Aura MLS


Contact: Lucien Froidevaux for stratosphere and above, Michael Schwartz for troposphere

Ozone plays important roles in atmospheric chemistry and radiative balance throughout the atmosphere.

Chemically, it is a powerful oxidant. Radiatively, it is an important greenhouse gas, particularly at 10 to 15 km.

At the Earth's surface, it is a toxic component of air pollution with significant public health and agricultural impacts. The stratospheric ozone layer from 15 to 50 km absorbs UV radiation, protecting life at the surface and, through heating by the absorbed radiation, largely determines the temperature structure of the middle atmosphere.

How it is part of MLS Science Objectives

Ozone is a critical player in all three of the primary objectives of MLS: to track stability of the stratospheric ozone layer, to help improve predictions of climate change and variability, and to help improve understanding of global air quality.

MLS ozone measurements contribute to understanding of processes that control the expected recovery of the ozone layer as abundances of human-produced, ozone depleting substances decline in the coming decades.

Ozone, particularly in the upper troposphere (10 to 15 km), is an important greenhouse gas.

While MLS does not measure ozone down to the Earth's surface, MLS measurements can be used to improve the vertical resolution of other sensors on the Aura satellite, allowing mid- and lower-tropospheric ozone to be distinguished from the large amounts of ozone in the stratosphere and upper troposphere.

In the upper troposphere, ozone levels provide important information about the history of air parcels, with high ozone generally indicating descent from above and low ozone ascent from below.

How EOS MLS measures O3

The standard product for O3 is derived from MLS radiance measurements near 240 GHz.

O3 Information from the Spectroscopy Database

Quick Product Information for data version v5

  • Swath Name: O3
  • Status Flag: Only use profiles for which the Status field is an even number.
  • Useful Range: 261 - 0.001 hPa
  • DAAC Short Name: ML2O3
  • Precision: Only use values for which the estimated precision is a positive number.
  • Quality Threshold: >1.0
  • Convergence Threshold: <1.03

Download Aura MLS O3 v5 data

Latest Publications (O3)

  1. Petropavlovskikh, I., K. Miyagawa, A. McClure-Beegle, B. Johnson, J. Wild, S. Strahan, K. Wargan, R. Querel, L. Flynn, E. Beach, G. Ancellet and S. Godin-Beekmann
    Optimized Umkehr profile algorithm for ozone trend analyses
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. doi:10.5194/amt-2021-203, in review
  2. Rawat, P., M. Naja, E. Fishbein, P. Thapliyal, R. Kumar, P. Bhardwaj, A. Jaiswal, S. Tiwari, S. Venkataramani and S. Lal
    Performance of AIRS ozone retrieval over the central Himalayas: Case studies of biomass burning, downward ozone transport and radiative forcing using long-term observations
    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques Discussions doi:10.5194/amt-2022-187, in review
  3. Ruiz, D. and M. Prather
    From the middle stratosphere to the surface, using nitrous oxide to constrain the stratosphere-troposphere exchange of ozone
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. doi:10.5194/acp-2021-635, in review
  4. Sauvageat, E., E.M. Barras, K. Hocke, A. Haefele and A. Murk
    Harmonized retrieval of middle atmospheric ozone from two microwave radiometers in Switzerland
    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques Discussions doi:10.5194/amt-2022-212, in review
  5. Shi, G., W. Krochin, E. Sauvageat and G. Stober
    Ozone and water vapor variability in the polar middle atmosphere observed with ground-based microwave radiometers
    Environmental Science and Pollution Research in review
  6. Vogel, A., J. Ungermann and H. Elbern
    Analyzing trace gas filaments in the Ex-UTLS by 4D-variationalassimilation of airborne tomographic retrievals
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. doi:10.5194/acp-2017-308, in review
  7. Werner, F., N. Livesey, L. Millán, W. Read, M. Schwartz, P. Wagner, W. Daffer, A. Lambert, S. Tolstoff and M. Santee
    Applying machine learning to improve the near-real-time products of the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder
    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques Discussions doi:10.5194/egusphere-2023-101, in review
  8. Li, M., Y. Yang, H. Wang, H. Li, P. Wang and H. Liao
    Summertime ozone pollution in China affected by stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillation
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10.5194/acp-23-1533-2023, 2023
  9. Natarajan, M., R. Damadeo and D. Flittner
    Solar occultation measurement of mesospheric ozone by SAGE III/ISS: impact of variations along the line of sight caused by photochemistry
    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques doi:10.5194/amt-16-75-2023, 2023
  10. Roy, C., A.R. Ravishankara, P. Newman, L. David, S. Fadnavis, S. Rathod, L. Lait, R. Krishnan, H. Clark and B. Sauvage
    Estimation of Stratospheric Intrusions During Indian Cyclones
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1029/2022jd037519, 2023
  11. Solomon, S., K. Stone, P. Yu, D.M. Murphy, D. Kinnison, A.R. Ravishankara and P. Wang
    Chlorine activation and enhanced ozone depletion induced by wildfire aerosol
  12. Tencé, F., J. Jumelet, M. Bouillon, D. Cugnet, S. Bekki, S. Safieddine, P. Keckhut and A. Sarkissian
    14 years of lidar measurements of polar stratospheric clouds at the French Antarctic station Dumont d'Urville
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-23-431-2023, 2023
  13. Ancellet, G., S. Godin-Beekmann, H. Smit, R. Stauffer, R.V. Malderen, R. Bodichon and A. Pazmiño
    Homogenization of the Observatoire de Haute Provence electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesonde data record: comparison with lidar and satellite observations
    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 10.5194/amt-15-3105-2022, 2022
  14. Ancellet, G., S. Godin-Beekmann, H. Smit, R. Stauffer, R.V. Malderen, R. Bodichon and A. Pazmiño
    Homogenization of the Observatoire de Haute Provence electrochemical concentration cell ECC ozonesonde data record: comparison with lidar and satellite observations
    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques doi:10.5194/amt-15-3105-2022, 2022
  15. Ardra, D., J. Kuttippurath, R. Roy, P. Kumar, S. Raj, R. Müller and W. Feng
    The Unprecedented Ozone Loss in the Arctic Winter and Spring of 2010/2011 and 2019/2020
    ACS Earth and Space Chemistry doi:10.1021/acsearthspacechem.1c00333, 2022
  16. Barras, E.M., A. Haefele, R. Stübi, A. Jouberton, H. Schill, I. Petropavlovskikh, K. Miyagawa, M. Stanek and L. Froidevaux
    Dynamical linear modeling estimates of long-term ozone trends from homogenized Dobson Umkehr profiles at Arosa/Davos, Switzerland
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-22-14283-2022, 2022
  17. Benito-Barca, S., N. Calvo and M. Abalos
    Driving mechanisms for the El Niño–Southern Oscillation impact on stratospheric ozone
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10.5194/acp-22-15729-2022, 2022
  18. Blunden, J. and T. Boyer
    State of the Climate in 2021
    Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. doi:10.1175/2022bamsstateoftheclimate.1, 2022
  19. Chipperfield, M., A. Chrysanthou, R. Damadeo, M. Dameris, S. Dhomse, V. Fioletov, S. Frith, S. Godin-Beekmann, B. Hassler, J. Liu, R. Müller, I. Petropavlovskikh, M. Santee, R. Stauffer, D. Tarasick, A. Thompson, M. Weber and P. Young
    Comment on “Observation of large and all-season ozone losses over the tropics” [AIP Adv. 12, 075006 2022]
    AIP Advances doi:10.1063/5.0121723, 2022
  20. Daskalakis, N., L. Gallardo, M. Kanakidou, J. Nüß, C. Menares, R. Rondanelli, A. Thompson and M. Vrekoussis
    Impact of biomass burning and stratospheric intrusions in the remote South Pacific Ocean troposphere
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10.5194/acp-22-4075-2022, 2022
  21. Dhomse, S., M. Chipperfield, W. Feng, R. Hossaini, G. Mann, M. Santee and M. Weber
    A single-peak-structured solar cycle signal in stratospheric ozone based on Microwave Limb Sounder observations and model simulations
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-22-903-2022, 2022
  22. Diallo, M., F. Ploeger, M. Hegglin, M. Ern, J. Grooß, S. Khaykin and M. Riese
    Stratospheric water vapour and ozone response to the quasi-biennial oscillation disruptions in 2016 and 2020
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-22-14303-2022, 2022
  23. Dutta, R., S. S. and S. Ojha
    Impact of stratospheric planetary wave and ozone variabilities on the austral polar middle atmospheric circulation
    Adv. Space Res. doi:10.1016/j.asr.2022.01.025, 2022
  24. Eswaraiah, S., K. Seo, K. Kumar, M. Ratnam, A. Koval, J. Jeong, C. Mengist, Y. Lee, K. Greer, J. Hwang, W. Lee, M. Pramitha, G.V. Chalapathi, M.V. Reddy and Y. Kim
    Anthropogenic Influence on the Antarctic Mesospheric Cooling Observed during the Southern Hemisphere Minor Sudden Stratospheric Warming
    Atmosphere doi:10.3390/atmos13091475, 2022
  25. Fazel-Rastgar, F. and V. Sivakumar
    A severe weather system accompanied by a stratospheric intrusion during unusual warm winter in 2015 over the South Africa: An initial synoptic analysis
    Remote Sensing Applications: Society and Environment doi:10.1016/j.rsase.2022.100833, 2022
  26. Gopikrishnan, G.S., J. Kuttippurath, S. Raj, A. Singh and K. Abbhishek
    Air Quality during the COVID–19 Lockdown and Unlock Periods in India Analyzed Using Satellite and Ground-based Measurements
    Environmental Processes doi:10.1007/s40710-022-00585-9, 2022
  27. Heue, K., D. Loyola, F. Romahn, W. Zimmer, S. Chabrillat, Q. Errera, J. Ziemke and N. Kramarova
    Tropospheric ozone retrieval by a combination of TROPOMI/S5P measurements with BASCOE assimilated data
    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 10.5194/amt-15-5563-2022, 2022
  28. Hulswar, S., P. Mohite and A. Mahajan
    Quantifying stratospheric ozone loss over Antarctica in the last two decades using corrected satellite profiles
    Polar Science doi:10.1016/j.polar.2022.100860, 2022
  29. Kumar, A.H., M.V. Ratnam and C. Jain
    Influence of background dynamics on the vertical distribution of trace gases CO/WV/O3 in the UTLS region during COVID-19 lockdown over India
  30. Lee, H., T. Choi, S. Kim, J. Bak, D. Ahn, N. Kramarova, S. Park, J. Kim and J. Koo
    Validations of satellite ozone profiles in austral spring using ozonesonde measurements in the Jang Bogo station, Antarctica
    Environmental Research doi:10.1016/j.envres.2022.114087, 2022
  31. Lee, K., J. Kim and Y. Kwak
    Relation of pandemics with solar cycles through ozone, cloud seeds, and vitamin D
    Environmental Science and Pollution Research doi:10.1007/s11356-022-22982-1, 2022
  32. Li, D., J. Bian, X. Zhang, B. Vogel, R. Müller and G. Günther
    Impact of typhoon Soudelor on ozone and water vapor in the Asian monsoon anticyclone western Pacific mode
    Atmospheric Science Letters doi:10.1002/asl.1147, 2022
  33. Li, Y., S. Dhomse, M. Chipperfield, W. Feng, A. Chrysanthou, Y. Xia and D. Guo
    Effects of reanalysis forcing fields on ozone trends and age of air from a chemical transport model
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-22-10635-2022, 2022
  34. Lu, Q.
    Observation of large and all-season ozone losses over the tropics
    AIP Advances doi:10.1063/5.0094629, 2022
  35. Peng, K., J. Luo, J. Mu, X. Cao, H. Tian, L. Shang and Y. Guo
    Impact of intensity variability of the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone on the chemical distribution in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere
    Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters 10.1016/j.aosl.2021.100144, 2022
  36. Roy, R., J. Kuttippurath, F. Lefèvre, S. Raj and P. Kumar
    The sudden stratospheric warming and chemical ozone loss in the Antarctic winter 2019: comparison with the winters of 1988 and 2002
    Theoretical and Applied Climatology doi:10.1007/s00704-022-04031-6, 2022
  37. Salawitch, R. and L. McBride
    Australian wildfires depleted the ozone layer
  38. Santee, M.L., A. Lambert, G.L. Manney, N.J. Livesey, L. Froidevaux, J.L. Neu, M.J. Schwartz, L.F. Millán, F. Werner, W.G. Read, M. Park, R.A. Fuller and B.M. Ward
    Prolonged and Pervasive Perturbations in the Composition of the Southern Hemisphere Midlatitude Lower Stratosphere From the Australian New Year's Fires
    Geophys. Res. Lett. doi:10.1029/2021gl096270, 2022
  39. Shams, S.B., V. Walden, J. Hannigan, W. Randel, I. Petropavlovskikh, A. Butler and A.D.l. Cámara
    Analyzing ozone variations and uncertainties at high latitudes during sudden stratospheric warming events using MERRA-2
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-22-5435-2022, 2022
  40. Shams, S.B., V. Walden, J. Hannigan and D. Turner
    Retrievals of Ozone in the Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere Using FTIR Observations Over Greenland
    IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing doi:10.1109/tgrs.2022.3180626, 2022
  41. Sofieva, V., R. Hänninen, M. Sofiev, M. Szeląg, H. Lee, J. Tamminen and C. Retscher
    Synergy of Using Nadir and Limb Instruments for Tropospheric Ozone Monitoring SUNLIT
    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques doi:10.5194/amt-15-3193-2022, 2022
  42. Stauffer, R., A. Thompson, D. Kollonige, D. Tarasick, R.V. Malderen, H. Smit, H. Vömel, G. Morris, B. Johnson, P. Cullis, R. Stübi, J. Davies and M. Yan
    An Examination of the Recent Stability of Ozonesonde Global Network Data
    Earth and Space Science doi:10.1029/2022ea002459, 2022
  43. Strahan, S., L. Coy, A. Douglass and M. Damon
    Faster Tropical Upper Stratospheric Upwelling Drives Changes in Ozone Chemistry
    Geophys. Res. Lett. doi:10.1029/2022gl101075, 2022
  44. Strahan, S., D. Smale, S. Solomon, G. Taha, M. Damon, S. Steenrod, N. Jones, B. Liley, R. Querel and J. Robinson
    Unexpected Repartitioning of Stratospheric Inorganic Chlorine After the 2020 Australian Wildfires
    Geophys. Res. Lett. doi:10.1029/2022gl098290, 2022
  45. Sullivan, J., A. Apituley, N. Mettig, K. Kreher, K.E. Knowland, M. Allaart, A. Piters, M.V. Roozendael, P. Veefkind, J. Ziemke, N. Kramarova, M. Weber, A. Rozanov, L. Twigg, G. Sumnicht and T. McGee
    Tropospheric and stratospheric ozone profiles during the 2019 TROpomi vaLIdation eXperiment TROLIX-19
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-22-11137-2022, 2022
  46. Wohltmann, I., D. Kreyling and R. Lehmann
    Transport parameterization of the Polar SWIFT model version 2
    Geoscientific Model Development doi:10.5194/gmd-15-7243-2022, 2022
  47. Xiong, X., X. Liu, W. Wu, K.E. Knowland, Q. Yang, J. Welsh and D. Zhou
    Satellite observation of stratospheric intrusions and ozone transport using CrIS on SNPP
    Atmospheric Environment doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2022.118956, 2022
  48. Zhu, L., M. Liu and J. Song
    Spatiotemporal Variations and Influent Factors of Tropospheric Ozone Concentration over China Based on OMI Data
    Atmosphere doi:10.3390/atmos13020253, 2022
  49. Aabaribaoune, M.E., E. Emili and V. Guidard
    Estimation of the error covariance matrix for IASI radiances and its impact on the assimilation of ozone in a chemistry transport model
    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques doi:10.5194/amt-14-2841-2021, 2021
  50. Archer‐Nicholls, S., N.L. Abraham, Y.M. Shin, J. Weber, M.R. Russo, D. Lowe, S.R. Utembe, F.M. O'Connor, B. Kerridge, B. Latter, R. Siddans, M. Jenkin, O. Wild and A.T. Archibald
    The Common Representative Intermediates Mechanism Version 2 in the United Kingdom Chemistry and Aerosols Model
    Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems doi:10.1029/2020ms002420, 2021
  51. Babu, S.R., M.V. Ratnam, G. Basha, S. Pani and N. Lin
    Structure, dynamics, and trace gas variability within the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone in the extreme El Niño of 2015–2016
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-21-5533-2021, 2021
  52. Bazhenov, O.E., A.A. Nevzorov, A.V. Nevzorov, S.I. Dolgii and A.P. Makeev
    Disturbance of the Stratosphere over Tomsk prior to the 2018 Major Sudden Stratospheric Warming: Effect of ClO Dimer Cycle
    Optical Memory and Neural Networks doi:10.3103/s1060992x21020065, 2021
  53. Blunden, J. and T. Boyer
    State of the Climate in 2020
    Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. doi:10.1175/2021bamsstateoftheclimate.1, 2021
  54. Dhomse, S., C. Arosio, W. Feng, A. Rozanov, M. Weber and M. Chipperfield
    ML-TOMCAT: machine-learning-based satellite-corrected global stratospheric ozone profile data set from a chemical transport model
    Earth System Science Data 10.5194/essd-13-5711-2021, 2021
  55. Dietmüller, S., H. Garny, R. Eichinger and W. Ball
    Analysis of recent lower-stratospheric ozone trends in chemistry climate models
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-21-6811-2021, 2021
  56. Emili, E. and M.E. Aabaribaoune
    Impact of Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer IASI thermal infrared measurements on global ozone reanalyses
    Geoscientific Model Development doi:10.5194/gmd-14-6291-2021, 2021
  57. Errera, Q., E. Dekemper, N. Baker, J. Debosscher, P. Demoulin, N. Mateshvili, D. Pieroux, F. Vanhellemont and D. Fussen
    On the capability of the future ALTIUS ultraviolet–visible–near-infrared limb sounder to constrain modelled stratospheric ozone
    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques doi:10.5194/amt-14-4737-2021, 2021
  58. Feng, W., S. Dhomse, C. Arosio, M. Weber, J. Burrows, M. Santee and M. Chipperfield
    Arctic Ozone Depletion in 2019/20: Roles of Chemistry, Dynamics and the Montreal Protocol
    Geophys. Res. Lett. doi:10.1029/2020gl091911, 2021
  59. Gharibzadeh, M., A. Bidokhti and K. Alam
    The interaction of ozone and aerosol in a semi-arid region in the Middle East: Ozone formation and radiative forcing implications
    Atmospheric Environment doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2020.118015, 2021
  60. Gordon, E., A. Seppälä, B. Funke, J. Tamminen and K. Walker
    Observational evidence of energetic particle precipitation NOx (EPP-NOx) interaction with chlorine curbing Antarctic ozone loss
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-21-2819-2021, 2021
  61. Griffiths, P., L. Murray, G. Zeng, Y. Shin, N.L. Abraham, A. Archibald, M. Deushi, L. Emmons, I. Galbally, B. Hassler, L. Horowitz, J. Keeble, J. Liu, O. Moeini, V. Naik, F. O'Connor, N. Oshima, D. Tarasick, S. Tilmes, S. Turnock, O. Wild, P. Young and P. Zanis
    Tropospheric ozone in CMIP6 simulations
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-21-4187-2021, 2021
  62. Grooß, J. and R. Müller
    Simulation of Record Arctic Stratospheric Ozone Depletion in 2020
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1029/2020jd033339, 2021
  63. Hegglin, M., S. Tegtmeier, J. Anderson, A. Bourassa, S. Brohede, D. Degenstein, L. Froidevaux, B. Funke, J. Gille, Y. Kasai, E. Kyrölä, J. Lumpe, D. Murtagh, J. Neu, K. Pérot, E. Remsberg, A. Rozanov, M. Toohey, J. Urban, T. von Clarmann, K. Walker, H. Wang, C. Arosio, R. Damadeo, R. Fuller, G. Lingenfelser, C. McLinden, D. Pendlebury, C. Roth, N. Ryan, C. Sioris, L. Smith and K. Weigel
    Overview and update of the SPARC Data Initiative: comparison of stratospheric composition measurements from satellite limb sounders
    Earth System Science Data doi:10.5194/essd-13-1855-2021, 2021
  64. Hu, D., Z. Guan, M. Liu and W. Feng
    Dynamical mechanisms for the recent ozone depletion in the Arctic stratosphere linked to North Pacific sea surface temperatures
    Climate Dynamics doi:10.1007/s00382-021-06026-x, 2021
  65. Hulswar, S., P. Mohite, V. Soni and A. Mahajan
    Differences between in-situ ozonesonde observations and satellite retrieved ozone vertical profiles across Antarctica
    Polar Science doi:10.1016/j.polar.2021.100688, 2021
  66. Iglesias‐Suarez, F., O. Wild, D. Kinnison, R. Garcia, D. Marsh, J. Lamarque, E. Ryan, S. Davis, R. Eichinger, A. Saiz‐Lopez and P. Young
    Tropical Stratospheric Circulation and Ozone Coupled to Pacific Multi‐Decadal Variability
    Geophys. Res. Lett. doi:10.1029/2020gl092162, 2021
  67. Jenkins, G., V.D. Castro, B. Cunha, I. Fontanez and R. Holzworth
    The Evolution of the Wave‐One Ozone Maximum During the 2017 LASIC Field Campaign at Ascension Island
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1029/2020jd033972, 2021
  68. Karpowicz, B., W. McCarty and K. Wargan
    Investigating the utility of hyperspectral sounders in the 9.6 μm band to improve ozone analyses
    Q. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. doi:10.1002/qj.4198, 2021
  69. Keeble, J., B. Hassler, A. Banerjee, R. Checa-Garcia, G. Chiodo, S. Davis, V. Eyring, P. Griffiths, O. Morgenstern, P. Nowack, G. Zeng, J. Zhang, G. Bodeker, S. Burrows, P. Cameron-Smith, D. Cugnet, C. Danek, M. Deushi, L. Horowitz, A. Kubin, L. Li, G. Lohmann, M. Michou, M. Mills, P. Nabat, D. Olivié, S. Park, O. Seland, J. Stoll, K. Wieners and T. Wu
    Evaluating stratospheric ozone and water vapour changes in CMIP6 models from 1850 to 2100
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-21-5015-2021, 2021
  70. Klanner, L., K. Höveler, D. Khordakova, M. Perfahl, C. Rolf, T. Trickl and H. Vogelmann
    A powerful lidar system capable of 1 h measurements of water vapour in the troposphere and the lower stratosphere as well as the temperature in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere
    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques doi:10.5194/amt-14-531-2021, 2021
  71. Kumar, K., B. Singh and Kumar, K.
    Intriguing aspects of Asian Summer Monsoon Anticyclone Ozone variability from Microwave Limb Sounder measurements
    Atmos. Res. 10.1016/j.atmosres.2021.105479, 2021
  72. Kuttippurath, J., W. Feng, R. Müller, P. Kumar, S. Raj, G. Gopikrishnan and R. Roy
    Exceptional loss in ozone in the Arctic winter/spring of 2019/2020
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-21-14019-2021, 2021
  73. Liu, M. and D. Hu
    Contrast relationships between Arctic Oscillation and ozone in the stratosphere over the Arctic in early and mid‐to‐late winter
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1029/2020jd033426, 2021
  74. Liu, M. and D. Hu
    Different Relationships between Arctic Oscillation and Ozone in the Stratosphere over the Arctic in January and February
    Atmosphere doi:10.3390/atmos12020129, 2021
  75. Livesey, N., W. Read, L. Froidevaux, A. Lambert, M. Santee, M. Schwartz, L. Millán, R. Jarnot, P. Wagner, D. Hurst, K. Walker, P. Sheese and G. Nedoluha
    Investigation and amelioration of long-term instrumental drifts in water vapor and nitrous oxide measurements from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder MLS and their implications for studies of variability and trends
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-21-15409-2021, 2021
  76. Lu, J., F. Xie, H. Tian and J. Luo
    Impacts of Ozone Changes in the Tropopause Layer on Stratospheric Water Vapor
    Atmosphere doi:10.3390/atmos12030291, 2021
  77. Malderen, R.V., D.D. Muer, H.D. Backer, D. Poyraz, W. Verstraeten, V.D. Bock, A. Delcloo, A. Mangold, Q. Laffineur, M. Allaart, F. Fierens and V. Thouret
    Fifty years of balloon-borne ozone profile measurements at Uccle, Belgium: a short history, the scientific relevance, and the achievements in understanding the vertical ozone distribution
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-21-12385-2021, 2021
  78. Meng, L., J. Liu, D. Tarasick and Y. Li
    Biases of Global Tropopause Altitude Products in Reanalyses and Implications for Estimates of Tropospheric Column Ozone
    Atmosphere doi:10.3390/atmos12040417, 2021
  79. Murray, L., E. Leibensperger, C. Orbe, L. Mickley and M. Sulprizio
    GCAP 2.0: a global 3-D chemical-transport model framework for past, present, and future climate scenarios
    Geoscientific Model Development doi:10.5194/gmd-14-5789-2021, 2021
  80. Nilsen, K., A. Kero, P.T. Verronen, M.E. Szeląg, N. Kalakoski and J. Jia
    Sensitivity of Middle Atmospheric Ozone to Solar Proton Events: A Comparison Between a Climate Model and Satellites
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1029/2021jd034549, 2021
  81. Pahlavan, H., Q. Fu, J. Wallace and G. Kiladis
    Revisiting the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation as Seen in ERA5. Part I: Description and Momentum Budget
    Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences doi:10.1175/jas-d-20-0248.1, 2021
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    Impacts of transported background ozone on California air quality during the ARCTAS-CARB period - a multi-scale modeling study
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  697. Ricaud, P., J. de La Noe, B.J. Connor, L. Froidevaux, J.W. Waters, R.S. Harwood, I.A. MacKenzie and G.E. Peckham
    Diurnal variability of mesospheric ozone as measured by the UARS microwave limb sounder instrument: Theoretical and ground-based validations
    J. Geophys. Res. doi:10.1029/95JD02841, 1996
  698. Schoeberl, M.R., A.R. Douglass, S.R. Kawa, A.E. Dessler, P.A. Newman, R.S. Stolarski, A.E. Roche, J.W. Waters and J.M. Russell III
    The development of the Antarctic ozone hole
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  699. Ziemke, J.R., S. Chandra, A.M. Thompson and D.P. McNamara
    Zonal asymmetries in southern hemisphere column ozone: Implications of biomass burning
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  700. Canziani, P.O., J.R. Holton, E. Fishbein and L. Froidevaux
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  701. Douglass, A.R., M.R. Schoeberl, R.S. Stolarski, J.W. Waters, J.M. Russell III and A.E. Roche
    Interhemispheric differences in springtime production of HCl and ClONO2 in the polar vortices
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  702. Eckman, R.S., W.L. Grose, R.E. Turner, W.T. Blackshear, J.M. Russell III, L. Froidevaux, J.W. Waters, J.B. Kumer and A.E. Roche
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  703. Fahey, D.W., G. Braathen, D. Cariolle, Y. Kondo, W.A. Matthews, M.J. Molina, J.A. Pyle, R.B. Rood, J.M. Russell III, U. Schmidt, D.W. Toohey, J.W. Waters, C.R. Webster and S.C. Wofsy
    Polar Ozone
    Scientific Assessment of Stratospheric Ozone 1995
  704. Jones, R.L., L. Avallone, L. Froidevaux, S. Godin, L. Gray, S. Kinne, M.E. McIntyre, P.A. Newman, R.A. Plumb, J.A. Pyle, J.M. Russell III, M. Tolbert, R. Toumi, A.F. Tuck and P. Wennberg
    Tropical and midlatitude ozone
    Scientific Assessment of Stratospheric Ozone 1995
  705. Manney, G.L., R.W. Zurek, L. Froidevaux and J.W. Waters
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  706. Manney, G.L., L. Froidevaux, J.W. Waters and R.W. Zurek
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  707. Manney, G.L., L. Froidevaux, J.W. Waters, R.W. Zurek, J.C. Gille, J.B. Kumer, J.L. Mergenthaler, A.E. Roche, A. O'Neill and R. Swinbank
    Formation of low ozone pockets in the middle stratosphere anticyclone during winter
    J. Geophys. Res. doi:10.1029/95JD00372, 1995
  708. Randel, W.J., F. Wu, J.M. Russell III, J.W. Waters and L. Froidevaux
    Ozone and temperature changes in the stratosphere following the eruption of Mount Pinatubo
    J. Geophys. Res. doi:10.1029/95JD01001, 1995
  709. Ricaud, P.D., E.S. Carr, R.S. Harwood, W.A. Lahoz, L. Froidevaux, W.G. Read, J.W. Waters, J.L. Mergenthaler, J.B. Kumer, A.E. Roche and G.E. Peckham
    Polar stratospheric clouds as deduced from MLS and CLAES measurements
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  710. Rosenlof, K.H.
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  711. Santee, M.L., W.G. Read, J.W. Waters, L. Froidevaux, G.L. Manney, D.A. Flower, R.F. Jarnot, R.S. Harwood and G.E. Peckham
    Interhemispheric differences in polar stratospheric HNO3, H2O, ClO and O3
  712. Canziani, P.O., J.R. Holton, E.F. Fishbein, L. Froidevaux and J.W. Waters
    Equatorial Kelvin Waves: A UARS MLS View
  713. Elson, L.S., G.L. Manney, L. Froidevaux and J.W. Waters
    Large-scale variations in ozone from the first two years of UARS MLS data
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    Global ozone observations from UARS MLS: an overview of zonal mean results
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    J. Geophys. Res. doi:10.1029/93JD03476, 1994
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  717. Redaelli, G., L. Lait, M. Schoeberl, P.A. Newman, G. Visconti, A. D'Altorio, F. Masci, V. Rizi, L. Froidevaux, J.W. Waters and A.J. Miller
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  718. Elson, L.S. and L. Froidevaux
    The use of Fourier transforms for asynoptic mapping: Early results from the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite Microwave Limb Sounder
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  719. Geller, M.A., Y. Chi, R.B. Rood, A.R. Douglass, D.R. Allen, M. Cerniglia and J.W. Waters
    3-D transport-chemistry studies of the stratosphere using satellite data together with data assimilation
    The Role of the Stratosphere in Global Change 1993
  720. Manney, G.L., L. Froidevaux, J.W. Waters, L.S. Elson, E.F. Fishbein, R.W. Zurek, R.S. Harwood and W.A. Lahoz
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  721. Waters, J.W., L. Froidevaux, G.L. Manney, W.G. Read and L.S. Elson
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    Stratospheric ClO and ozone from the Microwave Limb Sounder on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite
    Nature doi:10.1038/362597a0, 1993
  723. Waters, J.W.
    The chlorine threat to stratospheric ozone
    Engineering & Science 1993
  724. Oh, J.J. and E.A. Cohen
    Pressure broadening of ozone lines near 184 and 206 GHz by nitrogen and oxygen
    J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 1992
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