Aura MLS


Contact: Alyn Lambert

Nitrous oxide (N2O) is produced almost entirely at the Earth's surface, about 70% from biological processes (natural decay process of land and ocean) and the rest from human activities (e.g. agricultural fertilization and fossil-fuel burning).

Since the 1950's, an increase in N2O of about 0.3%/year has been seen in this important greenhouse gas.

The N2O concentration is greatest (typically 310 ppbv) in the troposphere where it is a well-mixed gas and gradually decreases with height in the stratosphere due to destruction primarily by photolysis with ultraviolet light to yield N2 and atomic O3.

Another destruction pathway is via reactions with excited oxygen atoms which yields NO molecules.

N2O is a good tracer of the movement of air parcels because its long life-time (over 100 years at 20 km) is much greater than that of atmospheric dynamical processes.

How it is part of MLS Science Objectives

N2O studies contribute to the further investigation of stratospheric ozone layer stability.

MLS measurements of nitrous oxide are important in understanding the transport of air and therefore are used in tracking dynamical processes and differentiating these effects from chemical processes that affect ozone destruction.

How EOS MLS measures N2O

The standard product for N2O is taken from the 190 GHz retrieval.

N2O Information from the Spectroscopy Database

Quick Product Information for data version v5

  • Swath Name: N2O
  • Status Flag: Only use profiles for which the Status field is an even number.
  • Useful Range: 100 - 0.46 hPa
  • DAAC Short Name: ML2N2O
  • Precision: Only use values for which the estimated precision is a positive number.
  • Quality Threshold: See v5 data quality document.
  • Convergence Threshold: See v5 data quality document.

Download Aura MLS N2O v5 data

Latest Publications (N2O)

  1. Ruiz, D. and M. Prather
    From the middle stratosphere to the surface, using nitrous oxide to constrain the stratosphere-troposphere exchange of ozone
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. doi:10.5194/acp-2021-635, in review
  2. Ardra, D., J. Kuttippurath, R. Roy, P. Kumar, S. Raj, R. Müller and W. Feng
    The Unprecedented Ozone Loss in the Arctic Winter and Spring of 2010/2011 and 2019/2020
    ACS Earth and Space Chemistry doi:10.1021/acsearthspacechem.1c00333, 2022
  3. Lan, X., L. Zhu and Q. Yuan
    Long-Term Variation of Greenhouse Gas N2O Observed by MLS during 2005–2020
    Remote Sens. doi:10.3390/rs14040955, 2022
  4. Manney, G., L. Millán, M. Santee, K. Wargan, A. Lambert, J. Neu, F. Werner, Z. Lawrence, M. Schwartz, N. Livesey and W. Read
    Signatures of Anomalous Transport in the 2019/2020 Arctic Stratospheric Polar Vortex
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1029/2022jd037407, 2022
  5. Roy, R., J. Kuttippurath, F. Lefèvre, S. Raj and P. Kumar
    The sudden stratospheric warming and chemical ozone loss in the Antarctic winter 2019: comparison with the winters of 1988 and 2002
    Theoretical and Applied Climatology doi:10.1007/s00704-022-04031-6, 2022
  6. Santee, M.L., A. Lambert, G.L. Manney, N.J. Livesey, L. Froidevaux, J.L. Neu, M.J. Schwartz, L.F. Millán, F. Werner, W.G. Read, M. Park, R.A. Fuller and B.M. Ward
    Prolonged and Pervasive Perturbations in the Composition of the Southern Hemisphere Midlatitude Lower Stratosphere From the Australian New Year's Fires
    Geophys. Res. Lett. doi:10.1029/2021gl096270, 2022
  7. Strahan, S., L. Coy, A. Douglass and M. Damon
    Faster Tropical Upper Stratospheric Upwelling Drives Changes in Ozone Chemistry
    Geophys. Res. Lett. doi:10.1029/2022gl101075, 2022
  8. Feng, W., S. Dhomse, C. Arosio, M. Weber, J. Burrows, M. Santee and M. Chipperfield
    Arctic Ozone Depletion in 2019/20: Roles of Chemistry, Dynamics and the Montreal Protocol
    Geophys. Res. Lett. doi:10.1029/2020gl091911, 2021
  9. Grooß, J. and R. Müller
    Simulation of Record Arctic Stratospheric Ozone Depletion in 2020
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1029/2020jd033339, 2021
  10. Hegglin, M., S. Tegtmeier, J. Anderson, A. Bourassa, S. Brohede, D. Degenstein, L. Froidevaux, B. Funke, J. Gille, Y. Kasai, E. Kyrölä, J. Lumpe, D. Murtagh, J. Neu, K. Pérot, E. Remsberg, A. Rozanov, M. Toohey, J. Urban, T. von Clarmann, K. Walker, H. Wang, C. Arosio, R. Damadeo, R. Fuller, G. Lingenfelser, C. McLinden, D. Pendlebury, C. Roth, N. Ryan, C. Sioris, L. Smith and K. Weigel
    Overview and update of the SPARC Data Initiative: comparison of stratospheric composition measurements from satellite limb sounders
    Earth System Science Data doi:10.5194/essd-13-1855-2021, 2021
  11. Kuttippurath, J., W. Feng, R. Müller, P. Kumar, S. Raj, G. Gopikrishnan and R. Roy
    Exceptional loss in ozone in the Arctic winter/spring of 2019/2020
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-21-14019-2021, 2021
  12. Linz, M., R.A. Plumb, A. Gupta and E. Gerber
    Stratospheric Adiabatic Mixing Rates Derived From the Vertical Gradient of Age of Air
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1029/2021jd035199, 2021
  13. Livesey, N., W. Read, L. Froidevaux, A. Lambert, M. Santee, M. Schwartz, L. Millán, R. Jarnot, P. Wagner, D. Hurst, K. Walker, P. Sheese and G. Nedoluha
    Investigation and amelioration of long-term instrumental drifts in water vapor and nitrous oxide measurements from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder MLS and their implications for studies of variability and trends
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-21-15409-2021, 2021
  14. Ruiz, D., M. Prather, S. Strahan, R. Thompson, L. Froidevaux and S. Steenrod
    How Atmospheric Chemistry and Transport Drive Surface Variability of N 2 O and CFC‐11
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 10.1029/2020jd033979, 2021
  15. Sukhodolov, T., T. Egorova, A. Stenke, W. Ball, C. Brodowsky, G. Chiodo, A. Feinberg, M. Friedel, A. Karagodin-Doyennel, T. Peter, J. Sedlacek, S. Vattioni and E. Rozanov
    Atmosphere–ocean–aerosol–chemistry–climate model SOCOLv4.0: description and evaluation
    Geoscientific Model Development doi:10.5194/gmd-14-5525-2021, 2021
  16. von Gathen, P.D., R. Kivi, I. Wohltmann, R. Salawitch and M. Rex
    Climate change favours large seasonal loss of Arctic ozone
    Nature Communications doi:10.1038/s41467-021-24089-6, 2021
  17. Berhe, T.Y., G.M. Tsidu, T. Blumenstock, F. Hase and G. Stiller
    Methane and nitrous oxide from ground-based FTIR at Addis Ababa: observations, error analysis, and comparison with satellite data
    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques doi:10.5194/amt-13-4079-2020, 2020
  18. Kablick, G.P., D.R. Allen, M.D. Fromm and G.E. Nedoluha
    Australian pyroCb smoke generates synoptic‐scale stratospheric anticyclones
    Geophys. Res. Lett. doi:10.1029/2020gl088101, 2020
  19. Manney, G., N. Livesey, M. Santee, L. Froidevaux, A. Lambert, Z. Lawrence, L. Millán, J. Neu, W. Read, M. Schwartz and R. Fuller
    Record‐Low Arctic Stratospheric Ozone in 2020: MLS Observations of Chemical Processes and Comparisons With Previous Extreme Winters
    Geophys. Res. Lett. 10.1029/2020gl089063, 2020
  20. Minganti, D., S. Chabrillat, Y. Christophe, Q. Errera, M. Abalos, M. Prignon, D. Kinnison and E. Mahieu
    Climatological impact of the Brewer–Dobson circulation on the N2O budget in WACCM, a chemical reanalysis and a CTM driven by four dynamical reanalyses
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10.5194/acp-20-12609-2020, 2020
  21. Orbe, C., D. Rind, J. Jonas, L. Nazarenko, G. Faluvegi, L. Murray, D. Shindell, K. Tsigaridis, T. Zhou, M. Kelley and G. Schmidt
    GISS Model E2.2: A Climate Model Optimized for the Middle Atmosphere—2. Validation of Large‐Scale Transport and Evaluation of Climate Response
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1029/2020jd033151, 2020
  22. Schwartz, M., M. Santee, H. Pumphrey, G. Manney, A. Lambert, N. Livesey, L. Millán, J. Neu, W. Read and F. Werner
    Australian New Year's PyroCb Impact on Stratospheric Composition
    Geophys. Res. Lett. doi:10.1029/2020gl090831, 2020
  23. Wang, Z., N. Hase, J. Notholt, B. Dils, M. Saunois, T. Warneke and W. Tian
    Diagnosing Mixing Properties in Model Simulations for CH4 in the Stratosphere
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1029/2020jd032524, 2020
  24. Wargan, K., B. Weir, G. Manney, S. Cohn and N. Livesey
    The Anomalous 2019 Antarctic Ozone Hole in the GEOS Constituent Data Assimilation System With MLS Observations
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1029/2020jd033335, 2020
  25. Errera, Q., S. Chabrillat, Y. Christophe, J. Debosscher, D. Hubert, W. Lahoz, M. Santee, M. Shiotani, S. Skachko, T. von Clarmann and K. Walker
    Technical note: Reanalysis of Aura MLS chemical observations
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-19-13647-2019, 2019
  26. Froidevaux, L., D. Kinnison, R. Wang, J. Anderson and R. Fuller
    Evaluation of CESM1 WACCM free-running and specified dynamics atmospheric composition simulations using global multispecies satellite data records
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-19-4783-2019, 2019
  27. Han, Y., W. Tian, M. Chipperfield, J. Zhang, F. Wang, W. Sang, J. Luo, W. Feng, A. Chrysanthou and H. Tian
    Attribution of the Hemispheric Asymmetries in Trends of Stratospheric Trace Gases Inferred from Microwave Limb Sounder MLS Measurements
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1029/2018jd029723, 2019
  28. Pérez-Invernón, F.J., F.J. Gordillo-Vázquez, A.K. Smith, E. Arnone and H. Winkler
    Global Occurrence and Chemical Impact of Stratospheric Blue Jets Modeled With WACCM4
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1029/2018jd029593, 2019
  29. Zambri, B., S. Solomon, D. Kinnison, M. Mills, A. Schmidt, R. Neely, A. Bourassa, D. Degenstein and C. Roth
    Modeled and Observed Volcanic Aerosol Control on Stratospheric NOy and Cly
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1029/2019jd031111, 2019
  30. Dietmüller, S., R. Eichinger, H. Garny, T. Birner, H. Boenisch, G. Pitari, E. Mancini, D. Visioni, A. Stenke, L. Revell, E. Rozanov, D. Plummer, J. Scinocca, P. Jöckel, L. Oman, M. Deushi, S. Kiyotaka, D. Kinnison, R. Garcia, O. Morgenstern, G. Zeng, K. Stone and R. Schofield
    Quantifying the effect of mixing on the mean age of air in CCMVal-2 and CCMI-1 models
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-18-6699-2018, 2018
  31. Kreyling, D., I. Wohltmann, R. Lehmann and M. Rex
    The Extrapolar SWIFT model version 1.0: fast stratospheric ozone chemistry for global climate models
    Geoscientific Model Development doi:10.5194/gmd-11-753-2018, 2018
  32. Stolarski, R., A. Douglass and S. Strahan
    Using satellite measurements of N2O to remove dynamical variability from HCl measurements
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-18-5691-2018, 2018
  33. Strahan, S. and A. Douglass
    Decline in Antarctic Ozone Depletion and Lower Stratospheric Chlorine Determined From Aura Microwave Limb Sounder Observations
    Geophys. Res. Lett. doi:10.1002/2017gl074830, 2018
  34. Douglass, A., S. Strahan, L. Oman and R. Stolarski
    Multi-decadal records of stratospheric composition and their relationship to stratospheric circulation change
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-17-12081-2017, 2017
  35. Hegglin, M., S. Tegtmeier, J. Anderson, A. Bourassa, S. Brohede, D. Degenstein, L. Froidevaux, B. Funke, J. Gille, A. Jones, Y. Kasai, E. Kyrola, J. Lumpe, J. Neu, E. Remsberg, A. Rozanov, M. Toohey, J. Urban, T. von Clarmann, K.A. Walker and R. Wang
    The SPARC Data Initiative: Assessment of stratospheric trace gas and aerosol climatologies from satellite limb sounders
  36. Linz, M., R.A. Plumb, E. Gerber, F. Haenel, G. Stiller, D. Kinnison, A. Ming and J. Neu
    The strength of the meridional overturning circulation of the stratosphere
    Nature Geoscience doi:10.1038/ngeo3013, 2017
  37. Meek, C.E., A.H. Manson and J.R. Drummond
    Comparison of Aura MLS stratospheric chemical gradients with north polar vortex edges calculated by two methods
    Adv. Space Res. 10.1016/j.asr.2017.06.009, 2017
  38. Park, M., W.J. Randel, D.E. Kinnison, A.E. Bourassa, D.A. Degenstein, C.Z. Roth, C.A. McLinden, C.E. Sioris, N.J. Livesey and M.L. Santee
    Variability of Stratospheric Reactive Nitrogen and Ozone Related to the QBO
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1002/2017jd027061, 2017
  39. Wohltmann, I., R. Lehmann and M. Rex
    A quantitative analysis of the reactions involved in stratospheric ozone depletion in the polar vortex core
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-17-10535-2017, 2017
  40. Errera, Q., S. Ceccherini, Y. Christophe, S. Chabrillat, M. Hegglin, A. Lambert, R. Ménard, P. Raspollini, S. Skachko, M. van Weele and K. Walker
    Harmonisation and diagnostics of MIPAS ESA CH4 and N2O profiles using data assimilation
    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques doi:10.5194/amt-9-5895-2016, 2016
  41. Gu, Y., K.N. Liou, J.H. Jiang, R. Fu, S. Lu and Y. Xue
    A GCM Investigation of Impact of Aerosols on the Precipitation in Amazon during the Dry to Wet Transition
    Climate Dynamics doi:10.1007/s00382-016-3211-7, 2016
  42. Jiang, Z., K. Miyazaki, J. Worden, J. Liu, D. Jones and D. Henze
    Impacts of anthropogenic and natural sources on free tropospheric ozone over the Middle East
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-16-6537-2016, 2016
  43. Manney, G. and Z. Lawrence
    The major stratospheric final warming in 2016: dispersal of vortex air and termination of Arctic chemical ozone loss
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10.5194/acp-16-15371-2016, 2016
  44. Millan, L., N. Livesey, M. Santee, J. Neu, G. Manney and R. Fuller
    Case studies of the impact of orbital sampling on stratospheric trend detection and derivation of tropical vertical velocities: solar occultation vs. limb emission sounding
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-16-11521-2016, 2016
  45. Plieninger, J., A. Laeng, S. Lossow, T. von Clarmann, G. Stiller, S. Kellmann, A.  Linden, M. Kiefer, K. Walker, S. Noël, M. Hervig, M. McHugh, A. Lambert, J. Urban, J. Elkins and D. Murtagh
    Validation of revised methane and nitrous oxide profiles from MIPAS–ENVISAT
    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques doi:10.5194/amt-9-765-2016, 2016
  46. Skachko, S., R. Menard, Q. Errera, Y. Christophe and S. Chabrillat
    EnKF and 4D-Var data assimilation with chemical transport model BASCOE version 05.06
    Geosci. Model Dev. doi:10.5194/gmd-9-2893-2016, 2016
  47. Strahan, S.E., A.R. Douglass and S.D. Steenrod
    Chemical and dynamical impacts of stratospheric sudden warmings on Arctic ozone variability
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1002/2016jd025128, 2016
  48. Agol, E., T. Jansen, B. Lacy, T. Robinson and V. Meadows
    The Center of Light: Spectroastrometric Detection of Exomoons
    The Astrophysical Journal doi:10.1088/0004-637x/812/1/5, 2015
  49. Froidevaux, L., J. Anderson, H.J. Wang, R.A. Fuller, M.J. Schwartz, M.L. Santee, N.J. Livesey, H.C. Pumphrey, P.F. Bernath, J.M. Russell III and M.P. McCormick
    Global OZone Chemistry And Related trace gas Data records for the Stratosphere GOZCARDS: methodology and sample results with a focus on HCl, H2O, and O3
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-15-10471-2015, 2015
  50. Kuttippurath, J., S. Godin-Beekmann, F. Lefevre, M.L. Santee, L. Froidevaux and A. Hauchecorne
    Variability in Antarctic ozone loss in the last decade 2004-2013: high-resolution simulations compared to Aura MLS observations
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-15-10385-2015, 2015
  51. Livesey, N.J., M.L. Santee and G.L. Manney
    A Match-based approach to the estimation of polar stratospheric ozone loss using Aura Microwave Limb Sounder observations
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-15-9945-2015, 2015
  52. Manney, G., Z. Lawrence, M. Santee, W. Read, N. Livesey, A. Lambert, L. Froidevaux, H. Pumphrey and M. Schwartz
    A minor sudden stratospheric warming with a major impact: Transport and polar processing in the 2014/2015 Arctic winter
    Geophys. Res. Lett. doi:10.1002/2015gl065864, 2015
  53. Manney, G.L., Z.D. Lawrence, M.L. Santee, N.J. Livesey, A. Lambert and M.C. Pitts
    Polar processing in a split vortex: Arctic ozone loss in early winter 2012/2013
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-15-5381-2015, 2015
  54. Minschwaner, K. and G.L. Manney
    Derived Methane in the Stratosphere and Lower Mesosphere from Aura Microwave Limb Sounder Measurements of Nitrous Oxide, Water Vapor, and Carbon Monoxide
    J. Atmos. Chem. doi:10.1007/s10874-015-9299-z, 2015
  55. Nedoluha, G.E., D.E. Siskind, A. Lambert and C. Boone
    The decrease in mid-stratospheric tropical ozone since 1991
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. doi:10.5194/acp-15-4215-2015, 2015
  56. Nedoluha, G.E., I.S. Boyd, A. Parrish, R.M. Gomez, D.R. Allen, L. Froidevaux, B.J. Connor and R.R. Querel
    Unusual stratospheric ozone anomalies observed in 22 years of measurements from Lauder, New Zealand
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-15-6817-2015, 2015
  57. Prather, M., J. Hsu, N. DeLuca, C. Jackman, L. Oman, A. Douglass, E. Fleming, S. Strahan, S. Steenrod, O.A. Søvde, I. Isaksen, L. Froidevaux and B. Funke
    Measuring and modeling the lifetime of nitrous oxide including its variability
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1002/2015jd023267, 2015
  58. Strahan, S.E., L.D. Oman, A.R. Douglass and L. Coy
    Modulation of Antarctic vortex composition by the quasi-biennial oscillation
    Geophys. Res. Lett. doi:10.1002/2015GL063759, 2015
  59. Tao, M., P. Konopka, F. Ploeger, J.U. Grooß, R. Müller, C.M. Volk, K.A. Walker and M. Riese
    Impact of the 2009 major stratospheric sudden warming on the composition of the stratosphere
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-15-8695-2015, 2015
  60. Allen, D.R., K.W. Hoppel and D.D. Kuhl
    Wind extraction potential from 4D-Var assimilation of stratospheric O3, N2O, and H2O using a global shallow water model
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-14-3347-2014, 2014
  61. Stolarski, R.S., D.W. Waugh, L. Wang, L.D. Oman, A.R. Douglass and P.A. Newman
    Seasonal variation of ozone in the tropical lower stratosphere: Southern tropics are different from northern tropics
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1002/2013JD021294, 2014
  62. Strahan, S.E., A.R. Douglass, P.A. Newman and S.D. Steenrod
    Inorganic chlorine variability in the Antarctic vortex and implications for ozone recovery
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1002/2014JD022295, 2014
  63. Allen, D.R., A.R. Douglass and S.E. Strahan
    The large-scale frozen-in anticyclone in the 2011 Arctic summer stratosphere
    J. Geophys. Res. doi:10.1002/jgrd.50256, 2013
  64. Brakebusch, M., C.E. Randall, D.E. Kinnison, S. Tilmes, M.L. Santee and G.L. Manney
    Evaluation of Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model simulations of ozone during Arctic winter 2004–2005
    J. Geophys. Res. doi:10.1002/jgrd.50226, 2013
  65. Khosrawi, F., R. Müller, J. Urban, M.H. Proffitt, G. Stiller, M. Kiefer, S. Lossow, D. Kinnison, F. Olschewski, M. Riese and D. Murtagh
    Assessment of the interannual variability and influence of the QBO and upwelling on tracer–tracer distributions of N2O and O3 in the tropical lower stratosphere
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-13-3619-2013, 2013
  66. Santee, M.L., N.J. Livesey, G.L. Manney, A. Lambert and W.G. Read
    Methyl chloride from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder: First global climatology and assessment of variability in the upper troposphere and stratosphere
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1002/2013JD020235, 2013
  67. Strahan, S.E., A.R. Douglass and P.A. Newman
    The contributions of chemistry and transport to low arctic ozone in March 2011 derived from Aura MLS observations
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1002/jgrd.50181, 2013
  68. Wohltmann, I., T. Wegner, R. Mueller, R. Lehmann, M. Rex, G.L. Manney, M.L. Santee, P. Bernath, O. Suminska-Ebersoldt, F. Strohl, M. von Hobe, C.M. Volk, E. Hoesen, F. Ravegnani, A. Ulanovsky and V. Yushkov
    Uncertainties in modelling heterogeneous chemistry and Arctic ozone depletion in the winter 2009/2010
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-13-3909-2013, 2013
  69. Allen, D., A. Douglass, G. Nedoluha and L. Coy
    Tracer transport during the Arctic stratospheric final warming based on a 33-year 1979-2011 tracer equivalent latitude simulation
    Geophys. Res. Lett. doi:10.1029/2012gl051930, 2012
  70. Damiani, A., B. Funke, D.R. Marsh, M. Lopez-Puertas, M.L. Santee, L. Froidevaux, S. Wang, C.H. Jackman, T. von Clarmann, A. Gardini, R.R. Cordero and M. Storini
    Impact of January 2005 solar proton events on chlorine species
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-12-4159-2012, 2012
  71. Jones, A., K.A. Walker, J.J. Jin, J.R. Taylor, C.D. Boone, P.F. Bernath, S. Brohede, G.L. Manney, S. McLeod, R. Hughes and W.H. Daffer
    Technical Note: A trace gas climatology derived from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer ACE-FTS data set
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-12-5207-2012, 2012
  72. Kvissel, O.K., Y.J. Orsolini, F. Stordal, I.S.A. Isaksen and M.L. Santee
    Formation of stratospheric nitric acid by a hydrated ion cluster reaction: Implications for the effect of energetic particle precipitation on the middle atmosphere
    J. Geophys. Res. doi:10.1029/2011JD017257, 2012
  73. Sovde, O.A., M.J. Prather, I.S.A. Isaksen, T.K. Berntsen, F. Stordal, X. Zhu, C.D. Holmes and J. Hsu
    The chemical transport model Oslo CTM3
    Geosci. Model Dev. doi:10.5194/gmd-5-1441-2012, 2012
  74. Allen, D.R., A.R. Douglass, G.L. Manney, S.E. Strahan, J.C. Krosschell, J.V. Trueblood, J.E. Nielsen, S. Pawson and Z. Zhu
    Modeling the Frozen-In Anticyclone in the 2005 Arctic Summer Stratosphere
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-11-4557-2011, 2011
  75. Bencherif, H., L.E. Amraoui, G. Kirgis, J.L.D. Bellevue, A. Hauchecorne, N. Mzé, T. Portafaix, A. Pazmino and F. Goutail
    Analysis of a rapid increase of stratospheric ozone during late austral summer 2008 over Kerguelen (49.4° S, 70.3° E)
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10.5194/acp-11-363-2011, 2011
  76. Feng, W., M.P. Chipperfield, S. Davies, G.W. Mann, K.S. Carslaw, S. Dhomse, L. Harvey, C. Randall and M.L. Santee
    Modelling the effect of denitrification on polar ozone depletion for Arctic winter 2004/2005
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-11-6559-2011, 2011
  77. Palazzi, E., F. Fiereli, G.P. Stiller and J. Urban
    Probability density functions of long-lived tracer observations from satellite in the subtropical barrier region: data intercomparison
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-11-10579-2011, 2011
  78. Thieblemont, R., N. Huret, Y.J. Orsolini, A. Hauchecoren and M.A. Drouin
    Frozen‐in anticyclones occurring in polar Northern Hemisphere during springtime: Characterization, occurrence and link with quasi‐biennial oscillation
    J. Geophys. Res. doi:10.1029/2011JD016042, 2011
  79. Ishijima, K., P.J. Patra, M. Takigawa, T. Machida, H. Matsueda, Y. Sawa, L.P. Steele, P.B. Krummel, R.L. Langenfelds, S. Aoki and T. Nakazawa
    Stratospheric influences on the seasonal cycle of nitrous oxide in the troposphere as deduced from aircraft observations and model simulations
    J. Geophys. Res. doi:10.1029/2009JD013322, 2010
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