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The MLS CO Product

Contact: Michael Schwartz for troposphere
Hugh Pumphrey for stratosphere, mesosphere

Basic Information

CO is a long-lived tracer that is valuable for diagnosing atmospheric transport and identifying the source of air masses. CO in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere results from the lofting of polluted air from near the Earth's surface. CO in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere has descended from the thermosphere, where it is produced by the photodissociation of CO2.
The CO Molecule
CO molecule visualization

How it is part of MLS Science Objectives

As a long-lived tracer, CO is valuable for diagnosing atmospheric transport and identifying the source of air masses. The MLS CO data help quantify long-range transport of pollution in the upper troposphere and the impact of upwelling from the troposphere and downwelling from the mesosphere on stratospheric chemistry.

How EOS MLS measures CO

The version 4.2 CO product is retrieved from radiances near the 230.5 GHz CO line.

CO Information from the Spectroscopy Database

Quick Product Information for data version v4.2

  • Swath Name: CO
  • Status Flag: Only use profiles for which the Status field is an even number.
  • Useful Range: 215-0.0046 hPa
  • DAAC Short Name: ML2CO
  • Precision: Only use values for which the estimated precision is a positive number.
  • Quality Threshold: >1.5
  • Convergence Threshold: <1.03
Download EOS Aura MLS CO v4.2 data

Publications related to the MLS CO data product


  1. Funke, B., W. Ball, S. Bender, A. Gardini, V.L. Harvey, A. Lambert, M. López-Puertas, D. Marsh, K. Meraner, H. Nieder, S. Päivärinta, K. Pérot, C. Randall, T. Reddmann, E. Rozanov, H. Schmidt, A. Seppälä, M. Sinnhuber, T. Sukhodolov, G. Stiller, N. Tsvetkova, P. Verronen, S. Versick, T. von Clarmann, K. Walker, V. Yushkov, "HEPPA-II model–measurement intercomparison project: EPP indirect effects during the dynamically perturbed NH winter 2008&ndash2009", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 17, 5, 3573-3604, doi:10.5194/acp-17-3573-2017, 2017. reprint
  2. Luo, J., J. Song, H. Tian, L. Liu, X. Liang, "A Case Study of Mass Transport during the East-West Oscillation of the Asian Summer Monsoon Anticyclone", Advances in Meteorology 2017, 1-13, doi:10.1155/2017/5174025, 2017. reprint
  3. Ochiai, S., P. Baron, T. Nishibori, Y. Irimajiri, Y. Uzawa, T. Manabe, H. Maezawa, A. Mizuno, T. Nagahama, H. Sagawa, M. Suzuki, M. Shiotani, "SMILES-2 Mission for Temperature, Wind, and Composition in the Whole Atmosphere", SOLA 13A, Special Edition, 13-18, doi:10.2151/sola.13a-003, 2017. reprint
  4. Ploeger, F., P. Konopka, K. Walker, M. Riese, "Quantifying pollution transport from the Asian monsoon anticyclone into the lower stratosphere", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 17, 11, 7055-7066, doi:10.5194/acp-17-7055-2017, 2017. reprint
  5. Ryan, N., M. Palm, U. Raffalski, R. Larsson, G. Manney, L. Millan, J. Notholt, "Strato-mesospheric carbon monoxide profiles above Kiruna, Sweden 67.8 ° N, 20.4 ° E, since 2008", Earth System Science Data 9, 1, 77-89, doi:10.5194/essd-9-77-2017, 2017. reprint
  6. Santee, M.L., G.L. Manney, N.J. Livesey, M.J. Schwartz, J.L. Neu, W.G. Read, "A comprehensive overview of the climatological composition of the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone based on 10 years of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder measurements", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 122, doi:10.1002/2016jd026408, 2017. reprint
  7. Sheese, P., K. Walker, C. Boone, P. Bernath, L. Froidevaux, B. Funke, P. Raspollini, T. von Clarmann, "ACE-FTS ozone, water vapour, nitrous oxide, nitric acid, and carbon monoxide profile comparisons with MIPAS and MLS", Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer 186, 63-80, doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2016.06.026, 2017. reprint
  8. Wohltmann, I., R. Lehmann, M. Rex, "A quantitative analysis of the reactions involved in stratospheric ozone depletion in the polar vortex core", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 17, 17, 10535-10563, doi:10.5194/acp-17-10535-2017, 2017. reprint
  9. Zhao, B., W. Wu, S. Wang, J. Xing, X. Chang, K.N. Liou, J.H. Jiang, Y. Gu, C. Jang, J.S. Fu, Y. Zhu, J. Wang, Y. Lin, J. Hao, "A modeling study of the nonlinear response of fine particles to air pollutant emissions in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, doi:, 2017. reprint
  10. Zhao, B., K.N. Liou, Y. Gu, Q. Li, J.H. Jiang, H. Su, C. He, H.R. Tseng, S. Wang, R. Liu, L. Qi, W. Lee, J. Hao, "Enhanced PM 2.5 pollution in China due to aerosol-cloud interactions", Scientific Reports 7, doi:10.1038/s41598-017-04096-8, 2017. reprint


  1. Eguchi, N., K. Kodera, B. Funatsu, H. Takashima, R. Ueyama, "Rapid Convective Transport of Tropospheric Air into the Tropical Lower Stratosphere during the 2010 Sudden Stratospheric Warming", SOLA 12A, Special_Edition, 13-17, doi:10.2151/sola.12a-003, 2016. reprint
  2. Field, R., G.D. van Werf, T. Fanin, E. Fetzer, R. Fuller, H. Jethva, R. Levy, N. Livesey, M. Luo, O. Torres, H. Worden, "Indonesian fire activity and smoke pollution in 2015 show persistent nonlinear sensitivity to El Niño-induced drought", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 113, 33, 9204-9209, doi:10.1073/pnas.1524888113, 2016. reprint
  3. Field, R., M. Luo, M. Fromm, A. Voulgarakis, S. Mangeon, J. Worden, "Simulating the Black Saturday 2009 smoke plume with an interactive composition-climate model: Sensitivity to emissions amount, timing, and injection height", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 121, 8, 4296-4316, doi:10.1002/2015jd024343, 2016. reprint
  4. Garny, H., W. Randel, "Transport pathways from the Asian monsoon anticyclone to the stratosphere", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 16, 4, 2703-2718, doi:10.5194/acp-16-2703-2016, 2016. reprint
  5. Manney, G.L., Z.D. Lawrence, "The major stratospheric final warming in 2016: Dispersal of vortex air and termination of Arctic chemical ozone loss", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 16, 15371-15396, doi:10.5194/acp-2016-633, 2016.
  6. Massie, S.T., J. Delanoë, C.G. Bardeen, J.H. Jiang, L. Huang, "Changes in the shape of cloud ice water content vertical structure due to aerosol variations", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 16, 9, 6091-6105, doi:10.5194/acp-16-6091-2016, 2016. reprint
  7. Millan, L., N. Livesey, M. Santee, J. Neu, G. Manney, R. Fuller, "Case studies of the impact of orbital sampling on stratospheric trend detection and derivation of tropical vertical velocities: solar occultation vs. limb emission sounding", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 16, 18, 11521-11534, doi:10.5194/acp-16-11521-2016, 2016. reprint
  8. Xie, F., J. Li, W. Tian, D. Hu, J. Zhang, J. Shu, C. Wang, "A Quantitative Estimation of the Transport of Surface Emissions from Different Regions into the Stratosphere", SOLA 12, 65-69, doi:10.2151/sola.2016-015, 2016. reprint


  1. Field, R., M. Luo, D. Kim, A.D. Genio, A. Voulgarakis, J. Worden, "Sensitivity of simulated tropospheric CO to subgrid physics parameterization: A case study of Indonesian biomass burning emissions in 2006", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 120, 22, 11,743-11,759, doi:10.1002/2015jd023402, 2015. reprint
  2. Gaudel, A., H. Clark, V. Thouret, L. Jones, A. Inness, J. Flemming, O. Stein, V. Huijnen, H. Eskes, P. Nedelec, D. Boulanger, "On the use of MOZAIC-IAGOS data to assess the ability of the MACC reanalysis to reproduce the distribution of ozone and CO in the UTLS over Europe", Tellus B Chemical and Physical Meteorology 67, doi:10.3402/tellusb.v67.27955, 2015. reprint
  3. Harvey, V.L., C.E. Randall, R.L. Collins, "Chemical definition of the mesospheric polar vortex", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 120, 19, 10,166–10,179, doi:10.1002/2015jd023488, 2015. reprint
  4. Jensen, E.J., L. Pfister, R. Ueyama, J.W. Bergman, D. Kinnison, "Investigation of the transport processes controlling the geographic distribution of carbon monoxide at the tropical tropopause", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 120, 5, 2067-2086, doi:10.1002/2014jd022661, 2015. reprint
  5. Minschwaner, K., G.L. Manney, "Derived Methane in the Stratosphere and Lower Mesosphere from Aura Microwave Limb Sounder Measurements of Nitrous Oxide, Water Vapor, and Carbon Monoxide", Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, doi:10.1007/s10874-015-9299-z, 2015. reprint
  6. Schwartz, M.J., G.L. Manney, M.I. Hegglin, N.J. Livesey, M.L. Santee, W.H. Daffer, "Climatology and variability of trace gases in extratropical double-tropopause regions from MLS, HIRDLS, and ACE-FTS measurements", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 120, 843-867, doi:10.1002/2014JD021964, 2015. reprint
  7. Vogel, B., G. Günther, R. Müller, J.U. Grooß, M. Riese, "Impact of different Asian source regions on the composition of the Asian monsoon anticyclone and on the extratropical lowermost stratosphere ", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, doi:10.5194/acp-15-13699-2015, 2015. reprint
  8. Wang, C., W. Tian, J. Zhang, D. Hu, S. Dhomse, J. Shu, J. Luo, "Model study of the impacts of emissions, chemical and dynamical processes on the CO variability in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere", Tellus B Chemical and Physical Meteorology 67, doi:10.3402/tellusb.v67.27475, 2015. reprint
  9. Yan, R.C., J.C. Bian, "Tracing the boundary layer sources of carbon monoxide in the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone using WRF-Chem", Advances in Atmospheric Sciences 32, 7, 943-951, doi:10.1007/s00376-014-4130-3, 2015. reprint


  1. Huang, L., R. Fu, J.H. Jiang, "Impacts of Fire Emissions and Transport Pathways on the Interannual Variation of CO in the Tropical Upper Troposphere", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 14, 4087-4099, doi:10.5194/acp-14-4087-2014, 2014. reprint
  2. Isono, Y., A. Mizuno, T. Nagahama, Y. Miyoshi, T. Nakamura, R. Kataoka, M. Tsutsumi, M.K. Ejiri, H. Fujiwara, H. Maezawa, M. Uemura, "Ground-based observations of nitric oxide in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere over Antarctica in 2012–2013", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, doi:10.1002/2014JA019881, 2014. reprint
  3. Ruzmaikin, A., J.N. Lee, D.L. Wu, "Patterns of carbon monoxide in the middle atmosphere and effects of solar variability", Advances in Space Research 54, 3, 320-326, doi:10.1016/j.asr.2013.06.033, 2014. reprint
  4. Wang, T., W.J. Randel, A.E. Dessler, M.R. Schoeberl, D.E. Kinnison, "Trajectory model simulations of ozone O3 and carbon monoxide CO in the lower stratosphere", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 14, 7135-7147, doi:10.5194/acp-14-7135-2014, 2014. reprint
  5. Warner, J.X., R. Yang, Z. Wei, F. Carminati, A. Tangborn, Z. Sun, W. Lahoz, J.L. Attié, L.E. Amraoui, B. Duncan, "Global carbon monoxide products from combined AIRS, TES and MLS measurements on A-train satellites", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 14, 1, 103-114, doi:10.5194/acp-14-103-2014, 2014. reprint


  1. Abalos, M., W.J. Randel, D.E. Kinnison, E. Serrano, "Quantifying tracer transport in the tropical lower stratosphere using WACCM", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 13, 10591-10607, doi:10.5194/acp-13-10591-2013, 2013. reprint
  2. Barré, J., L.E. Amraoui, P. Ricaud, W.A. Lahoz, J.L. Attie, V.H. Peuch, B. Josse, V. Marécal, "Diagnosing the transition layer at extratropical latitudes using MLS O3 and MOPITT CO analyses", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 13, 1, 7225-7240, doi:10.5194/acp-13-7225-2013, 2013. reprint
  3. Garny, H., W.J. Randel, "Dynamic variability of the Asian monsoon anticyclone observed in potential vorticity and correlations with tracer distributions", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, doi:10.1002/2013JD020908, 2013. reprint
  4. Huang, L., J.H. Jiang, J.L. Tackett, H. Su, R. Fu, "Seasonal and Diurnal Variations of Aerosol Extinction Profile and Type Distribution from CALIPSO 5-year Observations", Journal of Geophysical Research 118, 10, 4572–4596, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50407, 2013. reprint
  5. Inness, A., F. Baier, A. Benedetti, I. Bouarar, S. Chabrillat, H. Clark, C. Clerbaux, P. Coheur, R.J. Engelen, Q. Errera, J. Flemming, M. George, C. Granier, J. Hadji-Lazaro, V. Huijnen, D. Hurtmans, L. Jones, J.W. Kaiser, J. Kapsomenakis, K. Lefever, J. Leitao, M. Razinger, A. Richter, M.G. Schultz, A.J. Simmons, M. Suttie, O. Stein, J.N. Thepaut, V. Thouret, M. Vrekoussis, C. Zerefos, "The MACC reanalysis: an 8 yr data set of atmospheric composition", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 13, 4073-4109, doi:10.5194/acp-13-4073-2013, 2013. reprint
  6. Jiménez, C., S. Gulkis, G. Beaudin, T. Encrenaz, P. Eriksson, L. Kamp, S. Lee, S.A. Buehler, "Sub-millimeter observations of the terrestrial atmosphere during an Earth flyby of the MIRO sounder on the Rosetta spacecraft", Planetary and Space Science 82-83, 99-112, doi:10.1016/j.pss.2013.03.016, 2013. reprint
  7. Jin, J.J., N.J. Livesey, G.L. Manney, J.H. Jiang, M.J. Schwartz, W.H. Daffer, "Chemical discontinuity at the extratropical tropopause and isentropic stratosphere - troposphere exchange pathways diagnosed using Aura MLS data ", Journal of Geophysical Research 118, 9, 3832-3847, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50291, 2013. reprint
  8. Lee, J.N., D.L. Wu, A. Ruzmaikin, "Interannual variations of MLS carbon monoxide induced by solar cycle", Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 102, 99-104, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2013.05.012, 2013. reprint
  9. Livesey, N.J., J.A. Logan, M.L. Santee, J.W. Waters, R.M. Doherty, W.G. Read, L. Froidevaux, J.H. Jiang, "Interrelated variations of O3, CO and deep convection in the tropical/subtropical upper troposphere observed by the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder MLS during 2004–2011", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 13, 579-598, doi:10.5194/acp-13-579-2013, 2013. reprint
  10. Luo, M., W. Read, S. Kulawik, J. Worden, N. Livesey, K. Bowman, R. Herman, "Carbon Monoxide CO vertical profiles derived from joined TES and MLS measurements", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 118, 18, 10601-10613, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50800, 2013. reprint
  11. McDonald, A.J., M. Smith, "A technique to identify vortex air using carbon monoxide observations", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 118, 22, 12,719-12,733, doi:10.1002/2012jd019257, 2013. reprint
  12. McLandress, C., J.F. Scinocca, T.G. Shepherd, M.C. Reader, G.L. Manney, "Dynamical control of the mesosphere by orographic and non-orographic gravity wave drag during the extended northern winters of 2006 and 2009", Journal of Atmospheric Sciences 70, 7, 2152-2169, doi:10.1175/JAS-D-12-0297.1, 2013. reprint
  13. Park, M., W.J. Randel, D.E. Kinnison, L.K. Emmons, P.F. Bernath, K.A. Walker, C.D. Boone, N.J. Livesey, "Hydrocarbons in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere observed from ACE-FTS and comparisons with WACCM", Journal of Geophysical Research 118, 1964-1980, doi:10.1029/2012JD018327 , 2013. reprint
  14. Reid, J.S., E.J. Hyer, R.S. Johnson, B.N. Holben, R.J. Yokelson, J. Zhang, J.R. Campbell, S.A. Christopher, L.D. Girolamo, L. Giglio, R.E. Holz, C. Kearney, J. Miettinen, E.A. Reid, F.J. Turk, J. Wang, P. Xian, G. Zhao, R. Balasubramanian, B.N. Chew, S. Janjai, N. Lagrosas, P. Lestari, N.H. Lin, M. Mahmud, A.X. Nguyen, B. Norris, N.T.K. Oanh, M. Oo, S.V. Salinas, E.J. Welton, S.C. Liew, "Observing and understanding the Southeast Asian aerosol system by remote sensing: An initial review and analysis for the Seven Southeast Asian Studies 7SEAS program", Atmospheric Research 122, 403-468, doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2012.06.005, 2013. reprint
  15. Santee, M.L., N.J. Livesey, G.L. Manney, A. Lambert, W.G. Read, "Methyl chloride from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder: First global climatology and assessment of variability in the upper troposphere and stratosphere", Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 118, 24, 13532-13560, doi:10.1002/2013JD020235, 2013. reprint


  1. Abalos, M., W.J. Randel, E. Serrano, "Variability in upwelling across the tropical tropopause and correlations with tracers in the lower stratosphere", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12, 11505-11517, doi:10.5194/acp-12-11505-2012, 2012. reprint
  2. Hoffman, C.G., D.E. Kinnison, R.R. Garcia, M. Palm, J. Notholt, U. Raffalski, G. Hochschild, "CO at 40-80 km above Kiruna observed by the ground-based microwave radiometer KIMRA and simulated by the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12, 3261-3271, doi:10.5194/acp-12-3261-2012, 2012. reprint
  3. Huang, L., R. Fu, J.H. Jiang, J.S. Wright, M. Luo, "Geographic and seasonal distributions of CO transport pathways and their roles in determining CO centers in the upper troposphere", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12, 4683–4698, doi:10.5194/acp-12-4683-2012, 2012. reprint
  4. Jones, A., K.A. Walker, J.J. Jin, J.R. Taylor, C.D. Boone, P.F. Bernath, S. Brohede, G.L. Manney, S. McLeod, R. Hughes, W.H. Daffer, "Technical Note: A trace gas climatology derived from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer ACE-FTS data set", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12, 5207-5220, doi:10.5194/acp-12-5207-2012, 2012. reprint
  5. Ploeger, F., P. Konopka, R. Muller, S. Fueglistaler, T. Schmidt, J.C. Manners, J.U. Grooss, G. Gunther, P.M. Forster, M. Riese, "Horizontal transport affecting trace gas seasonality in the Tropical Tropopause Layer TTL", Journal of Geophysical Research 117, D09303, doi:10.1029/2011JD017267, 2012. reprint
  6. Yi, M., Y. Fu, P. Liu, Z. Heng, Y. Gao, X. Hong, "Analysis of the variation of atmospheric composition in the upper troposphere during a strong convection in eastern China in summer", Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences 36, 5, doi:10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2012.11124, 2012.


  1. Fadnavis, S., P. Buchunde, S.D. Ghude, S.H. Kulkarni, G. Beig, "Evidence of seasonal enchancement of CO in the upper troposphere over India", International Journal of Remote Sensing 32, 22, 7441-7452, doi:10.1080/01431161.2010.523733, 2011. reprint
  2. Gettelman, A., P. Hoor, L.L. Pan, W.J. Randel, M.I. Hegglin, T. Birner, "The Extratropical Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere", Reviews of Geophysics 49, doi:10.1029/2011RG00, doi:10.1029/2011RG000355, 2011. reprint
  3. Hoffmann, C.G., U. Raffalski, M. Palm, B. Funke, S.H.W. Golchert, H. Hochschild, J. Notholt, "Observation of strato-mesospheric CO above Kiruna with ground-based microwave radiometry - retrieval and satellite comparison", Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 4, 2389-2408, doi:10.5194/amt-4-2389-2011, 2011. reprint
  4. Jiang, J.H., H. Su, C. Zhai, S.T. Massie, M.R. Schoeberl, P.R. Colarco, S. Platnick, Y. Gu, K.N. Liou, "Influence of convection and aerosol pollution on ice cloud particle effective radius", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 11, 457-463, doi:10.5194/acp-11-457-2011, 2011. reprint
  5. Jin, J.J., N.J. Livesey, J.H. Jiang, A. Lupu, J.W. Kaminski, J.C. McConnell, "Seasonal Variation of Trans-Pacific Transport of Carbon Monoxide (CO) in the Upper Troposphere: MLS Observations and GEOS-Chem and GEM-AQ simulations", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions 11, 1, 3219-3250, doi:10.5194/acpd-11-3219-2011, 2011. reprint
  6. Jones, A., J. Urban, D.P. Murtagh, C. Sanchez, K.A. Walker, N.J. Livesey, L. Froidevaux, M.L. Santee, "Analysis of HCl and ClO time series in the upper stratosphere using satellite data sets", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 11, 5321-5333, doi:10.5194/acp-11-5321-2011, 2011. reprint
  7. Lee, J.N., D.L. Wu, G.L. Manney, M.J. Schwartz, A. Lambert, N.J. Livesey, K.R. Minschwaner, H.C. Pumphrey, W.G. Read, "Aura Microwave Limb Sounder Observations of the Polar Middle Atmosphere: Dynamics and Transport of CO and H2O", Journal of Geophysical Research 116, D5, D05110, doi:10.1029/2010JD014608, 2011. reprint
  8. Manney, G.L., M.I. Hegglin, W.H. Daffer, M.L. Santee, E.A. Ray, S. Pawson, M.J. Schwartz, C.D. Boone, L. Froidevaux, N.J. Livesey, W.G. Read, K.A. Walker, "Jet characterization in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere UTLS: applications to climatology and transport studies", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 11, 6115-6137, doi:10.5194/acp-11-6115-2011, 2011. reprint
  9. Michou, M., D. Saint-Martin, H. Teyssedre, A. Alias, F. Karcher, D. Olivie, A. Voldoire, A. Voldoire, V-H. Peuch, H. Clark, J.N. Lee, F. Cheroux, "A new version of the CNRM Chemistry-Climate Model, CNRM-CCM: description and improvements from the CCMVal-2 simulations", Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss. 4, 1129-1183, doi:10.5194/gmdd-4-1129-2011, 2011. reprint
  10. Pumphrey, H.C., M.L. Santee, N.J. Livesey, M.J. Schwartz, W.G. Read, "Microwave Limb Sounder observations of biomass-burning products from the Australian bush fires of February 2009", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 11, 2, 6285-6296, doi:10.5194/acp-11-6285-2011, 2011. reprint
  11. Ren, S., S. Polavarupu, S.R. Beagley, Y. Nezlin, Y.J. Rochon, "The impact of gravity wave drag on mesospheric analyses of the 2006 stratospheric major warming", Journal of Geophysical Research 116, D19116, doi:10.1029/2011JD015943, 2011. reprint
  12. Ren-Chang, Y., B. Jian-Chun, F. Qiu-Jun, "The Impact of the South Asia High Bimodality on the Chemical Composition of the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere", Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters 4, 4, 229-234, doi:10.1080/16742834.2011.11446934, 2011. reprint
  13. Zhang, L., Q.B. Li, J. Jin, H. Liu, N. Livesey, J.H. Jiang, Y. Mao, D. Chen, M. Luo, Y. Chen, "Impacts of 2006 Indonesian fires and dynamics on tropical upper tropospheric carbon monoxide and ozone", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 11, 10929-10946, doi:10.5194/acp-11-10929-2011, 2011. reprint


  1. Barret, B., J.E. Williams, I. Bouarar, X. Yang, B. Josse, K. Law, M. Pham, E. LeFlochmoen, C. Liousse, V.H. Peuch, G.D. Carver, J.A. Pyle, B. Sauvage, P. vanVelthoven, H. Schlager, C. Mari, J.P. Cammas, "Impact of West African Monsoon convective transport and lightning NOx production upon the upper tropospheric composition: a multi-model study", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 10, 5719-5738, doi:10.5194/acp-10-5719-2010, 2010. reprint
  2. Claeyman, M., J.L. Attie, L. El Amraoui, D. Cariolle, V. Peuch, H. Teyssedre, B. Josse, P. Ricaud, S. Massart, A. Piacentini, J.P. Cammas, N.J. Livesey, H.C. Pumphrey, D.P. Edwards, "A linear CO chemistry parameterization in a chemistry-transport model: evaluation and application to data assimilation", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 10, 6097-6115, doi:10.5194/acp-10-6097-2010, 2010. reprint
  3. Damiani, A., M. Storini, M.L. Santee, S. Wang, "Variability of the nighttime OH layer and mesospheric ozone at high latitudes during northern winter: influence of meteorology", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 10, 10291-10303, doi:10.5194/acp-10-10291-2010, 2010. reprint
  4. Gonzi, S., P.I. Palmer, "Vertical transport of surface fire emissions observed from space", Journal of Geophysical Research 115, D02306, doi:10.1029/2009JD012053, 2010. reprint
  5. Liu, J., J.A. Logan, , N.J. Livesey, I. Megretskaia, C. Carouge, P. Nedelec, "Analysis of CO in the tropical troposphere using Aura satellite data and the GEOS-Chem model: insights into transport characteristics of the GEOS meteorological products", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 10, 12,207-12,232, doi:10.5194/acp-10-12207-2010, 2010. reprint
  6. Luo, M., C. Boxe, J.H. Jiang, R. Nassar, N. Livesey, "Interpretation of Aura satellite observations of CO and aerosol index related to the December 2006 Australia fires", Journal of Geophysical Research 114, 2853-2862, doi:10.1016/j.rse.2010.07.003, 2010. reprint
  7. Minschwaner, K., G.L. Manney, N.J. Livesey, H.C. Pumphrey, H.M. Pickett, L. Froidevaux, A. Lambert, M.J. Schwartz, P.F. Bernath, K.A. Walker, C.D. Boone, "The photochemistry of carbon monoxide in the stratosphere and mesosphere evaluated from observations by the Microwave Limb Sounder on the Aura satellite", Journal of Geophysical Research 115, D13303, doi:10.1029/2009JD012654, 2010. reprint
  8. Ott, L., B. Duncan, S. Pawson, P. Colarco, M. Chin, C. Randles, T. Diehl, E. Nielsen, "Influence of the 2006 Indonesian biomass burning aerosols on tropical dynamics studies with the GEOS-5 AGCM", Journal of Geophysical Research 115, D14121, doi:10.1029/2009JD013181, 2010. reprint
  9. Tian, W., M.P. Chipperfield, D.S. Stevenson, R. Damoah, S. Dhomse, A. Dudhia, H. Pumphrey, P. Bernath, "Effects of stratosphere-troposphere chemistry coupling on tropospheric ozone", Journal of Geophysical Research 115, D00M04, doi:10.1029/2009JD013515, 2010. reprint


  1. Chandra, S., J.R. Ziemke, B.N. Duncan, T.L. Diehl, N.J. Livesey, L. Froidevaux, "Effects of the 2006 El Nino on tropospheric ozone and carbon monoxide: implications for dynamics and biomass burning", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 9, 4239-4249, doi:10.5194/acp-9-4239-2009, 2009. reprint
  2. Hegglin, M.I., C.D. Boone, G.L. Manney, K.A. Walker, "A global view of the extratropical tropopause transition layer from Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer O3, H2O, and CO", Journal of Geophysical Research 114, D00B11, doi:10.1029/2008JD009984, 2009. reprint
  3. Jiang, J.H., H. Su, S.T. Massie, P.R. Colarco, M.R. Schoeberl, S. Platnick, "Aerosol-CO relationship and aerosol effect on Ice cloud particle size: Analyses from Aura Microwave Limb Sounder and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer observations", Journal of Geophysical Research 114, D20207, doi:10.1029/2009JD012421, 2009. reprint
  4. Jin, J.J., K. Semeniuk, S.R. Beagley, V.I. Fomichev, A.I. Jonsson, J.C. McConnell, J. Urban, D. Murtagh, G.L. Manney, C.D. Boone, P.F. Bernath, K.A. Walker, B. Barret, P. Ricaud, E. Dupuy, "Comparison of CMAM simulations of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4) with observations from Odin/SMR, ACE-FTS, and Aura/MLS", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 9, 3233-3252, doi:10.5194/acp-9-3233-2009, 2009. reprint
  5. Liu, C., E.J. Zipser, "Implications of the day versus night differences of water vapor, carbon monoxide, and thin cloud observations near the tropical tropopause", Journal of Geophysical Research 114, D09303, doi:10.1029/2008JD011524, 2009. reprint
  6. Manney, G.L., M.J. Schwartz, K. Krueger, M.L. Santee, S. Pawson, J.N. Lee, W.H. Daffer, R.A. Fuller, N.J. Livesey, "Aura Microwave Limb Sounder Observations of Dynamics and Transport During the Record-breaking 2009 Arctic Stratospheric Major Warming", Geophysical Research Letters 36, doi:10.1029/2009GL038586, 2009. reprint
  7. Manney, G.L., R.S. Harwood, I.A. MacKenzie, K. Minschwaner, D.R. Allen, M.L. Santee, K.A. Walker, M.I. Hegglin, A. Lambert, H.C. Pumphrey, P.F. Bernath, C.D. Boone, M.J. Schwartz, N.J. Livesey, W.H. Daffer, R.A. Fuller, "Satellite Observations and Modelling of Transport in the Upper Troposphere through the Lower Mesosphere During the 2006 Major Stratospheric Sudden Warming", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 9, 4775-4795, doi:10.5194/acp-9-4775-2009, 2009. reprint
  8. Park, M., W.J. Randel, L.K. Emmons, N.J. Livesey, "Transport pathways of carbon monoxide in the Asian summer monsoon diagnosed from Model of Ozone and Related Tracers (MOZART)", Journal of Geophysical Research 114, D08303, doi:10.1029/2008JD010621, 2009. reprint
  9. Pumphrey, H.C., R.E. Cofield, M.J. Filipiak, N.J. Livesey, "An all-sky survey at 230 GHz by MLS on Aura", Advances in Space Research 43, 342-348, doi:10.1016/j.asr.2008.11.010, 2009. reprint
  10. Singh, H.B., W.H. Brune, J.H. Crawford, D. Flocke, D.J. Jacob, "Chemistry and transport of pollution over the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific: spring 2006 INTEX-B campaign overview and first results", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 9, 2301-2318, doi:10.5194/acp-9-2301-2009, 2009. reprint
  11. Worden, J., D. Jones, J. Liu, M. Parrington, K. Bowman, I. Stajner, R. Beer, J.H. Jiang, V. Thouret, S. Kulawik, J. Li, S. Verma, H. Worden, "Observed vertical distribution of tropospheric ozone during the Asian summertime monsoon", Journal of Geophysical Research 114, D13304, doi:10.1029/2008JD010560, 2009. reprint


  1. Barret, B., P. Ricaud, C. Mari, J-L. Attie, N. Bousserez, B. Josse, E. Le Flochmoen, N.J. Livesey, S. Massart, V.H. Peuch, A. Piacentini, B. Sauvage, V. Thouret, J-P. Cammas, "Transport pathways of CO in the African upper troposphere during the monsoon season: a study based upon the assimilation of spaceborne observations", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 8, 3231-3246, doi:10.5194/acp-8-3231-2008, 2008. reprint
  2. Clerbaux, C., M. George, S. Turquety, K.A. Walker, B. Barret, P. Bernath, C. Boone, T. Borsdorff, J.P. Cammas, V. Catoire, M. Coffey, P.F. Coheur, M. Deeter, M. De Maziere, J. Drummond, P. Duchatelet, E. Dupuy, R. de Zafra, F. Eddounia, D.P. Edwards, L. Emmons, B. Funke, J. Gille, D.W. Griffith, J. Hannigan, F. Hase, M. Hopfner, N. Jones, A. Kagawa, Y. Kasai, I. Kramer, E. Le Flochmoen, N.J. Livesey, M. López-Puertas, M. Luo, E. Mahieu, D. Murtagh, P. Nedelec, A. Pazmino, H. Pumphrey, P. Ricaud, C.P. Rinsland, C. Robert, M. Schneider, C. Senten, G. Stiller, A. Strandberg, K. Strong, R. Sussmann, V. Thouret, J. Urban, A. Wiacek, "CO measurements from the ACE-FTS satellite instrument: data analysis and validation using ground-based, airborne and spaceborne observations", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 8, 2569-2594, doi:10.5194/acp-8-2569-2008, 2008. reprint
  3. Hegglin, M.I., P.F. Bernath, C.D. Boone, W.H. Daffer, P. Hoor, G.L. Manney, C. Schiller, K. Strong, K.A. Walker, "Validation of ACE-FTS satellite date in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS) using non-coincident measurements", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 8, 1483-1499, doi:10.5194/acp-8-1483-2008, 2008. reprint
  4. Jiang, J.H., H. Su, M. Schoeberl, S.T. Massie, P. Colarco, S. Platnick, N. Livesey, "Clean and polluted clouds: relationships among pollution, ice cloud and precipitation in South America", Geophysical Research Letters 35, L14804, doi:10.1029/2008GL034631, 2008. reprint
  5. Livesey, N.J., M.J. Filipiak, L. Froidevaux, W.G. Read, A. Lambert, M.L. Santee, J.H. Jiang, H.C. Pumphrey, J.W. Waters, R.E. Cofield, D.T. Cuddy, W.H. Daffer, B.J. Drouin, R.A. Fuller, R.F. Jarnot, Y.B. Jiang, B.W. Knosp, Q.B. Li, V.S. Perun, M.J. Schwartz, W.V. Snyder, P.C. Stek, R.P. Thurstans, P.A. Wagner, M. Avery, E.V. Browell, J-P. Cammas, L.E. Christensen, G.S. Diskin, R-S. Gao, H-J. Jost, M. Loewenstein, J.D. Lopez, P. Nedelec, G.B. Osterman, G.W. Sachse, C.R. Webster, "Validation of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder O3 and CO observations in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere", Journal of Geophysical Research 113, D15S02, doi:10.1029/2007JD008805, 2008. reprint
  6. Manney, G.L., W.H. Daffer, K.B. Strawbridge, K.A. Walker, C.D. Boone, P.F. Bernath, T. Kerzenmacher, M.J. Schwartz, K. Strong, R.J. Sica, K. Kruger, H.C. Pumphrey, L. Froidevaux, A. Lambert, M.L. Santee, N.J. Livesey, E.E. Remsberg, M.G. Mlynczak, J.M. Russell, "The High Arctic in Extreme Winters: Vortex, Temperature, and MLS and ACE-FTS Trace Gas Evolution", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 8, 505-522, doi:10.5194/acp-8-505-2008, 2008. reprint
  7. Pumphrey, H.C., C. Boone, K.A. Walker, P. Bernath, N.J. Livesey, "The tropical tape recorder observed in HCN", Geophysical Research Letters 35, L05801, doi:10.1029/2007GL032137, 2008. reprint
  8. Read, W.G., M.J. Schwartz, A. Lambert, H. Su, N.J. Livesey, W.H. Daffer, C.D. Boone, "The roles of convection, extratropical mixing, and in situ freeze-drying in the tropical tropopause layer", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 8, 6051-6067, doi:10.5194/acp-8-6051-2008, 2008. reprint
  9. Schoeberl, M.R., A.R. Douglass, P.A. Newman, L.R. Lait, D. Lary, J. Waters, N. Livesey, L. Froidevaux, A. Lambert, W. Read, M.J. Filipiak, H.C. Pumphrey, "QBO and Annual Cycle Variations in Tropical Lower Stratosphere Trace Gases from HALOE and Aura MLS Observations", Journal of Geophysical Research 113, D05301, doi:10.1029/2007JD008678, 2008. reprint


  1. Duncan, B.N., S.E. Strahan, Y. Yoshida, S.D. Steenrod, N. Livesey, "Model study of the cross-tropopause transport of biomass burning pollution", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 7, 3713-3736, doi:10.5194/acp-7-3713-2007, 2007. reprint
  2. Jiang, J.H., N.J. Livesey, H. Su, L. Neary, J.C. McConnell, N.A. Richards, "Connecting surface emissions, convective uplifting, and long-range transport of carbon monoxide in the upper-troposphere: New observations from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder", Geophysical Research Letters 34, L18812, doi:10.1029/2007GL030638, 2007. reprint
  3. Liu, C., E.J. Zipster, T.J. Garrett, J.H. Jiang, H. Su, "How do the water vapor and carbon monoxide 'tape recorders' start near the tropical tropopause", Geophysical Research Letters 34, L09804, doi:10.1029/2006GL029234, 2007. reprint
  4. Manney, G.L., W.H. Daffer, J.M. Zawodny, P.F. Bernath, K.W. Hoppel, K.A. Walker, B.W. Knosp, C. Boone, E.E. Remsberg, M.L. Santee, V. Lynn Harvey, S. Pawson, D.R. Jackson, L. Deaver, C.T. McElroy, C.A. McLinden, J.R. Drummond, H.C. Pumphrey, A. Lambert, M.J. Schwartz, L. Froidevaux, S. McLeod, L.L. Takacs, M.J. Suarez, C.R. Trepte, D.T. Cuddy, N.J. Livesey, R.S. Harwood, J.W. Waters, "Solar Occultation Satellite Data and Derived Meteorological Products: Sampling Issues and Comparisons with Aura MLS", Journal of Geophysical Research 112, D24S50, doi:10.1029/2007JD008709, 2007. reprint
  5. Pumphrey, H.C., M.J. Filipiak, N.J. Livesey, M.J. Schwartz, C. Boone, K.A. Walker, P. Bernath, P. Ricaud, B. Barret, C. Clerbaux, R.F. Jarnot, G.L. Manney, J.W. Waters, "Validation of middle-atmosphere carbon monoxide retrievals from MLS on Aura", Journal of Geophysical Research 112, D24S38, doi:10.1029/2007JD008723, 2007. reprint
  6. Ricaud, P., B. Barret, J-L. Attie, E. Motte, E. Le Flochmoen, H. Teyseedre, V.-H. Peuch, N. Livesey, A. Lambert, J.-P. Pommereau, "Impact of land convection on troposphere-stratosphere exchange in the tropics", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 7, 5639-5657, doi:10.5194/acp-7-5639-2007, 2007. reprint
  7. Wong, S., A.E. Dessler, "Regulation of H2O and CO in Tropical Tropopause Layer by the Madden-Julian Oscillation", Journal of Geophysical Research 112, D14305, doi:10.1029/2006JD007940, 2007. reprint


  1. Barret, B., P. Ricaud, M.L. Santee, J-L. Attie, J. Urban, E. Le Flochmoen, G. Berthet, D. Murtagh, P. Eriksson, A. Jones, J. de La Noe, E. Dupuy, L. Froidevaux, N.J. Livesey, J.W. Waters, M.J. Filipiak, "Intercomparisons of Trace Gas Profiles from the Odin/SMR and Aura/MLS Limb Sounders", Journal of Geophysical Research 111, D21302, doi:10.1029/2006JD007305, 2006. reprint
  2. Cofield, R.E., P.C. Stek, "Design and field-of-view calibration of 114-660 GHz optics of the Earth Observing System Microwave Limb Sounder", IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 44, no. 5, 1166-1181, doi:10.1109/TGRS.2006.873234, 2006. reprint
  3. Folkins, I., P. Bernath, C. Boone, G. Lesins, N. Livesey, A.M. Thompson, K. Walker, J.C. Witte, "Seasonal cycles of O3, CO, and convective outflow at the tropical tropopause", Geophysical Research Letters 33, L16802, doi:10.1029/2006GL026602, 2006. reprint
  4. Froidevaux, L., N.J. Livesey, W.G. Read, Y.B. Jiang, C.J. Jimenez, M.J. Filipiak, M.J. Schwartz, M.L. Santee, H.C. Pumphrey, J.H. Jiang, D.L. Wu, G.L. Manney, B.J. Drouin, J.W. Waters, E.J. Fetzer, P.F. Bernath, C.D. Boone, K.A. Walker, K.W. Jucks, G.C. Toon, J.J. Margitan, B. Sen, C.R. Webster, L.E. Christensen, J.W. Elkins, E. Atlas, R.A. Lueb, R. Hendershot, "Early validation analyses of atmospheric profiles from EOS MLS on the Aura satellite", IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 44, no. 5, doi:10.1109/TGRS.2006.864366, 2006. reprint
  5. Fu, R., Y. Hu, J.S. Wright, J.H. Jiang, R.E. Dickinson, M. Chen, M. Filipiak, W.G. Read, J.W. Waters, D.L. Wu, "Short circuit of water vapor and polluted air to the global stratosphere by convective transport over the Tibetan Plateau", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103, 5664-5669, 10.1073/pnas.0601584103, 2006. reprint
  6. Schoeberl, M.R., B.N. Duncan, A.R. Douglass, J. Waters, N. Livesey, W. Read, M. Filipiak, "The carbon monoxide tape recorder", Geophysical Research Letters 33, L12811, doi:10.1029/2006GL026178, 2006. reprint


  1. Filipiak, M.J., R.S. Harwood, J.H. Jiang, Q. Li, N.J. Livesey, G.L. Manney, W.G. Read, M.J. Schwartz, J.W. Waters, D.L. Wu, "Carbon Monoxide Measured by the EOS Microwave Limb Sounder on Aura: First Results", Geophysical Research Letters 32, L14825, doi:10.1029/2005GL022765, 2005. reprint
  2. Li, Q.B., J.H. Jiang, D.L. Wu, W.G. Read, N.J. Livesey, J.W. Waters, Y. Zhang, B. Wang, M.J. Filipiak, C.P. Davis, S. Turquety, S. Wu, R.J. Park, R.M. Yantosca, D.J. Jacob, "Convective outflow of South Asian pollution: A global CTM simulation compared with EOS MLS observations", Geophysical Research Letters 32, L14826, doi:10.1029/2005GL022762 , 2005. reprint

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