Aura MLS

SO2

Contact: William Read

MLS can measure SO2 injected into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere by explosive volcanoes. Starting with its reaction with OH, SO2 is converted into sulfate aerosol which can impact climate.

How it is part of MLS Science Objectives

The study of Earth's climate is an MLS science objective. Volcanic SO2 is converted to sulfate aerosol which can impact climate.

How EOS MLS measures SO2

The standard SO2 product is taken fromthe 240-GHz retrieval (CorePlusR3). MLS can only measure significantly enhanced concentrations above nominal background such as that from volcanic injections.

SO2 Information from the Spectroscopy Database

Quick Product Information for data version v5

  • Swath Name: SO2
  • Status Flag: Only use profiles for which the Status field is an even number.
  • Useful Range: 215 - 10 hPa
  • DAAC Short Name: ML2SO2
  • Precision: Values with negative precision can be used, though with caution.
  • Quality Threshold: >0.95
  • Convergence Threshold: <1.03

Download Aura MLS SO2 v5 data

Latest Publications (SO2)

  1. Millán, L., M.L. Santee, A. Lambert, N.J. Livesey, F. Werner, M.J. Schwartz, H.C. Pumphrey, G.L. Manney, Y. Wang, H. Su, L. Wu, W.G. Read and L. Froidevaux
    The Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Hydration of the Stratosphere
    Geophys. Res. Lett. doi:10.1029/2022gl099381, 2022
  2. Malinina, E., A. Rozanov, U. Niemeier, S. Wallis, C. Arosio, F. Wrana, C. Timmreck, C. von Savigny and J. Burrows
    Changes in stratospheric aerosol extinction coefficient after the 2018 Ambae eruption as seen by OMPS-LP and MAECHAM5-HAM
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-21-14871-2021, 2021
  3. Hedelt, P., D. Efremenko, D. Loyola, R. Spurr and L. Clarisse
    Sulfur dioxide layer height retrieval from Sentinel-5 Precursor/TROPOMI using FP_ILM
    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques doi:10.5194/amt-12-5503-2019, 2019
  4. Carn, S.A., L. Clarisse and A.J. Prata
    Multi-decadal satellite measurements of global volcanic degassing
    J. Volcanology Geotherm. Res. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2016.01.002, 2016
  5. Jones, A., J. Haywood, Jones, A. and V. Aquila
    Sensitivity of volcanic aerosol dispersion to meteorological conditions: A Pinatubo case study
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1002/2016jd025001, 2016
  6. Carn, S.A., K. Yang, A.J. Prata and N.A. Krotkov
    Extending the long-term record of volcanic SO2 emissions with the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite OMPS Nadir Mapper
    Geophys. Res. Lett. doi:10.1002/2014/GL062437, 2015
  7. Höpfner, M., C.D. Boone, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, U. Grabowski, A. Günther, S. Kellmann, M. Kiefer, A. Linden, S. Lossow, H.C. Pumphrey, W.G. Read, A. Roiger, G. Stiller, H. Schlager, T. von Clarmann and K. Wissmüller
    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) from MIPAS in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere 2002-2012
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10.5194/acp-15-7017-2015, 2015
  8. Hopfner, M., C.D. Boone, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, U. Grabowski, A. Gunther, S. Kellmann, M. Kiefer, A. Linden, S. Lossow, H.C. Pumphrey, W.G. Read, A. Roiger, G. Stiller, H. Schlager, T. von Clarmann and K. Wissmuller
    Sulfur Dioxide SO2 from MIPAS in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere 2002--2012
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-15-7017-2015, 2015
  9. Kristiansen, N.I., A.J. Prata, A. Stohl and S.A. Carn
    Stratospheric volcanic ash emissions from the 13 February 2014 Kelut eruption
    Geophys. Res. Lett. doi:10.1002/2014GL062307, 2015
  10. Pumphrey, H.C., W.G. Read, N.J. Livesey and K. Yang
    Observations of volcanic SO2 from MLS on Aura
    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques doi:10.5194/amt-8-195-2015, 2015
  11. Clarisse, L., P.F. Coheur, N. Theys, D. Hurtmans and C. Clerbaux
    The 2011 Nabro eruption, a SO2 plume height analysis using IASI measurements
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-14-3095-2014, 2014
  12. Fromm, M., G. Kablick III, G. Nedoluha, E. Carboni, R. Grainger, J. Campbell and J. Lewis
    Correcting the record of volcanic stratospheric aerosol impact: Nabro and Sarychev Peak
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1002/2014JD021507, 2014
  13. Theys, N., I.D. Smedt, M.V. Roozendael, L. Froidevaux, L. Clarisse and F. Hendrick
    First satellite detection of volcanic OClO after the eruption of Puyehue-Cordón Caulle
    Geophys. Res. Lett. doi:10.1002/2013GL058416, 2014
  14. Bourassa, A.E., A. Robock, W.J. Randel, T. Deshler, L.A. Rieger, N.D. Lloyd, E.J. Llewellyn and D.A. Degenstein
    Response to Comments on "Large Volcanic Aerosol Load in the Stratosphere Linked to Asian Monsoon Transport"
  15. Fromm, M., G. Nedoluha and Z. Charvat
    Comment on "Large Volcanic Aerosol Load in the Stratosphere Linked to Asian Monsoon Transport"
  16. Aquila, V., L. Oman, R. Stolarski, P. Colarco and P. Newman
    Dispersion of the volcanic sulfate cloud from a Mount Pinatubo-like eruption
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1029/2011jd016968, 2012
  17. Massie, S.T., J.C. Gille, C. Craig, R. Khosravi, J. Barnett, W. Read and D. Winker
    HIRDLS and CALIPSO observations of tropical cirrus
    J. Geophys. Res. doi:10.1029/2009JD012100, 2010
  18. Cofield, R.E. and P.C. Stek
    Design and field-of-view calibration of 114-660 GHz optics of the Earth Observing System Microwave Limb Sounder
    IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing doi:10.1109/TGRS.2006.873234, 2006
  19. Read, W.G., L. Froidevaux and J.W. Waters
    Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) measurements of SO2 from Mt. Pinatubo volcano
    Geophys. Res. Lett. doi:10.1029/93GL00831, 1993