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Contact: Lucien Froidevaux

Basic Information

HCl in the stratosphere (from 15 to 50 km altitude) is a gas that results from the decomposition (by UV radiation) of tropospheric sources gases, mainly chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Most of the chlorine that is released from CFCs stored in this HCl reservoir at high altitudes (near 50 km), and HCl in the upper stratosphere provides a measure of the total chlorine content of the atmosphere (an abundance close to 3.5 parts per billion by volume). The chemistry that leads to ozone depletion at high latitudes largely comes from the more reactive forms of gaseous chlorine (mainly as ClO or chlorine monoxide, also measured by MLS), which makes up all or a large fraction of the atmospheric chlorine content in the lower stratosphere (near 20 km altitude) during polar winter and spring. Some chlorine at high altitude (near 40 km) is also in the form of ClO, which participates in ozone depletion as well. HCl is converted to ClO at high altitude, mainly by reaction with the OH radical; methane (CH4) reacting with chlorine atoms reforms HCl. A steady-state balance in the concentrations of active and reservoir chlorine molecules is achieved. Chlorine nitrate (ClONO2) also plays a role as a temporary chlorine reservoir, usually with lower abundances than HCl.
The HCl Molecule
HCl molecule visualization

How it is part of MLS Science Objectives

One of the objectives for MLS and the Aura mission is to understand and follow changes in the chemistry and atmospheric composition that can affect stratospheric ozone. HCl in the upper stratosphere has now been decreasing (since about the turn of the century), based on expectations from measurements of CFCs at the ground as well as past satellite HCl data and column HCl measurements from ground-based infrared data. MLS has observed a global decrease in upper stratospheric HCl, confirming that international agreements to limit the production of CFCs is having an impact on the total available stratospheric chlorine abundance (more than 95% of stratospheric chlorine at high altitude is in the form of gaseous HCl). Since early 2006, however, the main band for measuring HCl has been used very infrequently because of rapid deterioration in this specific portion of the MLS instrument; this does not diminish the usefulness/quality of other MLS data, including HCl measurements in the lower stratosphere (below about 30km altitude), as these measurements (from another band) have continued on a daily basis. In the lower stratosphere during polar winter and spring, the MLS measurements of HCl and ClO provide important information about the partitioning of chlorine products critical to ozone depletion.

How EOS MLS measures HCl

The standard product for HCl is taken from the 640 GHz retrieval. Simulations indicate excellent closure for HCl, typically to better than ~1%. Systematic biases (usually positive) tend to increase to 0.1 ppbv or more at the lowermost pressure (147 hPa); this can amount to more than 30% for the small abundances often found at this altitude. This leads us to be cautious about HCl below 100 hPa, except possibly at high latitudes where larger abundances can be found.

HCl Information from the Spectroscopy Database

Quick Product Information for data version v4.2

  • Swath Name: HCl
  • Status Flag: Only use profiles for which the Status field is an even number.
  • Useful Range: 100 - 0.32 hPa
  • DAAC Short Name: ML2HCL
  • Precision: Only use values for which the estimated precision is a positive number.
  • Quality Threshold: >1.2
  • Convergence Threshold: <1.05
Download EOS Aura MLS HCl v4.2 data

Publications related to the MLS HCl data product


  1. Kreyling, D., I. Wohltmann, R. Lehmann, M. Rex, "The Extrapolar SWIFT model version 1.0: fast stratospheric ozone chemistry for global climate models", Geoscientific Model Development 11, 2, 753-769, doi:10.5194/gmd-11-753-2018, 2018. reprint
  2. Strahan, S., A. Douglass, "Decline in Antarctic Ozone Depletion and Lower Stratospheric Chlorine Determined From Aura Microwave Limb Sounder Observations", Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1002/2017gl074830, 2018. reprint
  3. Xu, J., F. Schreier, G. Wetzel, A.D. Lange, M. Birk, T. Trautmann, A. Doicu, G. Wagner, "Performance Assessment of Balloon-Borne Trace Gas Sounding with the Terahertz Channel of TELIS", Remote Sens. 10, 2, 315, doi:10.3390/rs10020315, 2018. reprint


  1. Anderson, J., D. Weisenstein, K. Bowman, C. Homeyer, J. Smith, D. Wilmouth, D. Sayres, J.E. Klobas, S. Leroy, J. Dykema, S. Wofsy, "Stratospheric ozone over the United States in summer linked to observations of convection and temperature via chlorine and bromine catalysis", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 114, 25, E4905 – E4913, doi:10.1073/pnas.1619318114, 2017. reprint
  2. Hegglin, M., S. Tegtmeier, J. Anderson, A. Bourassa, S. Brohede, D. Degenstein, L. Froidevaux, B. Funke, J. Gille, A. Jones, Y. Kasai, E. Kyrola, J. Lumpe, J. Neu, E. Remsberg, A. Rozanov, M. Toohey, J. Urban, T. von Clarmann, K.A. Walker, R. Wang, "The SPARC Data Initiative: Assessment of stratospheric trace gas and aerosol climatologies from satellite limb sounders", SPARC Report 8,, 2017. reprint
  3. Ochiai, S., P. Baron, T. Nishibori, Y. Irimajiri, Y. Uzawa, T. Manabe, H. Maezawa, A. Mizuno, T. Nagahama, H. Sagawa, M. Suzuki, M. Shiotani, "SMILES-2 Mission for Temperature, Wind, and Composition in the Whole Atmosphere", SOLA 13A, Special Edition, 13-18, doi:10.2151/sola.13a-003, 2017. reprint
  4. Santee, M.L., G.L. Manney, N.J. Livesey, M.J. Schwartz, J.L. Neu, W.G. Read, "A comprehensive overview of the climatological composition of the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone based on 10 years of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder measurements", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 122, doi:10.1002/2016jd026408, 2017. reprint
  5. Wohltmann, I., R. Lehmann, M. Rex, "A quantitative analysis of the reactions involved in stratospheric ozone depletion in the polar vortex core", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 17, 17, 10535-10563, doi:10.5194/acp-17-10535-2017, 2017. reprint
  6. Wohltmann, I., R. Lehmann, M. Rex, "Update of the Polar SWIFT model for polar stratospheric ozone loss Polar SWIFT version 2", Geosci. Model Dev. 10, 7, 2671-2689, doi:10.5194/gmd-10-2671-2017, 2017. reprint


  1. Akiyoshi, H., T. Nakamura, T. Miyasaka, M. Shiotani, M. Suzuki, "A nudged chemistry-climate model simulation of chemical constituent distribution at northern high-latitude stratosphere observed by SMILES and MLS during the 2009/2010 stratospheric sudden warming", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 121, 3, 1361-1380, doi:10.1002/2015jd023334, 2016. reprint
  2. Andersson, M.E., P.T. Verronen, D.R. Marsh, S.M. Paivarinta, J.M.C. Plane, "WACCM-D-Improved modeling of nitric acid and active chlorine during energetic particle precipitation", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 121, 17, 10,328-10,341, doi:10.1002/2015jd024173, 2016. reprint
  3. Carn, S.A., L. Clarisse, A.J. Prata, "Multi-decadal satellite measurements of global volcanic degassing", J. Volcanology Geotherm. Res. 311, 99-134, doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2016.01.002, 2016. reprint
  4. Huijnen, V., J. Flemming, S. Chabrillat, Q. Errera, Y. Christophe, A. Blechschmidt, A. Richter, H. Eskes, "C-IFS-CB05-BASCOE: stratospheric chemistry in the Integrated Forecasting System of ECMWF", Geosci. Model Dev. 9, 9, 3071-3091, doi:10.5194/gmd-9-3071-2016, 2016. reprint
  5. Manney, G.L., Z.D. Lawrence, "The major stratospheric final warming in 2016: Dispersal of vortex air and termination of Arctic chemical ozone loss", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 16, 15371-15396, doi:10.5194/acp-2016-633, 2016.
  6. Nakajima, H., I. Wohltmann, T. Wegner, M. Takeda, M.C. Pitts, L.R. Poole, R. Lehmann, M.L. Santee, M. Rex, "Polar Stratospheric Cloud evolution and chlorine activation measured by CALIPSO and MLS, and modelled by ATLAS", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 16, 16, 3311–3325, doi:10.5194/acp-16-3311-2016, 2016. reprint
  7. Skachko, S., R. Menard, Q. Errera, Y. Christophe, S. Chabrillat, "EnKF and 4D-Var data assimilation with chemical transport model BASCOE version 05.06", Geosci. Model Dev. 9, 8, 2893-2908, doi:10.5194/gmd-9-2893-2016, 2016. reprint
  8. Wegner, T., M. Pitts, L. Poole, I. Tritscher, J. Grooß, H. Nakajima, "Vortex-wide chlorine activation by a mesoscale PSC event in the Arctic winter of 2009/10", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 16, 7, 4569-4577, doi:10.5194/acp-16-4569-2016, 2016. reprint


  1. Froidevaux, L., J. Anderson, H.J. Wang, R.A. Fuller, M.J. Schwartz, M.L. Santee, N.J. Livesey, H.C. Pumphrey, P.F. Bernath, J.M. Russell, M.P. McCormick, "Global OZone Chemistry And Related trace gas Data records for the Stratosphere GOZCARDS: methodology and sample results with a focus on HCl, H2O, and O3", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, doi:10.5194/acp-15-10471-2015, 2015. reprint
  2. Guo, D., Y. Su, C. Shi, J. Xu, A. Powell, "Double core of ozone valley over the Tibetan Plateau and its possible mechanisms", Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 130-131, 127-131, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2015.05.018, 2015. reprint
  3. Kristiansen, N.I., A.J. Prata, A. Stohl, S.A. Carn, "Stratospheric volcanic ash emissions from the 13 February 2014 Kelut eruption", Geophysical Research Letters 42, doi:10.1002/2014GL062307, 2015. reprint
  4. Kuttippurath, J., S. Godin-Beekmann, F. Lefevre, M.L. Santee, L. Froidevaux, A. Hauchecorne, "Variability in Antarctic ozone loss in the last decade 2004-2013: high-resolution simulations compared to Aura MLS observations", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 15, 10385-10397, doi:10.5194/acp-15-10385-2015, 2015. reprint
  5. Manney, G., Z. Lawrence, M. Santee, W. Read, N. Livesey, A. Lambert, L. Froidevaux, H. Pumphrey, M. Schwartz, "A minor sudden stratospheric warming with a major impact: Transport and polar processing in the 2014/2015 Arctic winter", Geophysical Research Letters 42, 18, 7808-7816, doi:10.1002/2015gl065864, 2015. reprint
  6. Manney, G.L., Z.D. Lawrence, M.L. Santee, N.J. Livesey, A. Lambert, M.C. Pitts, "Polar processing in a split vortex: Arctic ozone loss in early winter 2012/2013", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 15, 5381– 5403, doi:10.5194/acp-15-5381-2015, 2015. reprint
  7. Pendlebury, D., D. Plummer, J. Scinocca, P. Sheese, K. Strong, K. Walker, D. Degenstein, "Comparison of the CMAM30 data set with ACE-FTS and OSIRIS: polar regions", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 15, 21, 12465-12485, doi:10.5194/acp-15-12465-2015, 2015. reprint
  8. Schwartz, M.J., G.L. Manney, M.I. Hegglin, N.J. Livesey, M.L. Santee, W.H. Daffer, "Climatology and variability of trace gases in extratropical double-tropopause regions from MLS, HIRDLS, and ACE-FTS measurements", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 120, 843-867, doi:10.1002/2014JD021964, 2015. reprint
  9. Solomon, S., D. Kinnison, J. Bandoro, R. Garcia, "Simulation of polar ozone depletion: An update", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 120, 15, 7958-7974, doi:10.1002/2015jd023365, 2015. reprint
  10. Tang, X., Y. Liu, W. Wang, L. Song, W. Li, "Changes in stratospheric ClO and HCl concentrations under different greenhouse gas emission scenarios", J Meteorol Res 29, 4, 639-653, doi:10.1007/s13351-015-4065-3, 2015. reprint


  1. Blunden, J., D.S. Arndt, "State of the Climate in 2013", Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 95, S1-S257, 2014.
  2. Damiani, A., B. Funke, M.L. Puertas, A. Gardini, T. von Clarmann, M.L. Santee, L. Froidevaux, R.R. Cordero, "Changes in the composition of the northern polar upper stratosphere in February 2009 after a sudden stratospheric warming", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 119, 19, 11429-11444, doi:10.1002/2014JD021698, 2014. reprint
  3. Hurst, D.F., A. Lambert, W.G. Read, S.M. Davis, K.H. Rosenlof, E.G. Hall, A.F. Jordan, S.J. Oltmans, "Validation of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder stratospheric water vapor measurements by the NOAA frost point hygrometer", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 119, 1612, doi:10.1002/2013JD020757, 2014. reprint
  4. Mahieu, E., M.P. Chipperfield, J. Notholt, T. Reddmann, J. Anderson, P.F. Bernath, T. Blumenstock, M.T. Coffey, S.S. Dhomse, W. Feng, B. Franco, L. Froidevaux, D. Griffith, J.W. Hannigan, F. Hase, R. Hossaini, N.B. Jones, I. Morino, I. Murata, H. Nakajima, M. Palm, C. Paton-Walsh, J.M. Russell, M. Schneider, C. Servais, D. Smale, K.A. Walker, "Recent Northern Hemisphere stratospheric HCl increase due to atmospheric circulation changes", Nature 515, 104-107, doi:10.1038/nature13857, 2014. reprint
  5. Theys, N., I.D. Smedt, M.V. Roozendael, L. Froidevaux, L. Clarisse, F. Hendrick, "First satellite detection of volcanic OClO after the eruption of Puyehue-Cordón Caulle", Geophysical Research Letters 41, 2, 667-672, doi:10.1002/2013GL058416, 2014. reprint
  6. Virolainen, Y., Y. Timofeyev, A. Polyakov, D. Ionov, A. Poberovsky, "Intercomparison of satellite and ground-based measurements of ozone, NO2, HF, and HCl near Saint Petersburg, Russia", International Journal of Remote Sensing 35, 15, 5677-5697, doi:10.1080/01431161.2014.945009, 2014. reprint


  1. Blunden, J., D.S. Arndt, "State of the Climate in 2012", Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 94, S1-S238, 2013.
  2. Khosravi, M., P. Baron, J. Urban, L. Froidevaux, A.I. Jonsson, Y. Kasai, K. Kuribayashi, C. Mitsuda, D.P. Murtagh, H. Sagawa, M.L. Santee, T.O. Sato, M. Shiotani, M. Suzuki, T. von Clarmann, K.A. Walker, S. Wang, "Diurnal variation of stratospheric and lower mesospheric HOCl, ClO and HO2 at the equator: comparison of 1-D model calculations with measurements by satellite instruments", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 13, 7587-7606, doi:10.5194/acp-13-7587-2013, 2013. reprint
  3. Schwartz, M.J., W.J. Read, M.L. Santee, N.J. Livesey, L. Froidevaux, A. Lambert, G.L. Manney, "Convectively Injected Water Vapor in the North American Summer Lowermost Stratosphere", Geophysical Research Letters 40, 10, 2316–2321, doi:10.1002/grl.50421, 2013. reprint
  4. Sugita, T., Y. Kasai, Y. Terao, S. Hayashida, G.L. Manney, W.H. Daffer, H. Sagawa, M. Suzuki, M. Shiotani, K.A. Walker, C.D. Boone, P.F. Bernath, "HCl and ClO profiles inside the Antarctic vortex as observed by SMILES in November 2009: comparisons HCl and ClO profiles inside the Antarctic vortex as observed by SMILES in November 2009: comparisons with MLS and ACE-FTS instruments", Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 6, 3099-3113, doi:10.5194/amt-6-3099-2013, 2013. reprint
  5. von Clarmann, T., "Chlorine in the stratosphere", Atmosfera 26, 415-458, doi:10.1016/S0187-6236(13)71086-5, 2013. reprint
  6. Wohltmann, I., T. Wegner, R. Mueller, R. Lehmann, M. Rex, G.L. Manney, M.L. Santee, P. Bernath, O. Suminska-Ebersoldt, F. Strohl, M. von Hobe, C.M. Volk, E. Hoesen, F. Ravegnani, A. Ulanovsky, V. Yushkov, "Uncertainties in modelling heterogeneous chemistry and Arctic ozone depletion in the winter 2009/2010", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 13, 3909-3929, doi:10.5194/acp-13-3909-2013, 2013. reprint


  1. Blessmann, D., I. Wohldmann, R. Lehmann, M. Rex, "Persistence of ozone anomalies in the Arctic stratospheric vortex in autumn", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12, 4817-4823, doi:10.5194/acp-12-4817-2012, 2012. reprint
  2. Blunden, J., D.S. Arndt, "State of the Climate in 2011", Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 93, S1--S264, doi:10.1175/2012BAMSStateoftheClimate.1, 2012. reprint
  3. Damiani, A., B. Funke, D.R. Marsh, M. Lopez-Puertas, M.L. Santee, L. Froidevaux, S. Wang, C.H. Jackman, T. von Clarmann, A. Gardini, R.R. Cordero, M. Storini, "Impact of January 2005 solar proton events on chlorine species", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12, 4159–4179, doi:10.5194/acp-12-4159-2012, 2012. reprint
  4. Jones, A., K.A. Walker, J.J. Jin, J.R. Taylor, C.D. Boone, P.F. Bernath, S. Brohede, G.L. Manney, S. McLeod, R. Hughes, W.H. Daffer, "Technical Note: A trace gas climatology derived from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer ACE-FTS data set", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12, 5207-5220, doi:10.5194/acp-12-5207-2012, 2012. reprint
  5. Lange, A.D., M. Birk, G.D. Lange, F. Friedl-Vallon, O. Kiselev, V. Koshelets, G. Maucher, H. Oelhaf, A. Selig, P. Vogt, G. Wagner, J. Landgraf, "HCl and ClO in activated Arctic air first retrieved vertical profiles from TELIS submillimetre limb spectra", Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 5, 487-500, doi:10.5194/amtd-4-6497-2011, 2012. reprint
  6. Wegner, T., J.U. Grooss, M. von Hobe, F. Stroh, O. Suminska-Ebersoldt, C.M. Volk, E. Hosen, V. Mitev, G. Shur, R. Mueller, "Heterogeneous chlorine activation on stratospheric aerosols and clouds in the Arctic polar vortex", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12, 11095-11106, doi:10.5194/acp-12-11095-2012, 2012. reprint
  7. Winkler, H., C. von Savigny, J.P. Burrows, J.M. Wissing, M.J. Schwartz, A. Lambert, M. Garcia-Comas, "Impacts of the January 2005 solar particle event on noctilucent clouds and water at the polar summer mesopause", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12, 5633, doi:10.5194/acp-12-5633-2012, 2012. reprint


  1. Blunden, J., D.S. Arndt, M.O. Baringer, "State of the Climate in 2010", Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 92, S1-S266, doi:10.1175/1520-0477-92.6.S1, 2011. reprint
  2. Feng, W., M.P. Chipperfield, S. Davies, G.W. Mann, K.S. Carslaw, S. Dhomse, L. Harvey, C. Randall, M.L. Santee, "Modelling the effect of denitrification on polar ozone depletion for Arctic winter 2004/2005", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 11, 6559-6573, doi:10.5194/acp-11-6559-2011, 2011. reprint
  3. Jones, A., J. Urban, D.P. Murtagh, C. Sanchez, K.A. Walker, N.J. Livesey, L. Froidevaux, M.L. Santee, "Analysis of HCl and ClO time series in the upper stratosphere using satellite data sets", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 11, 5321-5333, doi:10.5194/acp-11-5321-2011, 2011. reprint
  4. Laat, A.T.J.d., M. van Weele, "The 2010 Antarctic ozone hole: Observed reduction in ozone destruction by minor sudden stratospheric warmings", Scientific Reports 1, 38, 1-8, doi:10.1038/srep00038, 2011. reprint
  5. Manney, G.L., M.L. Santee, M. Rex, N.J. Livesey, M.C. Pitts, P. Veefkind, E.R. Nash, I. Wohltmann, R. Lehmann, L. Froidevaux, L.R. Poole, M.R. Schoeberl, D.P. Haffner, J. Davies, V. Dorokhov, H. Gernandt, B. Johnson, R. Kivi, E. Kyro, N. Larsen, P.F. Levelt, A. Makshtas, C.T. McElroy, H. Nakajima, M.C. Parrondo, D.W. Tarasick, P.D. von Gathen, K.A. Walker, N.S. Zinoviev, "Unprecedented Arctic ozone loss in 2011", Nature 478, 469–475, doi:10.1038/nature10556, 2011. reprint
  6. Nielsen, K., G.E. Nedoluhab, A. Chandran, L.C. Chang, J. Barker-Tvedtnes, M.J. Taylor, N.J. Mitchell, A. Lambert, M.J. Schwartz, J.M. Russell, "On the origin of mid-latitude mesospheric clouds: The July 2009 cloud outbreak", Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 73, 14-15, 2118-2124, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2010.10.015, 2011. reprint
  7. Santee, M.L., G.L. Manney, N.J. Livesey, L. Froidevaux, M.J. Schwartz, W.G. Read, "Trace gas evolution in the lowermost stratosphere from Aura Microwave Limb Sounder measurements", Journal of Geophysical Research 116, D18306, doi:10.1029/2011JD015590, 2011. reprint


  1. Arndt, D.S., M.O. Baringer, M.R. Johnson, "State of the Climate in 2009", Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 90, S1-S196, doi:10.1175/BAMS-91-7-StateoftheClimate, 2010. reprint
  2. Mebarki, Y., V. Catoire, N. Huret, G. Berthet, C. Robert, G. Poulet, "More evidence for very short-lived substance contribution to stratospheric chlorine inferred from HCl balloon-borne in situ measurements in the tropics", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 10, 397-409, doi:10.5194/acp-10-397-2010, 2010. reprint
  3. Minschwaner, K., G.L. Manney, N.J. Livesey, H.C. Pumphrey, H.M. Pickett, L. Froidevaux, A. Lambert, M.J. Schwartz, P.F. Bernath, K.A. Walker, C.D. Boone, "The photochemistry of carbon monoxide in the stratosphere and mesosphere evaluated from observations by the Microwave Limb Sounder on the Aura satellite", Journal of Geophysical Research 115, D13303, doi:10.1029/2009JD012654, 2010. reprint


  1. Kawa, S.R., R.S. Stolarski, P.A. Newman, A.R. Douglass, M. Rex, D.J. Hoffmann, M.L. Santee, K. Frieler, "Sensitivity of polar stratospheric ozone loss to uncertainties in chemical reaction kinetics", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 9, 8651-8660, doi:10.5194/acp-9-8651-2009, 2009. reprint
  2. Nedoluha, G.E., R.M. Gomez, B.C. Hicks, J.E. Wrotny, C. Boone, A. Lambert, "Water vapor measurements in the mesosphere from Mauna Loa over solar cycle 23", Journal of Geophysical Research 114, D2330, doi:10.1029/2009JD012504, 2009. reprint


  1. Coffey, M.T., J.W. Hannigan, A. Goldman, D.E. Kinnison, J.C. Gille, J. Barnett, L. Froidevaux, A. Lambert, M.L. Santee, N.J. Livesey, B.M. Fisher, S.S. Kulawik, R. Beer, "Airborne Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) observations in support of EOS Aura validation", Journal of Geophysical Research 113, D16S42, doi:10.1029/2007JD008833, 2008. reprint
  2. Considine, D.B., M. Natarajan, T.D. Fairlie, G.S. Lingenfelser, R.B. Pierce, L. Froidevaux, A. Lambert, "Noncoincident validation of Aura MLS observations using the Langley Research Center Lagrangian chemistry and transport model", Journal of Geophysical Research 113, D16S33, doi:10.1029/2007JD008770, 2008. reprint
  3. Froidevaux, L., Y.B. Jiang, A. Lambert, N.J. Livesey, W.G. Read, J.W. Waters, R.A. Fuller, T.P. Marcy, P.J. Popp, R.S. Gao, D.W. Fahey, K.W. Jucks, R.A. Stachnik, G.C. Toon, L.E. Christensen, C.R. Webster, P.F. Bernath, C.D. Boone, K.A. Walker, H.C. Pumphrey, R.S. Harwood, G.L. Manney, M.J. Schwartz, W.H. Daffer, B.J. Drouin, R.E. Cofield, D.T. Cuddy, R.F. Jarnot, B.W. Knosp, V.S. Perun, W.V. Snyder, P.C. Stek, R.P. Thurstans, P.A. Wagner, "Validation of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder HCl measurements", Journal of Geophysical Research 113, D15S25, doi:10.1029/2007JD009025, 2008. reprint
  4. Lary, D.J., O. Aulov, "Space-based measurements of HCl: Intercomparison and historical context", Journal of Geophysical Research 113, D15S04, doi:10.1029/2007JD008715, 2008. reprint
  5. Mahieu, E., P. Duchatelet, P. Demoulin, K.A. Walker, E. Dupuy, L. Froidevaux, C. Tandall, V. Catoire, K. Strong, C.D. Boone, P.F. Bernath, T. Blumenstock, M. Coffey, M. De Maziere, D. Griffith, J. Hannigan, F. Hase, N. Jones, K.W. Jucks, A. Kagawa, Y. Kasai, Y. Mebarki, S. Mikuteit, R. Nassar, J. Notholt, C.P. Rinsland, C. Robert, O. Schrems, C. Senten, D. Dmale, J. Taylor, C. Tetard, G.C. Toon, T. Warneke, S.W. Wood, R. Zander, C. Servais, "Validation of ACE-FTS v2.2 measurements of HCl, HF, CCl3F and CCl2F2 using space-, balloon- and ground-based instrument observations", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 8, 20, 6199-6221, doi:10.5194/acp-8-6199-2008, 2008. reprint
  6. McConnell, J.C., J.J. Jin, "Stratospheric Ozone Chemistry", Atmosphere-Ocean 46, No. 1, 69-92, doi:10.3137/ao.460104, 2008. reprint
  7. Santee, M.L., I.A. MacKenzie, G.L. Manney, M.P. Chipperfield, P.F. Bernath, K.A. Walker, C.D. Boone, L. Froidevaux, N.J. Livesey, J.W. Waters, "A study of stratospheric chlorine partitioning based on new", Journal of Geophysical Research 113, D12307, doi:10.1029/2007JD009057, 2008. reprint
  8. Schoeberl, M.R., A.R. Douglass, P.A. Newman, L.R. Lait, D. Lary, J. Waters, N. Livesey, L. Froidevaux, A. Lambert, W. Read, M.J. Filipiak, H.C. Pumphrey, "QBO and Annual Cycle Variations in Tropical Lower Stratosphere Trace Gases from HALOE and Aura MLS Observations", Journal of Geophysical Research 113, D05301, doi:10.1029/2007JD008678, 2008. reprint


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