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Contact: Lucien Froidevaux

Basic Information

HCl in the stratosphere (from 15 to 50 km altitude) is a gas that results from the decomposition (by UV radiation) of tropospheric sources gases, mainly chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Most of the chlorine that is released from CFCs stored in this HCl reservoir at high altitudes (near 50 km), and HCl in the upper stratosphere provides a measure of the total chlorine content of the atmosphere (an abundance close to 3.5 parts per billion by volume). The chemistry that leads to ozone depletion at high latitudes largely comes from the more reactive forms of gaseous chlorine (mainly as ClO or chlorine monoxide, also measured by MLS), which makes up all or a large fraction of the atmospheric chlorine content in the lower stratosphere (near 20 km altitude) during polar winter and spring. Some chlorine at high altitude (near 40 km) is also in the form of ClO, which participates in ozone depletion as well. HCl is converted to ClO at high altitude, mainly by reaction with the OH radical; methane (CH4) reacting with chlorine atoms reforms HCl. A steady-state balance in the concentrations of active and reservoir chlorine molecules is achieved. Chlorine nitrate (ClONO2) also plays a role as a temporary chlorine reservoir, usually with lower abundances than HCl.
The HCl Molecule
HCl molecule visualization

How it is part of MLS Science Objectives

One of the objectives for MLS and the Aura mission is to understand and follow changes in the chemistry and atmospheric composition that can affect stratospheric ozone. HCl in the upper stratosphere has now been decreasing (since about the turn of the century), based on expectations from measurements of CFCs at the ground as well as past satellite HCl data and column HCl measurements from ground-based infrared data. MLS has observed a global decrease in upper stratospheric HCl, confirming that international agreements to limit the production of CFCs is having an impact on the total available stratospheric chlorine abundance (more than 95% of stratospheric chlorine at high altitude is in the form of gaseous HCl). Since early 2006, however, the main band for measuring HCl has been used very infrequently because of rapid deterioration in this specific portion of the MLS instrument; this does not diminish the usefulness/quality of other MLS data, including HCl measurements in the lower stratosphere (below about 30km altitude), as these measurements (from another band) have continued on a daily basis. In the lower stratosphere during polar winter and spring, the MLS measurements of HCl and ClO provide important information about the partitioning of chlorine products critical to ozone depletion.

How EOS MLS measures HCl

Retrievals of the HCl standard product (fromthe 640GHz radiometer) use channels from band 14, as a result of the deterioration observed since early 2006 in nearby band 13, originally targeted (with narrower channels than band 14) at the main HCl emission line center.

HCl Information from the Spectroscopy Database

Quick Product Information for data version v5

  • Swath Name: HCl
  • Status Flag: Only use profiles for which the Status field is an even number.
  • Useful Range: 100 - 0.32 hPa
  • DAAC Short Name: ML2HCL
  • Precision: Only use values for which the estimated precision is a positive number.
  • Quality Threshold: >1.2
  • Convergence Threshold: <1.05
Download EOS Aura MLS HCl v5 data

Publications related to the MLS HCl data product


  1. Feng, W., S. Dhomse, C. Arosio, M. Weber, J. Burrows, M. Santee, M. Chipperfield, "Arctic Ozone Depletion in 2019/20: Roles of Chemistry, Dynamics and the Montreal Protocol", Geophysical Research Letters 48, 4, doi:10.1029/2020gl091911, 2021. reprint


  1. Barrera, J., R. Fernandez, F. Iglesias-Suarez, C. Cuevas, J. Lamarque, A. Saiz-Lopez, "Seasonal impact of biogenic very short-lived bromocarbons on lowermost stratospheric ozone between 60° N and 60° S during the 21st century", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 20, 13, 8083-8102, doi:10.5194/acp-20-8083-2020, 2020. reprint
  2. Han, Y., F. Xie, J. Zhang, "Has Stratospheric HCl in the Northern Hemisphere Been Increasing Since 2005?", Front. Earth Sci. 8, doi:10.3389/feart.2020.609411, 2020. reprint
  3. Inness, A., S. Chabrillat, J. Flemming, V. Huijnen, B. Langenrock, J. Nicolas, I. Polichtchouk, M. Razinger, "Exceptionally Low Arctic Stratospheric Ozone in Spring 2020 as Seen in the CAMS Reanalysis", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 125, 23, doi:10.1029/2020jd033563, 2020. reprint
  4. Manney, G., N. Livesey, M. Santee, L. Froidevaux, A. Lambert, Z. Lawrence, L. Millán, J. Neu, W. Read, M. Schwartz, R. Fuller, "Record‐Low Arctic Stratospheric Ozone in 2020: MLS Observations of Chemical Processes and Comparisons With Previous Extreme Winters", Geophysical Research Letters 47, 16, 1-10, 10.1029/2020gl089063, 2020. reprint
  5. Nakajima, H., I. Murata, Y. Nagahama, H. Akiyoshi, K. Saeki, T. Kinase, M. Takeda, Y. Tomikawa, E. Dupuy, N. Jones, "Chlorine partitioning near the polar vortex edge observed with ground-based FTIR and satellites at Syowa Station, Antarctica, in 2007 and 2011", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 20, 2, 1043-1074, doi:10.5194/acp-20-1043-2020, 2020. reprint
  6. Nara, S., T. Sato, T. Yamada, T. Fujinawa, K. Kuribayashi, T. Manabe, L. Froidevaux, N. Livesey, K. Walker, J. Xu, F. Schreier, Y. Orsolini, V. Limpasuvan, N. Kuno, Y. Kasai, "Validation of SMILES HCl profiles over a wide range from the stratosphere to the lower thermosphere", Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 13, 12, 6837-6852, doi:10.5194/amt-13-6837-2020, 2020. reprint
  7. Strahan, S., D. Smale, A. Douglass, T. Blumenstock, J. Hannigan, F. Hase, N. Jones, E. Mahieu, J. Notholt, L. Oman, I. Ortega, M. Palm, M. Prignon, J. Robinson, M. Schneider, R. Sussmann, V. Velazco, "Observed Hemispheric Asymmetry in Stratospheric Transport Trends From 1994 to 2018", Geophysical Research Letters 47, 17, doi:10.1029/2020gl088567, 2020. reprint
  8. Wargan, K., B. Weir, G. Manney, S. Cohn, N. Livesey, "The Anomalous 2019 Antarctic Ozone Hole in the GEOS Constituent Data Assimilation System With MLS Observations", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 125, 18, doi:10.1029/2020jd033335, 2020. reprint


  1. Errera, Q., S. Chabrillat, Y. Christophe, J. Debosscher, D. Hubert, W. Lahoz, M. Santee, M. Shiotani, S. Skachko, T. von Clarmann, K. Walker, "Technical note: Reanalysis of Aura MLS chemical observations", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 19, 21, 13647-13679, doi:10.5194/acp-19-13647-2019, 2019. reprint
  2. Froidevaux, L., D. Kinnison, R. Wang, J. Anderson, R. Fuller, "Evaluation of CESM1 WACCM free-running and specified dynamics atmospheric composition simulations using global multispecies satellite data records", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 19, 7, 4783-4821, doi:10.5194/acp-19-4783-2019, 2019. reprint
  3. Han, Y., W. Tian, M. Chipperfield, J. Zhang, F. Wang, W. Sang, J. Luo, W. Feng, A. Chrysanthou, H. Tian, "Attribution of the Hemispheric Asymmetries in Trends of Stratospheric Trace Gases Inferred from Microwave Limb Sounder MLS Measurements", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, doi:10.1029/2018jd029723, 2019. reprint
  4. Johansson, S., M. Santee, J. Grooß, M. Höpfner, M. Braun, F. Friedl-Vallon, F. Khosrawi, O. Kirner, E. Kretschmer, H. Oelhaf, J. Orphal, B. Sinnhuber, I. Tritscher, J. Ungermann, K. Walker, W. Woiwode, "Unusual chlorine partitioning in the 2015/16 Arctic winter lowermost stratosphere: observations and simulations", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 19, 12, 8311-8338, doi:10.5194/acp-19-8311-2019, 2019. reprint
  5. Li, X., J. Xu, T. Cheng, H. Shi, X. Zhang, S. Ge, H. Wang, S. Zhu, J. Miao, Q. Luo, "Monitoring Trace Gases over the Antarctic Using Atmospheric Infrared Ultraspectral Sounder Onboard GaoFen-5: Algorithm Description and First Retrieval Results of O3, H2O, and HCl", Remote Sens. 11, 17, 1991, doi:10.3390/rs11171991, 2019. reprint


  1. Anderson, J.G., C.E. Clapp, "Coupling free radical catalysis, climate change, and human health", Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 20, 16, 10569-10587, doi:10.1039/c7cp08331a, 2018. reprint
  2. Bernath, P., A. Fernando, "Trends in stratospheric HCl from the ACE satellite mission", Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer 217, 126-129, doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2018.05.027, 2018. reprint
  3. Dhomse, S., D. Kinnison, M. Chipperfield, R. Salawitch, I. Cionni, M. Hegglin, N.L. Abraham, H. Akiyoshi, A. Archibald, E. Bednarz, S. Bekki, P. Braesicke, N. Butchart, M. Dameris, M. Deushi, S. Frith, S. Hardiman, B. Hassler, L. Horowitz, R. Hu, P. Jöckel, B. Josse, O. Kirner, S. Kremser, U. Langematz, J. Lewis, M. Marchand, M. Lin, E. Mancini, V. Marécal, M. Michou, O. Morgenstern, F. O&aposConnor, L. Oman, G. Pitari, D. Plummer, J. Pyle, L. Revell, E. Rozanov, R. Schofield, A. Stenke, K. Stone, K. Sudo, S. Tilmes, D. Visioni, Y. Yamashita, G. Zeng, "Estimates of ozone return dates from Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative simulations", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 18, 11, 8409-8438, doi:10.5194/acp-18-8409-2018, 2018. reprint
  4. Grooß, J., R. Müller, R. Spang, I. Tritscher, T. Wegner, M. Chipperfield, W. Feng, D. Kinnison, S. Madronich, "On the discrepancy of HCl processing in the core of the wintertime polar vortices", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 18, 12, 8647-8666, doi:10.5194/acp-18-8647-2018, 2018. reprint
  5. Kreyling, D., I. Wohltmann, R. Lehmann, M. Rex, "The Extrapolar SWIFT model version 1.0: fast stratospheric ozone chemistry for global climate models", Geoscientific Model Development 11, 2, 753-769, doi:10.5194/gmd-11-753-2018, 2018. reprint
  6. Steinbrecht, W., M. Hegglin, N. Harris, M. Weber, "Is global ozone recovering?", Comptes Rendus Geoscience 350, 7, 368-375, doi:10.1016/j.crte.2018.07.012, 2018. reprint
  7. Stolarski, R., A. Douglass, S. Strahan, "Using satellite measurements of N2O to remove dynamical variability from HCl measurements", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 18, 8, 5691-5697, doi:10.5194/acp-18-5691-2018, 2018. reprint
  8. Strahan, S., A. Douglass, "Decline in Antarctic Ozone Depletion and Lower Stratospheric Chlorine Determined From Aura Microwave Limb Sounder Observations", Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1002/2017gl074830, 2018. reprint
  9. Xu, J., F. Schreier, G. Wetzel, A.D. Lange, M. Birk, T. Trautmann, A. Doicu, G. Wagner, "Performance Assessment of Balloon-Borne Trace Gas Sounding with the Terahertz Channel of TELIS", Remote Sens. 10, 2, 315, doi:10.3390/rs10020315, 2018. reprint


  1. Anderson, J., D. Weisenstein, K. Bowman, C. Homeyer, J. Smith, D. Wilmouth, D. Sayres, J.E. Klobas, S. Leroy, J. Dykema, S. Wofsy, "Stratospheric ozone over the United States in summer linked to observations of convection and temperature via chlorine and bromine catalysis", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 114, 25, E4905 – E4913, doi:10.1073/pnas.1619318114, 2017. reprint
  2. Hegglin, M., S. Tegtmeier, J. Anderson, A. Bourassa, S. Brohede, D. Degenstein, L. Froidevaux, B. Funke, J. Gille, A. Jones, Y. Kasai, E. Kyrola, J. Lumpe, J. Neu, E. Remsberg, A. Rozanov, M. Toohey, J. Urban, T. von Clarmann, K.A. Walker, R. Wang, "The SPARC Data Initiative: Assessment of stratospheric trace gas and aerosol climatologies from satellite limb sounders", SPARC Report 8,, 2017. reprint
  3. Ochiai, S., P. Baron, T. Nishibori, Y. Irimajiri, Y. Uzawa, T. Manabe, H. Maezawa, A. Mizuno, T. Nagahama, H. Sagawa, M. Suzuki, M. Shiotani, "SMILES-2 Mission for Temperature, Wind, and Composition in the Whole Atmosphere", SOLA 13A, Special Edition, 13-18, doi:10.2151/sola.13a-003, 2017. reprint
  4. Santee, M.L., G.L. Manney, N.J. Livesey, M.J. Schwartz, J.L. Neu, W.G. Read, "A comprehensive overview of the climatological composition of the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone based on 10 years of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder measurements", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 122, doi:10.1002/2016jd026408, 2017. reprint
  5. Tweedy, O., N. Kramarova, S. Strahan, P. Newman, L. Coy, W. Randel, M. Park, D. Waugh, S. Frith, "Response of trace gases to the disrupted 2015–2016 quasi-biennial oscillation", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 17, 11, 6813-6823, doi:10.5194/acp-17-6813-2017, 2017. reprint
  6. Wohltmann, I., R. Lehmann, M. Rex, "A quantitative analysis of the reactions involved in stratospheric ozone depletion in the polar vortex core", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 17, 17, 10535-10563, doi:10.5194/acp-17-10535-2017, 2017. reprint
  7. Wohltmann, I., R. Lehmann, M. Rex, "Update of the Polar SWIFT model for polar stratospheric ozone loss Polar SWIFT version 2", Geosci. Model Dev. 10, 7, 2671-2689, doi:10.5194/gmd-10-2671-2017, 2017. reprint


  1. Akiyoshi, H., T. Nakamura, T. Miyasaka, M. Shiotani, M. Suzuki, "A nudged chemistry-climate model simulation of chemical constituent distribution at northern high-latitude stratosphere observed by SMILES and MLS during the 2009/2010 stratospheric sudden warming", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 121, 3, 1361-1380, doi:10.1002/2015jd023334, 2016. reprint
  2. Andersson, M.E., P.T. Verronen, D.R. Marsh, S.M. Paivarinta, J.M.C. Plane, "WACCM-D-Improved modeling of nitric acid and active chlorine during energetic particle precipitation", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 121, 17, 10,328-10,341, doi:10.1002/2015jd024173, 2016. reprint
  3. Carn, S.A., L. Clarisse, A.J. Prata, "Multi-decadal satellite measurements of global volcanic degassing", J. Volcanology Geotherm. Res. 311, 99-134, doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2016.01.002, 2016. reprint
  4. Huijnen, V., J. Flemming, S. Chabrillat, Q. Errera, Y. Christophe, A. Blechschmidt, A. Richter, H. Eskes, "C-IFS-CB05-BASCOE: stratospheric chemistry in the Integrated Forecasting System of ECMWF", Geosci. Model Dev. 9, 9, 3071-3091, doi:10.5194/gmd-9-3071-2016, 2016. reprint
  5. Manney, G., Z. Lawrence, "The major stratospheric final warming in 2016: dispersal of vortex air and termination of Arctic chemical ozone loss", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 16, 23, 15371-15396, 10.5194/acp-16-15371-2016, 2016. reprint
  6. Nakajima, H., I. Wohltmann, T. Wegner, M. Takeda, M.C. Pitts, L.R. Poole, R. Lehmann, M.L. Santee, M. Rex, "Polar Stratospheric Cloud evolution and chlorine activation measured by CALIPSO and MLS, and modelled by ATLAS", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 16, 16, 3311–3325, doi:10.5194/acp-16-3311-2016, 2016. reprint
  7. Skachko, S., R. Menard, Q. Errera, Y. Christophe, S. Chabrillat, "EnKF and 4D-Var data assimilation with chemical transport model BASCOE version 05.06", Geosci. Model Dev. 9, 8, 2893-2908, doi:10.5194/gmd-9-2893-2016, 2016. reprint
  8. Wegner, T., M. Pitts, L. Poole, I. Tritscher, J. Grooß, H. Nakajima, "Vortex-wide chlorine activation by a mesoscale PSC event in the Arctic winter of 2009/10", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 16, 7, 4569-4577, doi:10.5194/acp-16-4569-2016, 2016. reprint


  1. Froidevaux, L., J. Anderson, H.J. Wang, R.A. Fuller, M.J. Schwartz, M.L. Santee, N.J. Livesey, H.C. Pumphrey, P.F. Bernath, J.M. Russell, M.P. McCormick, "Global OZone Chemistry And Related trace gas Data records for the Stratosphere GOZCARDS: methodology and sample results with a focus on HCl, H2O, and O3", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, doi:10.5194/acp-15-10471-2015, 2015. reprint
  2. Guo, D., Y. Su, C. Shi, J. Xu, A. Powell, "Double core of ozone valley over the Tibetan Plateau and its possible mechanisms", Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 130-131, 127-131, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2015.05.018, 2015. reprint
  3. Kristiansen, N.I., A.J. Prata, A. Stohl, S.A. Carn, "Stratospheric volcanic ash emissions from the 13 February 2014 Kelut eruption", Geophysical Research Letters 42, doi:10.1002/2014GL062307, 2015. reprint
  4. Kuttippurath, J., S. Godin-Beekmann, F. Lefevre, M.L. Santee, L. Froidevaux, A. Hauchecorne, "Variability in Antarctic ozone loss in the last decade 2004-2013: high-resolution simulations compared to Aura MLS observations", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 15, 10385-10397, doi:10.5194/acp-15-10385-2015, 2015. reprint
  5. Manney, G., Z. Lawrence, M. Santee, W. Read, N. Livesey, A. Lambert, L. Froidevaux, H. Pumphrey, M. Schwartz, "A minor sudden stratospheric warming with a major impact: Transport and polar processing in the 2014/2015 Arctic winter", Geophysical Research Letters 42, 18, 7808-7816, doi:10.1002/2015gl065864, 2015. reprint
  6. Manney, G.L., Z.D. Lawrence, M.L. Santee, N.J. Livesey, A. Lambert, M.C. Pitts, "Polar processing in a split vortex: Arctic ozone loss in early winter 2012/2013", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 15, 5381– 5403, doi:10.5194/acp-15-5381-2015, 2015. reprint
  7. Pendlebury, D., D. Plummer, J. Scinocca, P. Sheese, K. Strong, K. Walker, D. Degenstein, "Comparison of the CMAM30 data set with ACE-FTS and OSIRIS: polar regions", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 15, 21, 12465-12485, doi:10.5194/acp-15-12465-2015, 2015. reprint
  8. Schwartz, M.J., G.L. Manney, M.I. Hegglin, N.J. Livesey, M.L. Santee, W.H. Daffer, "Climatology and variability of trace gases in extratropical double-tropopause regions from MLS, HIRDLS, and ACE-FTS measurements", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 120, 843-867, doi:10.1002/2014JD021964, 2015. reprint
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  1. Blunden, J., D.S. Arndt, "State of the Climate in 2013", Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 95, S1-S257, 2014.
  2. Damiani, A., B. Funke, M.L. Puertas, A. Gardini, T. von Clarmann, M.L. Santee, L. Froidevaux, R.R. Cordero, "Changes in the composition of the northern polar upper stratosphere in February 2009 after a sudden stratospheric warming", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 119, 19, 11429-11444, doi:10.1002/2014JD021698, 2014. reprint
  3. Hurst, D.F., A. Lambert, W.G. Read, S.M. Davis, K.H. Rosenlof, E.G. Hall, A.F. Jordan, S.J. Oltmans, "Validation of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder stratospheric water vapor measurements by the NOAA frost point hygrometer", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 119, 1612, doi:10.1002/2013JD020757, 2014. reprint
  4. Mahieu, E., M.P. Chipperfield, J. Notholt, T. Reddmann, J. Anderson, P.F. Bernath, T. Blumenstock, M.T. Coffey, S.S. Dhomse, W. Feng, B. Franco, L. Froidevaux, D. Griffith, J.W. Hannigan, F. Hase, R. Hossaini, N.B. Jones, I. Morino, I. Murata, H. Nakajima, M. Palm, C. Paton-Walsh, J.M. Russell, M. Schneider, C. Servais, D. Smale, K.A. Walker, "Recent Northern Hemisphere stratospheric HCl increase due to atmospheric circulation changes", Nature 515, 104-107, doi:10.1038/nature13857, 2014. reprint
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  1. Blunden, J., D.S. Arndt, "State of the Climate in 2012", Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 94, S1-S238, 2013.
  2. Khosravi, M., P. Baron, J. Urban, L. Froidevaux, A.I. Jonsson, Y. Kasai, K. Kuribayashi, C. Mitsuda, D.P. Murtagh, H. Sagawa, M.L. Santee, T.O. Sato, M. Shiotani, M. Suzuki, T. von Clarmann, K.A. Walker, S. Wang, "Diurnal variation of stratospheric and lower mesospheric HOCl, ClO and HO2 at the equator: comparison of 1-D model calculations with measurements by satellite instruments", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 13, 7587-7606, doi:10.5194/acp-13-7587-2013, 2013. reprint
  3. Schwartz, M.J., W.J. Read, M.L. Santee, N.J. Livesey, L. Froidevaux, A. Lambert, G.L. Manney, "Convectively Injected Water Vapor in the North American Summer Lowermost Stratosphere", Geophysical Research Letters 40, 10, 2316–2321, doi:10.1002/grl.50421, 2013. reprint
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  1. Blessmann, D., I. Wohldmann, R. Lehmann, M. Rex, "Persistence of ozone anomalies in the Arctic stratospheric vortex in autumn", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12, 4817-4823, doi:10.5194/acp-12-4817-2012, 2012. reprint
  2. Blunden, J., D.S. Arndt, "State of the Climate in 2011", Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 93, S1--S264, doi:10.1175/2012BAMSStateoftheClimate.1, 2012. reprint
  3. Damiani, A., B. Funke, D.R. Marsh, M. Lopez-Puertas, M.L. Santee, L. Froidevaux, S. Wang, C.H. Jackman, T. von Clarmann, A. Gardini, R.R. Cordero, M. Storini, "Impact of January 2005 solar proton events on chlorine species", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12, 4159–4179, doi:10.5194/acp-12-4159-2012, 2012. reprint
  4. Jones, A., K.A. Walker, J.J. Jin, J.R. Taylor, C.D. Boone, P.F. Bernath, S. Brohede, G.L. Manney, S. McLeod, R. Hughes, W.H. Daffer, "Technical Note: A trace gas climatology derived from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer ACE-FTS data set", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12, 5207-5220, doi:10.5194/acp-12-5207-2012, 2012. reprint
  5. Lange, A.D., M. Birk, G.D. Lange, F. Friedl-Vallon, O. Kiselev, V. Koshelets, G. Maucher, H. Oelhaf, A. Selig, P. Vogt, G. Wagner, J. Landgraf, "HCl and ClO in activated Arctic air first retrieved vertical profiles from TELIS submillimetre limb spectra", Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 5, 487-500, doi:10.5194/amtd-4-6497-2011, 2012. reprint
  6. Wegner, T., J.U. Grooss, M. von Hobe, F. Stroh, O. Suminska-Ebersoldt, C.M. Volk, E. Hosen, V. Mitev, G. Shur, R. Mueller, "Heterogeneous chlorine activation on stratospheric aerosols and clouds in the Arctic polar vortex", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12, 11095-11106, doi:10.5194/acp-12-11095-2012, 2012. reprint
  7. Winkler, H., C. von Savigny, J.P. Burrows, J.M. Wissing, M.J. Schwartz, A. Lambert, M. Garcia-Comas, "Impacts of the January 2005 solar particle event on noctilucent clouds and water at the polar summer mesopause", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12, 5633, doi:10.5194/acp-12-5633-2012, 2012. reprint


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  2. Feng, W., M.P. Chipperfield, S. Davies, G.W. Mann, K.S. Carslaw, S. Dhomse, L. Harvey, C. Randall, M.L. Santee, "Modelling the effect of denitrification on polar ozone depletion for Arctic winter 2004/2005", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 11, 6559-6573, doi:10.5194/acp-11-6559-2011, 2011. reprint
  3. Jones, A., J. Urban, D.P. Murtagh, C. Sanchez, K.A. Walker, N.J. Livesey, L. Froidevaux, M.L. Santee, "Analysis of HCl and ClO time series in the upper stratosphere using satellite data sets", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 11, 5321-5333, doi:10.5194/acp-11-5321-2011, 2011. reprint
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  7. Santee, M.L., G.L. Manney, N.J. Livesey, L. Froidevaux, M.J. Schwartz, W.G. Read, "Trace gas evolution in the lowermost stratosphere from Aura Microwave Limb Sounder measurements", Journal of Geophysical Research 116, D18306, doi:10.1029/2011JD015590, 2011. reprint


  1. Arndt, D.S., M.O. Baringer, M.R. Johnson, "State of the Climate in 2009", Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 90, S1-S196, doi:10.1175/BAMS-91-7-StateoftheClimate, 2010. reprint
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  3. Minschwaner, K., G.L. Manney, N.J. Livesey, H.C. Pumphrey, H.M. Pickett, L. Froidevaux, A. Lambert, M.J. Schwartz, P.F. Bernath, K.A. Walker, C.D. Boone, "The photochemistry of carbon monoxide in the stratosphere and mesosphere evaluated from observations by the Microwave Limb Sounder on the Aura satellite", Journal of Geophysical Research 115, D13303, doi:10.1029/2009JD012654, 2010. reprint


  1. Kawa, S.R., R.S. Stolarski, P.A. Newman, A.R. Douglass, M. Rex, D.J. Hoffmann, M.L. Santee, K. Frieler, "Sensitivity of polar stratospheric ozone loss to uncertainties in chemical reaction kinetics", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 9, 8651-8660, doi:10.5194/acp-9-8651-2009, 2009. reprint
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  1. Coffey, M.T., J.W. Hannigan, A. Goldman, D.E. Kinnison, J.C. Gille, J. Barnett, L. Froidevaux, A. Lambert, M.L. Santee, N.J. Livesey, B.M. Fisher, S.S. Kulawik, R. Beer, "Airborne Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) observations in support of EOS Aura validation", Journal of Geophysical Research 113, D16S42, doi:10.1029/2007JD008833, 2008. reprint
  2. Considine, D.B., M. Natarajan, T.D. Fairlie, G.S. Lingenfelser, R.B. Pierce, L. Froidevaux, A. Lambert, "Noncoincident validation of Aura MLS observations using the Langley Research Center Lagrangian chemistry and transport model", Journal of Geophysical Research 113, D16S33, doi:10.1029/2007JD008770, 2008. reprint
  3. Froidevaux, L., Y.B. Jiang, A. Lambert, N.J. Livesey, W.G. Read, J.W. Waters, R.A. Fuller, T.P. Marcy, P.J. Popp, R.S. Gao, D.W. Fahey, K.W. Jucks, R.A. Stachnik, G.C. Toon, L.E. Christensen, C.R. Webster, P.F. Bernath, C.D. Boone, K.A. Walker, H.C. Pumphrey, R.S. Harwood, G.L. Manney, M.J. Schwartz, W.H. Daffer, B.J. Drouin, R.E. Cofield, D.T. Cuddy, R.F. Jarnot, B.W. Knosp, V.S. Perun, W.V. Snyder, P.C. Stek, R.P. Thurstans, P.A. Wagner, "Validation of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder HCl measurements", Journal of Geophysical Research 113, D15S25, doi:10.1029/2007JD009025, 2008. reprint
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  8. Schoeberl, M.R., A.R. Douglass, P.A. Newman, L.R. Lait, D. Lary, J. Waters, N. Livesey, L. Froidevaux, A. Lambert, W. Read, M.J. Filipiak, H.C. Pumphrey, "QBO and Annual Cycle Variations in Tropical Lower Stratosphere Trace Gases from HALOE and Aura MLS Observations", Journal of Geophysical Research 113, D05301, doi:10.1029/2007JD008678, 2008. reprint


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  3. Prata, A.J., S.A. Carn, A. Stohl, J. Kerkmann, "Long range transport and fate of a stratospheric volcanic cloud from Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 7, 19, 5093-5103, doi:10.5194/acp-7-5093-2007, 2007. reprint


  1. Cofield, R.E., P.C. Stek, "Design and field-of-view calibration of 114-660 GHz optics of the Earth Observing System Microwave Limb Sounder", IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 44, no. 5, 1166-1181, doi:10.1109/TGRS.2006.873234, 2006. reprint
  2. Froidevaux, L., N.J. Livesey, W.G. Read, Y.B. Jiang, C.J. Jimenez, M.J. Filipiak, M.J. Schwartz, M.L. Santee, H.C. Pumphrey, J.H. Jiang, D.L. Wu, G.L. Manney, B.J. Drouin, J.W. Waters, E.J. Fetzer, P.F. Bernath, C.D. Boone, K.A. Walker, K.W. Jucks, G.C. Toon, J.J. Margitan, B. Sen, C.R. Webster, L.E. Christensen, J.W. Elkins, E. Atlas, R.A. Lueb, R. Hendershot, "Early validation analyses of atmospheric profiles from EOS MLS on the Aura satellite", IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 44, no. 5, doi:10.1109/TGRS.2006.864366, 2006. reprint
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  4. Hilsenrath, E., M.R. Schoeberl, A.R. Douglass, P.K. Bhartia, J. Barnett, R. Beer, J. Waters, M. Gunson, L. Froidevaux, J. Gille, P.F. Levelt, "Early Data from Aura and Continuity from UARS and TOMS", Space Science Reviews 125, 417-430, doi:10.1007/s11214-006-9074-1, 2006. reprint
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  1. Manney, G.L., M.L. Santee, N.J. Livesey, L. Froidevaux, W.G. Read, H.C. Pumphrey, J.W. Waters, S. Pawson, "EOS Microwave Limb Sounder Observations of the Antarctic Polar Vortex Breakup in 2004", Geophysical Research Letters 32, L12811, doi:10.1029/2005GL022823, 2005. reprint
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