on Cloud Microphysics", Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 53, 157, doi:10.1175/JAMC-D-13-041.1, 2014. reprint


  1. Livesey, N.J., J.A. Logan, M.L. Santee, J.W. Waters, R.M. Doherty, W.G. Read, L. Froidevaux, J.H. Jiang, "Interrelated variations of O3, CO and deep convection in the tropical/subtropical upper troposphere observed by the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder MLS during 2004–2011", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 13, 579-598, doi:10.5194/acp-13-579-2013, 2013. reprint
  2. Millan, L., W. Read, Y. Kasai, A. Lambert, N. Livesey, J. Mendrok, H. Sagawa, T. Sano, M. Shiotani, D.L. Wu, "SMILES ice cloud products", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 118, 6468-6477, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50322, 2013. reprint
  3. Su, H., J.H. Jiang, C. Zhai, V.S. Perun, J.T. Shen, A.D. Genio, L.S. Nazarenko, L.J. Donner, L. Horowitz, C. Seman, C. Morcrette, J. Petch, M. Ringer, J. Cole, M. Mesquita, T. Iversen, J.E. Kristjansson, A. Gettelman, L. Rotstayn, S. Jeffrey, J.L. Dufresne, M. Watanabe, H. Kawai, T. Koshiro, T. Wu, E.M. Volodin, T. L'Ecuyer, J. Teixeira, G.L. Stephens, "Diagnosis of Regime-dependent Cloud Simulation Errors in CMIP5 Models Using A-Train Satellite Observations", Journal of Geophysical Research 118, 7, 2762-2780, doi:10.1029/2012JD018575, 2013. reprint
  4. Su, H., J.H. Jiang, "Tropical Clouds and Circulation Changes During the 2006-07 and 2009-10 El Niños", Journal of Climate 26, 2, 399-413, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00152.1, 2013. reprint


  1. Gu, Y., K.N. Liou, J.H. Jiang, H. Su, X. Liu, "Dust aerosol impact on North Africa climate: a GCM investigation of aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions using A-Train satellite data", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12, 1667-1679, doi:10.5194/acp-12-1667-2012, 2012. reprint
  2. Huang, L., R. Fu, J.H. Jiang, J.S. Wright, M. Luo, "Geographic and seasonal distributions of CO transport pathways and their roles in determining CO centers in the upper troposphere", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12, 4683–4698, doi:10.5194/acp-12-4683-2012, 2012. reprint
  3. Jiang, J.H., H. Su, C. Zhai, V.S. Perun, A. Del Genio, L.S. Nazarenko, L.J. Donner, L. Horowitz, C. Seman, J. Cole, A. Gettelman, M. Ringer, L. Rotstayn, S. Jeffrey, T. Wu, F. Brient, J-L. Dufresne, H. Kawai, T. Koshiro, M. Watanabe, T.S. LÉcuyer, E.M. Volodin, T. Iversen, H. Drange, M.S. Mesquita, W.G. Read, J.W. Waters, B. Tian, J. Teixeira, G.L. Stephens, "Evaluation of Cloud and Water Vapor Simulations in CMIP5 Climate Models Using NASA A-Train Satellite Observations", Journal of Geophysical Research 117, D1410, 24 PP, doi:10.1029/2011JD017237, 2012. reprint
  4. Wang, T., A.E. Dessler, "Analysis of cirrus in the tropical tropopause layer from CALIPSO and MLS data: A water perspective", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 117, D4, doi:10.1029/2011jd016442, 2012. reprint
  5. Yi, M., Y. Fu, P. Liu, Z. Heng, Y. Gao, X. Hong, "Analysis of the variation of atmospheric composition in the upper troposphere during a strong convection in eastern China in summer", Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences 36, 5, doi:10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2012.11124, 2012.


  1. Bhawar, R.L., J.H. Jiang, H. Su, "Variation of upper tropospheric clouds and water vapor over the Indian ocean", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, 11, 21769-21787, doi:10.5194/acpd-11-21769-2011, 2011. reprint
  2. Hendricks, J., B. Karcher, U. Lohmann, "Effects of ice nuclei on cirrus clouds in a global climate model", Journal of Geophysical Research 116, D18206, doi:10.1029/2010JD015302, 2011. reprint
  3. Jiang, J.H., H. Su, C. Zhai, S.T. Massie, M.R. Schoeberl, P.R. Colarco, S. Platnick, Y. Gu, K.N. Liou, "Influence of convection and aerosol pollution on ice cloud particle effective radius", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 11, 457-463, doi:10.5194/acp-11-457-2011, 2011. reprint
  4. Jin, J.J., N.J. Livesey, J.H. Jiang, A. Lupu, J.W. Kaminski, J.C. McConnell, "Seasonal Variation of Trans-Pacific Transport of Carbon Monoxide (CO) in the Upper Troposphere: MLS Observations and GEOS-Chem and GEM-AQ simulations", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions 11, 1, 3219-3250, doi:10.5194/acpd-11-3219-2011, 2011. reprint
  5. Su, H., J.H. Jiang, X. Liu, J.E. Penner, W.G. Read, S.T. Massie, M.R. Schoeberl, P. Colarco, N.J. Livesey, M.L. Santee, "Observed Increase of TTL Temperature and Water Vapor in Polluted Clouds over Asia", Journal of Climate 24, 11, 2728-2736, doi:10.1175/2010JCLI3749.1, 2011. reprint
  6. Zhang, L., Q.B. Li, J. Jin, H. Liu, N. Livesey, J.H. Jiang, Y. Mao, D. Chen, M. Luo, Y. Chen, "Impacts of 2006 Indonesian fires and dynamics on tropical upper tropospheric carbon monoxide and ozone", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 11, 10929-10946, doi:10.5194/acp-11-10929-2011, 2011. reprint


  1. Eriksson, P., B. Rydberg, M. Johnston, D.P. Murtagh, H. Struthers, S. Farrachat, U. Lohmann, "Diurnal variations of humidity and ice water content in the tropical upper troposphere", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 10, 11519-11533, doi:10.5194/acp-10-11519-2010, 2010. reprint
  2. Jiang, J.H., H. Su, S. Pawson, H.C. Liu, W. Read, J.W. Waters, M. Santee, D.L. Wu, M. Schwartz, N. Livesey, A. Lambert, R. Fuller, J.N. Lee, "Five-year (2004-2009) Observations of Upper Tropospheric Water Vapor and Cloud Ice from MLS and Comparisons with GEOS-5 analyses", Journal of Geophysical Research 115, D15103, doi:10.1029/2009JD013256, 2010. reprint
  3. Luo, M., C. Boxe, J.H. Jiang, R. Nassar, N. Livesey, "Interpretation of Aura satellite observations of CO and aerosol index related to the December 2006 Australia fires", Journal of Geophysical Research 114, 2853-2862, doi:10.1016/j.rse.2010.07.003, 2010. reprint
  4. Su, H., J.H. Jiang, J.D. Neelin, B.H. Kahn, J.W. Waters, N.J. Livesey, Y. Gu, "Reply to comment by Roberto Rondanelli and Richard S. Lindzen on “Variations in convective precipitation fraction and stratiform area with sea surface temperature”", Journal of Geophysical Research 115, D06203, doi:10.1029/2009JD012872, 2010. reprint
  5. Yan, X., N. Arnold, J. Remedios, "Global observations of gravity waves from High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder temperature measurements: A yearlong record of temperature amplitude and vertical wavelength", Journal of Geophysical Research 115, D10113, doi:10.1029/2008JD011511, 2010. reprint


  1. Chauhan, S., M. Hoepfner, G.P. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, U. Grabowski, A. Linden, S. Kellmann, M. Milz, T. Steck, H. Fischer, L. Froidevaux, A. Lambert, M. Santee, M. Schwartz, W.G. Read, N.J. Livesey, "MIPAS reduced spectral resolution UTLS-1 mode measurements of temperature, O3, HNO3, N2O, H2O and relative humidity over ice: retrievals and comparison to MLS", Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 2, 337-353, doi:10.5194/amt-2-337-2009, 2009. reprint
  2. Jiang, J.H., H. Su, S.T. Massie, P.R. Colarco, M.R. Schoeberl, S. Platnick, "Aerosol-CO relationship and aerosol effect on Ice cloud particle size: Analyses from Aura Microwave Limb Sounder and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer observations", Journal of Geophysical Research 114, D20207, doi:10.1029/2009JD012421, 2009. reprint
  3. Rydberg, B., P. Eriksson, S.A. Buehler, D.P. Murtagh, "Non-Gaussian Bayesian retrieval of tropical upper tropospheric cloud ice and water vapour from Odin-SMR measurements", Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 2, 621-637, doi:10.5194/amt-2-621-2009, 2009. reprint
  4. Su, H., J.H. Jiang, G.L. Stephens, D.G. Vane, N.J. Livesey, "Radiative effects of upper tropospheric clouds observed by Aura MLS and CloudSat", Geophysical Research Letters 36, L09815, doi:10.1029/2009GL037173, 2009. reprint
  5. Tao, W-K., J-D. Chern, D.D. Randall, M. Khairoutdinov, J-L. Li, D.E. Waliser, A. Hou, X. Lin, C. Peters-Lidard, W. Lau, J. Jiang, J. Simpson, "A Multiscaling Modeling System Developments, Applications, and Critical issues", Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 90, 4, 515-534, doi:10.1175/2008BAMS2542.1, 2009. reprint
  6. Waliser, D.E., J.F. Li, C.P. Woods, R.T. Austin, J. Bacmeister, J. Chern, A. Del Genio, J.H. Jiang, Z. Kuang, H. Meng, P. Minnis, S. Platnick, W. B Rossow, G. L Stephens, S. Sun-Mack, W-K. Tao, A.M. Tompkins, D.G. Vane, C. Walker, D. Wu, "Cloud ice: A climate model challenge with signs and expectations of progress", Journal of Geophysical Research 114, D00A21, doi:10.1029/2008JD010015 , 2009. reprint
  7. Wu, D.L., R. Austin, S. Durden, A. Heymsfield, J.H. Jiang, A. Lambert, J. Li, N.J. Livesey, G. McFarquhar, J. Pittman, G. Stephens, S. Tanelli, D. Vane, D. Waliser, "Comparisons of Global Cloud Ice from MLS, CloudSat, and Correlative Data Sets", Journal of Geophysical Research 113, doi:10.1029/2008JD009946, 2009. reprint


  1. Ekstrom, M., P. Eriksson, "Altitude resolved ice-fraction in the uppermost tropical troposphere", Geophysical Research Letters 35, L13822, doi:10.1029/2008GL034305, 2008. reprint
  2. Eriksson, P., M. Ekstrom, B. Rydberg, D.L. Wu, R.T. Austin, D.P. Murtagh, "Comparison between the first Odin-SMR, Aura MLS and CloudSat retrievals of cloud ice mass in the upper tropical troposphere", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 8, 1937-1948, doi:10.5194/acpd-7-12035-2007, 2008. reprint
  3. Jiang, J.H., H. Su, M. Schoeberl, S.T. Massie, P. Colarco, S. Platnick, N. Livesey, "Clean and polluted clouds: relationships among pollution, ice cloud and precipitation in South America", Geophysical Research Letters 35, L14804, doi:10.1029/2008GL034631, 2008. reprint
  4. Su, H., J.H. Jiang, D.G. Vane, G.L. Stephens, "Observed Vertical Structure of Tropical Oceanic Clouds Sorted in Large-scale Regimes ", Geophysical Research Letters 35, doi:10.1029/2008GL035888, 2008. reprint
  5. Su, H., J.H. Jiang, Y. Gu, J.D. Neelin, B.H. Kahn, D. Feldman, Y.L. Yung, J.W. Waters, N.J. Livesey, M.L. Santee, W.G. Read, "Variations of tropical upper tropospheric clouds with sea surface temperature and implications for radiative effects", Journal of Geophysical Research 113, D10211, doi:10.1029/2007JD009624, 2008. reprint
  6. Wu, D.L., H.M. Pickett, N.J. Livesey, "Aura MLS THz observations of global cirrus near the tropopause", Geophysical Research Letters 35, L15803, doi:10.1029/2008GL034233, 2008. reprint
  7. Wu, D.L., J.H. Jiang, W.G. Read, R.T. Austin, C.P. Davis, A. Lambert, G.L. Stephens, D.G. Vane, J.W. Waters, "Validation of the Aura MLS Cloud Ice Water Content (IWC) Measurements", Journal of Geophysical Research 113, doi:10.1029/2007JD008931, 2008. reprint


  1. Davis, C.P., H.C. Pumphrey, K.F. Evans, S. Buehler, D.L. Wu, "3D polarised simulations of space-borne passive mm/sub-mm midlatitude cirrus observations: A case study", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 7, 4149-4158, doi:10.5194/acp-7-4149-2007, 2007. reprint
  2. Eriksson, P., M. Ekstrom, B. Rydberg, D.P. Murtagh, "First Odin sub-mm retrievals in the tropical upper troposphere: ice cloud properties", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 7, 471-483, doi:10.5194/acp-7-471-2007, 2007. reprint
  3. Kahn, B.H., A. Eldering, A.J. Braverman, E.J. Fetzer, J.H. Jiang, E. Fishbein, D.L. Wu, "Towards the characterization of upper tropospheric clouds using AIRS and MLS observations", Journal of Geophysical Research 112, D05202, doi:10.1029/2006JD007336, 2007. reprint
  4. Li, J-L., J.H. Jiang, D.E. Waliser, A.M. Tompkins, "Assessing Consistency between EOS MLS and ECMWF Analyzed and Forecast Estimates of Cloud Ice", Geophysical Research Letters 34, L08701, doi:10.1029/2006GL029022, 2007. reprint
  5. Liu, C., "Geographical and seasonal distribution of tropical tropopause thin clouds and their relation to deep convection and water vapor viewed from satellite measurements", Journal of Geophysical Research 112, D09205, doi:10.1029/2006JD007479, 2007. reprint


  1. Cofield, R.E., P.C. Stek, "Design and field-of-view calibration of 114-660 GHz optics of the Earth Observing System Microwave Limb Sounder", IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 44, no. 5, 1166-1181, doi:10.1109/TGRS.2006.873234, 2006. reprint
  2. Fu, R., Y. Hu, J.S. Wright, J.H. Jiang, R.E. Dickinson, M. Chen, M. Filipiak, W.G. Read, J.W. Waters, D.L. Wu, "Short circuit of water vapor and polluted air to the global stratosphere by convective transport over the Tibetan Plateau", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103, 5664-5669, 10.1073/pnas.0601584103, 2006. reprint
  3. Su, H., W.G. Read, J.H. Jiang, J.W. Waters, D.L. Wu, E.J. Fetzer, "Enhanced positive water vapor feedback associated with tropical deep convection: New evidence from Aura MLS", Geophysical Research Letters 33, L05709, doi:10.1029/2005GL025505, 2006. reprint
  4. Su, H., D.E. Waliser, J.H. Jiang, J-L. Li, W.G. Read, J.W. Waters, A.M. Tompkins, "Relationships of upper tropospheric water vapor, clouds and SST: MLS observations, ECMWF analyses and GCM simulations", Geophysical Research Letters 33, L22802, doi:10.1029/2006GL027582, 2006. reprint
  5. Wu, D.L., J.H. Jiang, C.P. Davis, "EOS MLS cloud ice measurements and cloudy-sky radiative transfer model", IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 44, no. 5, 1156-1165, doi:10.1109/TGRS.2006.869994, 2006. reprint


  1. Davis, C., C. Emde, R. Harwood, "A 3D polarized reversed Monte Carlo radiative transfer model for mm and sub-mm passive remote sensing in cloudy atmospheres", IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 43, 5 , 1096-1101, doi:10.1109/TGRS.2004.837505, 2005. reprint
  2. Davis, C.P., D.L. Wu, C. Emde, J.H. Jiang, R.E. Cofield, R.S. Harwood, "Cirrus Induced Polarization in 122 GHz Aura Microwave Limb Sounder Radiances", Geophysical Research Letters 32, L14806, doi:10.1029/2005GL022681, 2005. reprint
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