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The MLS HNO3 Product

Contact: Gloria Manney

Basic Information

Nitric acid (HNO3) plays several pivotal roles in the processes controlling stratospheric ozone depletion. It is a key component of the polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) that form in the very low temperatures of polar winter, removing HNO3 from the gas phase. PSC particles provide surfaces on which heterogeneous chemical reactions occur, converting chlorine from its reservoir species (e.g., ClONO2, HCl) to the highly reactive forms that participate in the catalytic cycles of ozone destruction (e.g., ClO). On the other hand, photolysis of HNO3 vapor releases NO2, enabling a major pathway for the deactivation of chlorine, via the reformation of ClONO2 from ClO and NO2. If PSC particles grow large enough, then they can settle out of the lower stratosphere, carrying the HNO3 with them in a process known as denitrification. Severe denitrification curtails ClONO2 formation, allowing enhanced ClO and thus chemical ozone destruction to persist. Therefore, as a central participant in both the activation and the deactivation of chlorine, HNO3 indirectly regulates the extent, duration, and cumulative magnitude of stratospheric ozone depletion.
The HNO3 Molecule
HNO3 molecule visualization

How it is part of MLS Science Objectives

One of the main objectives of the Aura mission in general and MLS in particular is to track the stability of stratospheric ozone. Despite international regulations controlling the production of ozone-depleting substances, the ozone layer may not recover as expected. Potential changes in Earth's climate, including possible cooling and/or moistening of the stratosphere, may increase the prevalence and duration of PSC activity and lead to more severe denitrification, exacerbating chemical ozone loss. Measurement of HNO3 is critical to understanding these issues.

How EOS MLS measures HNO3

The standard product for HNO3 is taken from the 240 GHz retrieval at and below 22 hPa, and from the 190 GHz retrieval at and above 15 hPa.

HNO3 Information from the Spectroscopy Database

Quick Product Information for data version v4.2

  • Swath Name: HNO3
  • Status Flag: Only use profiles for which the Status field is an even number.
  • Useful Range: 215-1.5 hPa
    (1.0 hPa under enhanced conditions)
  • Screening: Outlier screening recommended for pressures of 100hPa and greater, see v4 data quality document.
  • DAAC Short Name: ML2HNO3
  • Precision: Only use values for which the estimated precision is a positive number.
  • Quality Threshold: >0.8 for 22hPa or greater; >0.8 in the HNO3-190 swath for 15hPa or less
  • Convergence Threshold: <1.03 for 22hPa or greater; <1.4 in the HNO3-190 swath for 15hPa or less
Download EOS Aura MLS HNO3 v4.2 data

Publications related to the MLS HNO3 data product


  1. Khosrawi, F., O. Kirner, B. Sinnhuber, S. Johansson, M. Höpfner, M. Santee, L. Froidevaux, J. Ungermann, R. Ruhnke, W. Woiwode, H. Oelhaf, P. Braesicke, "Denitrification, dehydration and ozone loss during the 2015/2016 Arctic winter", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 17, 21, 12893-12910, doi:10.5194/acp-17-12893-2017, 2017. reprint
  2. Miyazaki, K., K. Bowman, "Evaluation of ACCMIP ozone simulations and ozonesonde sampling biases using a satellite-based multi-constituent chemical reanalysis", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 17, 13, 8285-8312, doi:10.5194/acp-17-8285-2017, 2017. reprint
  3. Park, M., W.J. Randel, D.E. Kinnison, A.E. Bourassa, D.A. Degenstein, C.Z. Roth, C.A. McLinden, C.E. Sioris, N.J. Livesey, M.L. Santee, "Variability of Stratospheric Reactive Nitrogen and Ozone Related to the QBO", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, doi:10.1002/2017jd027061, 2017. reprint
  4. Santee, M.L., G.L. Manney, N.J. Livesey, M.J. Schwartz, J.L. Neu, W.G. Read, "A comprehensive overview of the climatological composition of the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone based on 10 years of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder measurements", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 122, doi:10.1002/2016jd026408, 2017. reprint
  5. Sheese, P., K. Walker, C. Boone, P. Bernath, L. Froidevaux, B. Funke, P. Raspollini, T. von Clarmann, "ACE-FTS ozone, water vapour, nitrous oxide, nitric acid, and carbon monoxide profile comparisons with MIPAS and MLS", Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer 186, 63-80, doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2016.06.026, 2017. reprint
  6. Wohltmann, I., R. Lehmann, M. Rex, "A quantitative analysis of the reactions involved in stratospheric ozone depletion in the polar vortex core", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 17, 17, 10535-10563, doi:10.5194/acp-17-10535-2017, 2017. reprint
  7. Wohltmann, I., R. Lehmann, M. Rex, "Update of the Polar SWIFT model for polar stratospheric ozone loss Polar SWIFT version 2", Geosci. Model Dev. 10, 7, 2671-2689, doi:10.5194/gmd-10-2671-2017, 2017. reprint
  8. Zhu, Y., O. Toon, M. Pitts, A. Lambert, C. Bardeen, D. Kinnison, "Comparing simulated PSC optical properties with CALIPSO observations during the 2010 Antarctic winter", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 122, 2, 1175-1202, doi:10.1002/2016jd025191, 2017. reprint
  9. Zhu, Y., O. Toon, A. Lambert, D. Kinnison, C. Bardeen, M. Pitts, "Development of a Polar Stratospheric Cloud Model Within the Community Earth System Model: Assessment of 2010 Antarctic Winter", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 122, 19, 10,418-10,438, doi:10.1002/2017jd027003, 2017. reprint


  1. Andersson, M.E., P.T. Verronen, D.R. Marsh, S.M. Paivarinta, J.M.C. Plane, "WACCM-D-Improved modeling of nitric acid and active chlorine during energetic particle precipitation", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 121, 17, 10,328-10,341, doi:10.1002/2015jd024173, 2016. reprint
  2. Damiani, A., B. Funke, M.L. Puertas, M.L. Santee, R.R. Cordero, S. Watanabe, "Energetic particle precipitation: A major driver of the ozone budget in the Antarctic upper stratosphere", Geophysical Research Letters 43, 7, 3554-3562, doi:10.1002/2016gl068279, 2016. reprint
  3. Duderstadt, K.A., J.E. Dibb, C.H. Jackman, C.E. Randall, N.A. Schwadron, S.C. Solomon, H.E. Spence, "Comment on “Atmospheric ionization by high-fluence, hard spectrum solar proton events and their probable appearance in the ice core archive” by A. L. Melott et al.", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 121, 20, 12,484-12,489, doi:10.1002/2016jd025220, 2016. reprint
  4. Gu, Y., H. Liao, J. Bian, "Summertime nitrate aerosol in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere over the Tibetan Plateau and the South Asian summer monsoon region", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 16, 11, 6641-6663, doi:10.5194/acp-16-6641-2016, 2016. reprint
  5. Lambert, A., M. Santee, N. Livesey, "Interannual variations of early winter Antarctic polar stratospheric cloud formation and nitric acid observed by CALIOP and MLS", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 16, 23, 15219-15246, doi:10.5194/acp-16-15219-2016, 2016. reprint
  6. Manney, G.L., Z.D. Lawrence, "The major stratospheric final warming in 2016: Dispersal of vortex air and termination of Arctic chemical ozone loss", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 16, 15371-15396, doi:10.5194/acp-2016-633, 2016.
  7. Millan, L., N. Livesey, M. Santee, J. Neu, G. Manney, R. Fuller, "Case studies of the impact of orbital sampling on stratospheric trend detection and derivation of tropical vertical velocities: solar occultation vs. limb emission sounding", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 16, 18, 11521-11534, doi:10.5194/acp-16-11521-2016, 2016. reprint
  8. Nakajima, H., I. Wohltmann, T. Wegner, M. Takeda, M.C. Pitts, L.R. Poole, R. Lehmann, M.L. Santee, M. Rex, "Polar Stratospheric Cloud evolution and chlorine activation measured by CALIPSO and MLS, and modelled by ATLAS", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 16, 16, 3311–3325, doi:10.5194/acp-16-3311-2016, 2016. reprint
  9. Paivarinta, S.M., P.T. Verronen, B. Funke, A. Gardini, A. Seppala, M.E. Andersson, "Transport versus energetic particle precipitation: Northern polar stratospheric NOx and ozone in January-March 2012", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 121, 10, 6085-6100, doi:10.1002/2015jd024217, 2016. reprint
  10. Sheese, P., K. Walker, C. Boone, C. McLinden, P. Bernath, A. Bourassa, J. Burrows, D. Degenstein, B. Funke, D. Fussen, G. Manney, C.T. McElroy, D. Murtagh, C. Randall, P. Raspollini, A. Rozanov, J. Russell, M. Suzuki, M. Shiotani, J. Urban, T. von Clarmann, J. Zawodny, "Validation of ACE-FTS version 3.5 NOy species profiles using correlative satellite measurements", Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 9, 12, 5781-5810, doi:10.5194/amt-9-5781-2016, 2016. reprint
  11. Skachko, S., R. Menard, Q. Errera, Y. Christophe, S. Chabrillat, "EnKF and 4D-Var data assimilation with chemical transport model BASCOE version 05.06", Geosci. Model Dev. 9, 8, 2893-2908, doi:10.5194/gmd-9-2893-2016, 2016. reprint


  1. Frankland, V.L., A.D. James, W. Feng, J.M.C. Plane, "The uptake of HNO3 on meteoric smoke analogues", Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 127, 150160, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2015.01.010, 2015. reprint
  2. Froidevaux, L., J. Anderson, H.J. Wang, R.A. Fuller, M.J. Schwartz, M.L. Santee, N.J. Livesey, H.C. Pumphrey, P.F. Bernath, J.M. Russell, M.P. McCormick, "Global OZone Chemistry And Related trace gas Data records for the Stratosphere GOZCARDS: methodology and sample results with a focus on HCl, H2O, and O3", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, doi:10.5194/acp-15-10471-2015, 2015. reprint
  3. Kaufmann, M., J. Blank, T. Guggenmoser, J. Ungermann, A. Engel, M. Ern, F. Friedl-Vallon, D. Gerber, J.U. Grooss, G. Guenther, M. Höpfner, A. Kleinert, E. Kretschmer, T. Latzko, G. Maucher, T. Neubert, H. Nordmeyer, H. Oelhaf, F. Olschewski, J. Orphal, P. Preusse, H. Schlager, H. Schneider, D. Schuettemeyer, F. Stroh, O. Suminska-Ebersoldt, B. Vogel, C.M. Volk, W. Woiwode, M. Riese, "Retrieval of three-dimensional small-scale structures in upper-tropospheric/lower-stratospheric composition as measured by GLORIA", Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 8, 81-95, doi:10.5194/amt-8-81-2015, 2015. reprint
  4. Kirner, O., R. Muller, R. Ruhnke, H. Fischer, "Contribution of liquid, NAT and ice particles to chlorine activation and ozone depletion in Antarctic winter and spring", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 15, 2019--2030, doi:10.5194/acp-15-2019-2015, 2015. reprint
  5. Kuttippurath, J., S. Godin-Beekmann, F. Lefevre, M.L. Santee, L. Froidevaux, A. Hauchecorne, "Variability in Antarctic ozone loss in the last decade 2004-2013: high-resolution simulations compared to Aura MLS observations", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 15, 10385-10397, doi:10.5194/acp-15-10385-2015, 2015. reprint
  6. Liberto, L.D., R. Lehmann, I. Tritscher, F. Fierli, J.L. Mercer, M. Snels, G.D. Donfrancesco, T. Deshler, B.P. Luo, J. Grooß, E. Arnone, B.M. Dinelli, F. Cairo, "Lagrangian analysis of microphysical and chemical processes in the Antarctic stratosphere: a case study", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 15, 12, 6651-6665, doi:10.5194/acp-15-6651-2015, 2015. reprint
  7. Manney, G., Z. Lawrence, M. Santee, W. Read, N. Livesey, A. Lambert, L. Froidevaux, H. Pumphrey, M. Schwartz, "A minor sudden stratospheric warming with a major impact: Transport and polar processing in the 2014/2015 Arctic winter", Geophysical Research Letters 42, 18, 7808-7816, doi:10.1002/2015gl065864, 2015. reprint
  8. Manney, G.L., Z.D. Lawrence, M.L. Santee, N.J. Livesey, A. Lambert, M.C. Pitts, "Polar processing in a split vortex: Arctic ozone loss in early winter 2012/2013", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 15, 5381– 5403, doi:10.5194/acp-15-5381-2015, 2015. reprint
  9. Miyazaki, K., H.J. Eskes, K. Sudo, "A tropospheric chemistry reanalysis for the years 2005–2012 based on an assimilation of OMI, MLS, TES, and MOPITT satellite data", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 15, 14, 8315-8348, doi:10.5194/acp-15-8315-2015, 2015. reprint
  10. Pendlebury, D., D. Plummer, J. Scinocca, P. Sheese, K. Strong, K. Walker, D. Degenstein, "Comparison of the CMAM30 data set with ACE-FTS and OSIRIS: polar regions", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 15, 21, 12465-12485, doi:10.5194/acp-15-12465-2015, 2015. reprint
  11. Schwartz, M.J., G.L. Manney, M.I. Hegglin, N.J. Livesey, M.L. Santee, W.H. Daffer, "Climatology and variability of trace gases in extratropical double-tropopause regions from MLS, HIRDLS, and ACE-FTS measurements", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 120, 843-867, doi:10.1002/2014JD021964, 2015. reprint
  12. Zhu, Y., O. Toon, A. Lambert, D. Kinnison, M. Brakebusch, C. Bardeen, M. Mills, J. English, "Development of a Polar Stratospheric Cloud Model within the Community Earth System Model using constraints on Type I PSCs from the 2010-2011 Arctic winter", Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 7, 2, 551-585, doi:10.1002/2015ms000427, 2015. reprint


  1. Engel, I., B.P. Luo, S.M. Khaykin, F.G. Wienhold, H. Vomel, R. Kivi, C.R. Hoyle, J.U. Grooss, M.C. Pitts, T. Peter, "Arctic stratospheric dehydration – Part 2: Microphysical modeling", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 14, 3231-3246, doi:10.5194/acp-14-3231-2014, 2014. reprint


  1. Brakebusch, M., C.E. Randall, D.E. Kinnison, S. Tilmes, M.L. Santee, G.L. Manney, "Evaluation of Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model simulations of ozone during Arctic winter 2004–2005", Journal of Geophysical Research 118, 6, 2673-2688, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50226, 2013. reprint
  2. Fiorucci, I., G. Muscari, L. Froidevaux, M.L. Santee, "Ground-based stratospheric O3 and HNO3 measurements at Thule, Greenland: an intercomparison with Aura MLS observations", Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 6, 2441-2453, doi:10.5194/amt-6-2441-2013, 2013. reprint
  3. Pitts, M.C., L.R. Poole, A. Lambert, L.W. Thomason, "An assessment of CALIOP polar stratospheric cloud composition classification", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 13, 6, 2975-2988, doi:10.5194/acp-13-2975-2013, 2013., 2013. reprint
  4. Wohltmann, I., T. Wegner, R. Mueller, R. Lehmann, M. Rex, G.L. Manney, M.L. Santee, P. Bernath, O. Suminska-Ebersoldt, F. Strohl, M. von Hobe, C.M. Volk, E. Hoesen, F. Ravegnani, A. Ulanovsky, V. Yushkov, "Uncertainties in modelling heterogeneous chemistry and Arctic ozone depletion in the winter 2009/2010", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 13, 3909-3929, doi:10.5194/acp-13-3909-2013, 2013. reprint


  1. Blessmann, D., I. Wohldmann, R. Lehmann, M. Rex, "Persistence of ozone anomalies in the Arctic stratospheric vortex in autumn", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12, 4817-4823, doi:10.5194/acp-12-4817-2012, 2012. reprint
  2. Blunden, J., D.S. Arndt, "State of the Climate in 2011", Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 93, S1--S264, doi:10.1175/2012BAMSStateoftheClimate.1, 2012. reprint
  3. Jones, A., K.A. Walker, J.J. Jin, J.R. Taylor, C.D. Boone, P.F. Bernath, S. Brohede, G.L. Manney, S. McLeod, R. Hughes, W.H. Daffer, "Technical Note: A trace gas climatology derived from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer ACE-FTS data set", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12, 5207-5220, doi:10.5194/acp-12-5207-2012, 2012. reprint
  4. Kuttippurath, J., S. Godin-Beekmann, F. Lefevre, G. Nikulin, M.L. Santee, L. Froidevaux, "Record-breaking ozone loss in the Arctic winter 2010/2011: comparison with 1996/1997", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12, 7073-7085, doi:10.5194/acp-12-7073-2012, 2012. reprint
  5. Kvissel, O.K., Y.J. Orsolini, F. Stordal, I.S.A. Isaksen, M.L. Santee, "Formation of stratospheric nitric acid by a hydrated ion cluster reaction: Implications for the effect of energetic particle precipitation on the middle atmosphere", Journal of Geophysical Research 117, doi:10.1029/2011JD017257, 2012. reprint
  6. Lambert, A., M.L. Santee, D.L. Wu, J.H. Chae, "A-Train CALIOP and MLS observations of early winter Antarctic polar stratospheric clouds and nitric acid in 2008", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12, 2899-2931, doi:10.5194/acp-12-2899-2012, 2012. reprint
  7. Miyazaki, K., H.J. Eskes, K. Sudo, M. Takigawa, M. van Weele, K.F. Boersma, "Simultaneous assimilation of satellite NO2, O3, CO, and HNO3 data for the analysis of tropospheric chemical composition and emissions", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12, 9545-9579, doi:10.5194/acp-12-9545-2012, 2012. reprint
  8. Sovde, O.A., M.J. Prather, I.S.A. Isaksen, T.K. Berntsen, F. Stordal, X. Zhu, C.D. Holmes, J. Hsu, "The chemical transport model Oslo CTM3", Geosci. Model Dev. 5, 1441-1469, doi:10.5194/gmd-5-1441-2012, 2012. reprint
  9. Wegner, T., J.U. Grooss, M. von Hobe, F. Stroh, O. Suminska-Ebersoldt, C.M. Volk, E. Hosen, V. Mitev, G. Shur, R. Mueller, "Heterogeneous chlorine activation on stratospheric aerosols and clouds in the Arctic polar vortex", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12, 11095-11106, doi:10.5194/acp-12-11095-2012, 2012. reprint


  1. Feng, W., M.P. Chipperfield, S. Davies, G.W. Mann, K.S. Carslaw, S. Dhomse, L. Harvey, C. Randall, M.L. Santee, "Modelling the effect of denitrification on polar ozone depletion for Arctic winter 2004/2005", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 11, 6559-6573, doi:10.5194/acp-11-6559-2011, 2011. reprint
  2. Fiorucci, I., G. Muscari, R.L. de Zafra, "Revising the retrieval technique of a long-term stratospheric HNO3 data set: from a constrained matrix inversion to the optimal estimation algorithm", Annales Geophysicae 29, 1317-1330, doi:10.5194/angeo-29-1317-2011, 2011. reprint
  3. Jackman, C.H., D.R. Marsh, F.M. Vitt, R.G. Roble, C.E. Randall, P.F. Bernath, B. Funke, M. Lopez-Puertas, S. Versick, G.P. Stiller, A.J. Tylka, E.L. Flemming, "Northern Hemisphere atmospheric influence of the solar proton events and ground level enhancement in January 2005", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 11, 6153-6166, doi:10.5194/acp-11-6153-2011, 2011. reprint
  4. Khosrawi, F., J. Urban, M.C. Pitts, P. Voelger, P. Achtert, M. Kaphlanov, M.L. Santee, G.L. Manney, D. Murtagh, K.H. Fricke, "Denitrification and polar stratospheric cloud formation during the Arctic winter 2009/2010", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 11, 8471-8487, doi:10.5194/acp-11-8471-2011, 2011. reprint
  5. Kohma, M., K. Sato, "The effects of atmospheric waves on the amounts of polar stratospheric clodus", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 11, 11535-11552, doi:10.5194/acp-11-11535-2011, 2011. reprint
  6. Laat, A.T.J.d., M. van Weele, "The 2010 Antarctic ozone hole: Observed reduction in ozone destruction by minor sudden stratospheric warmings", Scientific Reports 1, 38, 1-8, doi:10.1038/srep00038, 2011. reprint
  7. Manney, G.L., M.I. Hegglin, W.H. Daffer, M.L. Santee, E.A. Ray, S. Pawson, M.J. Schwartz, C.D. Boone, L. Froidevaux, N.J. Livesey, W.G. Read, K.A. Walker, "Jet characterization in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere UTLS: applications to climatology and transport studies", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 11, 6115-6137, doi:10.5194/acp-11-6115-2011, 2011. reprint
  8. Manney, G.L., M.L. Santee, M. Rex, N.J. Livesey, M.C. Pitts, P. Veefkind, E.R. Nash, I. Wohltmann, R. Lehmann, L. Froidevaux, L.R. Poole, M.R. Schoeberl, D.P. Haffner, J. Davies, V. Dorokhov, H. Gernandt, B. Johnson, R. Kivi, E. Kyro, N. Larsen, P.F. Levelt, A. Makshtas, C.T. McElroy, H. Nakajima, M.C. Parrondo, D.W. Tarasick, P.D. von Gathen, K.A. Walker, N.S. Zinoviev, "Unprecedented Arctic ozone loss in 2011", Nature 478, 469–475, doi:10.1038/nature10556, 2011. reprint
  9. Santee, M.L., G.L. Manney, N.J. Livesey, L. Froidevaux, M.J. Schwartz, W.G. Read, "Trace gas evolution in the lowermost stratosphere from Aura Microwave Limb Sounder measurements", Journal of Geophysical Research 116, D18306, doi:10.1029/2011JD015590, 2011. reprint
  10. Verronen, P.T., M.L. Santee, G.L. Manney, R. Lehmann, S. Salmi, A. Seppälä, "Nitric acid enhancements in the mesosphere during the January 2005 and December 2006 solar proton events", Journal of Geophysical Research 116, D17301, doi:10.1029/2011JD016075, 2011. reprint


  1. Chauhan, S., M. Hoepfner, G.P. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, U. Grabowski, A. Linden, S. Kellmann, M. Milz, T. Steck, H. Fischer, L. Froidevaux, A. Lambert, M. Santee, M. Schwartz, W.G. Read, N.J. Livesey, "MIPAS reduced spectral resolution UTLS-1 mode measurements of temperature, O3, HNO3, N2O, H2O and relative humidity over ice: retrievals and comparison to MLS", Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 2, 337-353, doi:10.5194/amt-2-337-2009, 2009. reprint
  2. Jumelet, J., S. Bekki, P. Seifert, N. Montoux, J.P. Vernier, J. Pelon, "Microphysical modeling of a midlatitude “polar stratospheric cloud” event: Comparisons against multiwavelength ground-based and spaceborne lidar data", Journal of Geophysical Research 114, D00H02, doi:10.1029/2009JD011776, 2009. reprint
  3. Pitts, M.C., L.R. Poole, L.W. Thomason, "CALIPSO polar stratospheric cloud observations: second-generation detection algorithm and composition discrimination", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 9, 7577-7589, doi:10.5194/acp-9-7577-2009, 2009. reprint
  4. Popp, P.J., T.P. Marcy, R.S. Gau, L.A. Watts, D.W. Fahey, E.C. Richard, S.J. Oltmans, M.L. Santee, N.J. Livesey, L. Froidevaux, B. Sen, G.C. Toon, K.A. Walker, C.D. Boone, P.F. Bernath, "Stratospheric correlation between nitric acid and ozone", Journal of Geophysical Research 114, D03305, doi:10.1029/2008JD010875, 2009. reprint
  5. Urban, J., M. Pommier, D.P. Murtagh, M.L. Santee, Y.J. Orsolini, "Nitric acid in the stratosphere based on Odin observations from 2001 to 2009 - Part 1: A global climatology", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 9, 7031-7044, doi:10.5194/acp-9-7031-2009, 2009. reprint
  6. Wespes, C., D. Hurtmans, C. Clerbaux, M.L. Santee, R.V. Martin, P.F. Coheur, "Global distributions of nitric acid from IASI/MetOP measurements", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 9, 7949-7962, doi:10.5194/acp-9-7949-2009, 2009. reprint


  1. Coffey, M.T., J.W. Hannigan, A. Goldman, D.E. Kinnison, J.C. Gille, J. Barnett, L. Froidevaux, A. Lambert, M.L. Santee, N.J. Livesey, B.M. Fisher, S.S. Kulawik, R. Beer, "Airborne Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) observations in support of EOS Aura validation", Journal of Geophysical Research 113, D16S42, doi:10.1029/2007JD008833, 2008. reprint
  2. Kinnison, D.E., J.C. Gille, J.J. Barnett, C.E. Randall, V.L. Harvey, A. Lambert, R. Khosravi, M.J. Alexander, P.F. Bernath, C.D. Boone, C. Cavanaugh, M.T. Coffey, C. Craig, V. Dean, T. Eden, D. Ellis, D.W. Fahey, G. Francis, C. Halvorson, J.W. Hannigan, C. Hartsough, C. Hepplewhite, C. Krinsky, H. Lee, W.G. Mankin, T. Marcy, S.T. Massie, B. Nardi, D. Packman, P.J. Popp, M.L. Santee, V. Yudin, K.A. Walker, "Global Observations of HNO3 from the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS): First results", Journal of Geophysical Research, 113, D16S44, doi:10.1029/2007JD008814, 2008. reprint
  3. Manson, A.H., C.E. Meek, T. Chshyolkova, "Regional stratospheric warmings in the Pacific-Western Canada (PWC) sector during winter 2004/2005: implications for temperatures, winds, chemical constituents and the characterization of the Polar vortex", Annales Geophysicae 26, 3597-3622, doi:10.5194/angeo-26-3597-2008, 2008. reprint
  4. Santee, M.L., I.A. MacKenzie, G.L. Manney, M.P. Chipperfield, P.F. Bernath, K.A. Walker, C.D. Boone, L. Froidevaux, N.J. Livesey, J.W. Waters, "A study of stratospheric chlorine partitioning based on new", Journal of Geophysical Research 113, D12307, doi:10.1029/2007JD009057, 2008. reprint
  5. Wolff, M.A., T. Kerzenmacher, K. Strong, K.A. Walker, M. Toohey, E. Dupuy, P.F. Bernath, C.D. Boone, S. Brohede, V. Catoire, T. von Clarmann, M. Coffey, W.H. Daffer, M. De Maziere, P. Duchatelet, N. Glatthor, J. Hannigan, F. Hase, M. Hopfner, N. Huret, N. Jones, K. Jucks, A. Kagawa, Y. Kasai, I. Kramer, H. Kullmann, J. Kuttippurath, E. Mahieu, G. Manney, C.T. McElroy, C. McLinden, Y. Mebarki, S. Mikuteit, D. Murtagh, C. Piccolo, P. Raspollini, M. Ridolfi, R. Ruhnke, M. Santee, C. Senten, D. Smale, C. Tetard, J. Urban, S. Wood, "Validation of HNO3, ClONO2, and N2O5 from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS)", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 8, 13, 3529-3562, doi:10.5194/acp-8-3529-2008, 2008. reprint


  1. Manney, G.L., W.H. Daffer, J.M. Zawodny, P.F. Bernath, K.W. Hoppel, K.A. Walker, B.W. Knosp, C. Boone, E.E. Remsberg, M.L. Santee, V. Lynn Harvey, S. Pawson, D.R. Jackson, L. Deaver, C.T. McElroy, C.A. McLinden, J.R. Drummond, H.C. Pumphrey, A. Lambert, M.J. Schwartz, L. Froidevaux, S. McLeod, L.L. Takacs, M.J. Suarez, C.R. Trepte, D.T. Cuddy, N.J. Livesey, R.S. Harwood, J.W. Waters, "Solar Occultation Satellite Data and Derived Meteorological Products: Sampling Issues and Comparisons with Aura MLS", Journal of Geophysical Research 112, D24S50, doi:10.1029/2007JD008709, 2007. reprint
  2. Pitts, M.C., L.W. Thomason, L.R. Poole, D.M. Winker, "Characterization of Polar Stratospheric Clouds with spaceborne lidar: CALIPSO and the 2006 Antarctic season", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 7, 5207-5228, doi:10.5194/acp-7-5207-2007, 2007. reprint
  3. Santee, M.L., A. Lambert, W.G. Read, N.J. Livesey, R.E. Cofield, D.T. Cuddy, W.H. Daffer, B.J. Drouin, L. Froidevaux, R.A. Fuller, R.F. Jarnot, B.W. Knosp, G.L. Manney, V.S. Perun, W.V. Snyder, P.C. Stek, R.P. Thurstans, P.A. Wagner, J.W. Waters, G. Muscari, R.L. deZafra, J.E. Dibb, D.W. Fahey, P.J. Popp, T.P. Marcy, K.W. Jucks, G.C. Toon, R.A. Stachnik, P.F. Bernath, C.D. Boone, K.A. Walker, J. Urban, D. Murtagh, "Validation of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder HNO3 Measurements", Journal of Geophysical Research 112, D24S40, doi:10.1029/2007JD008721, 2007. reprint
  4. Wang, D.Y., C.S. Singleton, G. Mengistu Tsidu, G.P. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, T. Blumenstock, N. Glatthor, U. Grabowski, F. Hase, S. Kellmann, A. Linden, M. Milz, H. Oelhaf, M. Schneider, T. Steck, G. Wetzel, M. López-Puertas, B. Funke, M.E. Koukouli, H. Nakajima, T. Sugita, H. Irie, J. Urban, D. Murtagh, M.L. Santee, G. Toon, M.R. Gunson, F.W. Irion, C.D. Boone, K. Walker, P.F. Bernath, "Validation of nitric acid retrieved by the IMK-IAA processor from MIPAS/ENVISAT measurements", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 7, 721-738, doi:10.5194/acp-7-721-2007, 2007. reprint


  1. Barret, B., P. Ricaud, M.L. Santee, J-L. Attie, J. Urban, E. Le Flochmoen, G. Berthet, D. Murtagh, P. Eriksson, A. Jones, J. de La Noe, E. Dupuy, L. Froidevaux, N.J. Livesey, J.W. Waters, M.J. Filipiak, "Intercomparisons of Trace Gas Profiles from the Odin/SMR and Aura/MLS Limb Sounders", Journal of Geophysical Research 111, D21302, doi:10.1029/2006JD007305, 2006. reprint
  2. Cofield, R.E., P.C. Stek, "Design and field-of-view calibration of 114-660 GHz optics of the Earth Observing System Microwave Limb Sounder", IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 44, no. 5, 1166-1181, doi:10.1109/TGRS.2006.873234, 2006. reprint
  3. Froidevaux, L., N.J. Livesey, W.G. Read, Y.B. Jiang, C.J. Jimenez, M.J. Filipiak, M.J. Schwartz, M.L. Santee, H.C. Pumphrey, J.H. Jiang, D.L. Wu, G.L. Manney, B.J. Drouin, J.W. Waters, E.J. Fetzer, P.F. Bernath, C.D. Boone, K.A. Walker, K.W. Jucks, G.C. Toon, J.J. Margitan, B. Sen, C.R. Webster, L.E. Christensen, J.W. Elkins, E. Atlas, R.A. Lueb, R. Hendershot, "Early validation analyses of atmospheric profiles from EOS MLS on the Aura satellite", IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 44, no. 5, doi:10.1109/TGRS.2006.864366, 2006. reprint
  4. Irie, H., T. Sugita, H. Nakajima, T. Yokota, H. Oelhaf, G. Wetzel, G.C. Toon, B. Sen, M.L. Santee, Y. Terao, N. Saitoh, M.K. Ejiri, T. Tanaka, Y. Kondo, H. Kanzawa, H. Kobayashi, Y. Sasano, "Validation of stratospheric nitric acid concentration profiles observed by Improved Limb Atmospheric Sectrometer (ILAS)-II", Journal of Geophysical Research 111, D11S03, doi:10.1029/2005JD006115, 2006. reprint
  5. Schoeberl, M.R., S.R. Kawa, A.R. Douglass, T.J. McGee, E.V. Browell, J.W. Waters, N.J. Livesey, W.G. Read, L. Froidevaux, M.L. Santee, H.C. Pumphrey, L.R. Lait, L. Twigg, "Chemical Observations of a Polar Vortex Intrusion", Journal of Geophysical Research 111, D20306, doi:10.1029/2006JD007134, 2006. reprint


  1. Davies, S., G.W. Mann, K.S. Carslaw, M.P. Chipperfield, J.A. Kettleborough, M.L. Santee, H. Oelhaf, G. Wetzel, Y. Sasano, T. Sugita, "3D microphysical model studies of Arctic denitrification: Comparison with observation", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 5, 3093-3109, doi:10.5194/acp-5-3093-2005, 2005. reprint
  2. Orsolini, Y.J., G.L. Manney, M.L. Santee, C.E. Randall, "An upper stratospheric layer of enhanced HNO3 following exceptional solar storms", Geophysical Research Letters 32, L12S01, doi:10.1029/2004GL021588, 2005. reprint
  3. Santee, M.L., G.L. Manney, N.J. Livesey, L. Froidevaux, H.C. Pumphrey, W.G. Read, M.J. Schwartz, J.W. Waters, "Polar processing and development of the 2004 Antarctic ozone hole: First results from Aura MLS", Geophysical Research Letters 32, L12817, doi:10.1029/2005GL022582, 2005. reprint


  1. Drouin, B.J., J.L. Fry, C.E. Miller, "Rotational Spectrum of cis-cis HOONO", Journal of Chemical Physics 120, Issue 12, 63-81, doi:10.1063/1.1687311, 2004. reprint
  2. Santee, M.L., G.L. Manney, N.J. Livesey, W.G. Read, "Three-dimensional structure and evolution of stratospheric HNO3 based on UARS Microwave Limb Sounder measurements", Journal of Geophysical Research 109, D15306, doi:10.1029/2004JD004578, 2004. reprint


  1. Danilin, M.Y., M K.W. Ko, R.M. Bevilacqua, L.V. Lyjak, L. Froidevaux, M.L. Santee, J.M. Zawodny, K.W. Hoppel, E.C. Richard, J.R. Spackman, E.M. Weinstock, R.L. Herman, K.A. McKinney, P.O. Wennberg, F.L. Eisele, R.M. Stimpfle, C.J. Scott, J.W. Elkins, T.V. Bui, "Comparison of ER-2 aircraft and POAM-III, MLS, and SAGE II satellite measurements during SOLVE using traditional correlative analysis and trajectory hunting techniques", Journal of Geophysical Research 107, D5, 8315, doi:10.1029/2001JD000781, 2002. reprint
  2. Danilin, M.Y., M K.W. Ko, L. Froidevaux, M.L. Santee, L.V. Lyjak, R.M. Bevilacqua, J.M. Zawodny, Y. Sasano, H. Irie, Y. Kondo, J.M. Russell, C.J. Scott, W.G. Read, "Trajectory hunting as an effective technique to validate multiplatform measurements: Analysis of the MLS, HALOE, SAGE-II, ILAS, and POAM-II data in October-November 1996", Journal of Geophysical Research 107, D20, 4420, doi:10.1029/2001JD002012, 2002. reprint
  3. Muscari, G., M.L. Santee, R.L. de Zafra, "Intercomparison of stratospheric HNO3 over Antarctica: Ground-based Millimeter-wave versus UARS/MLS Version 5 retrievals", Journal of Geophysical Research 107, D24, 4809, doi:10.1029/2002JD002546, 2002. reprint
  4. Santee, M.L., A. Tabazadeh, G.L. Manney, M.D. Fromm, R.M. Bevilacqua, J.W. Waters, E.J. Jensen, "A Lagrangian approach to studying Arctic polar stratospheric clouds using UARS MLS HNO3 and POAM II aerosol extinction measurements", Journal of Geophysical Research 107, D10, 4098, doi:10.1029/2000JD000227, 2002. reprint


  1. Santee, M.L., G.L. Manney, N.J. Livesey, J.W. Waters, "UARS Microwave Limb Sounder Observations of Denitrification and Ozone Loss in the 2000 Arctic Late Winter", Geophysical Research Letters 27, 3213-3216, doi:10.1029/2000GL011738, 2000. reprint
  2. Tabazadeh, A., M.L. Santee, M.Y. Danilin, H.C. Pumphrey, P.A. Newman, P.J. Hamill, J.L. Mergenthaler, "Quantifying Denitrification and Its Effect on Ozone Recovery", Science 288, 1407-1411, doi:10.1126/science.288.5470.1407, 2000. reprint


  1. Dessler, A.E., J. Wu, M.L. Santee, M.R. Schoeberl, "Satellite observations of temporary and irreversible denitrification", Journal of Geophysical Research 104, D11, 13,993-14,002, doi:10.1029/1999JD900133, 1999. reprint
  2. Randel, W.J., F. Wu, J.M. Russell, J. Waters, "Space-time patterns of trends in stratospheric constituents derived from UARS measurements", Journal of Geophysical Research 104, D3, 3711-3727, doi:10.1029/1998JD100044, 1999. reprint
  3. Santee, M.L., G.L. Manney, L. Froidevaux, W.G. Read, J.W. Waters, "Six years of UARS Microwave Limb Sounder HNO3 observations: Seasonal, interhemispheric, and interannual variations in the lower stratosphere", Journal of Geophysical Research 104, D7, 8225-8246, doi:10.1029/1998JD100089, 1999. reprint


  1. Ricaud, P., E. Monnier, F. Goutail, J.P. Pommereau, C. David, S. Godin, L. Froidevaux, J.W. Waters, J. Mergenthaler, A.E. Roche, H. Pumphrey, M.P. Chipperfield, "Stratosphere over Dumont d", Journal of Geophysical Research 103, D11, 13267-13284, doi:10.1029/98JD00689, 1998. reprint
  2. Santee, M.L., A. Tabazadeh, G.L. Manney, R.J. Salawitch, L. Froidevaux, W.G. Read, J.W. Waters, "UARS MLS HNO3 observations: Implications for Antarctic PSCs", Journal of Geophysical Research 103, D11, 13285-13314, doi:10.1029/98JD00365, 1998. reprint


  1. Engel, A., U. Schmidt, R.A. Stachnik, "Partitioning Between Chlorine Reservoir Species Deduced from Observations in the Arctic Winter Stratosphere", Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry 27, 107-126, doi:10.1023/A:1005781919448, 1997. reprint
  2. Massie, S.T., J.E. Dye, D. Baumbardner, W.J. Randel, F. Wu, X.X. Tie, L. Pan, F. Figarol, G.P. Brasseur, M.L. Santee, W.G. Read, R.G. Grainger, A. Lambert, J.L. Mergenthaler, A. Tabazadeh, "Simultaneous observations of Polar Stratospheric Clouds and HNO3 over Scandinavia in January, 1992", Geophysical Research Letters 24, 1, 595-598, doi:10.1029/97GL00315, 1997. reprint
  3. Santee, M.L., G.L. Manney, L. Froidevaux, R.W. Zurek, J.W. Waters, "MLS observations of ClO and HNO3 in the 1996-97 Arctic polar vortex", Geophysical Research Letters 24, 2713-2716, doi:10.1029/97GL52830, 1997. reprint


  1. Kumer, J.B., J.L. Mergenthaler, A.E. Roche, R.W. Nightingale, G.A. Ely, W.G. Uplinger, J.C. Gille, S.T. Massie, P.L. Bailey, M.R. Gunson, M.C. Abrams, G.C. Toon, B. Sen, J. Blavier, R.A. Stachnik, C.R. Webster, R.D. May, D.G. Murcray, F.J. Murcray, A. Goldman, W.A. Traub, K.W. Jucks, D.G. Johnson, "Comparison of correlative data with HNO3 version 7 from the CLAES instrument deployed on the NASA Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite", Journal of Geophysical Research 101, D6, 9621-9656, doi:10.1029/95JD03759, 1996. reprint


  1. Santee, M.L., W.G. Read, J.W. Waters, L. Froidevaux, G.L. Manney, D.A. Flower, R.F. Jarnot, R.S. Harwood, G.E. Peckham, "Interhemispheric differences in polar stratospheric HNO3, H2O, ClO and O3", Science 267, 849-852, doi:10.1126/science.267.5199.849, 1995. reprint

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