Aura MLS


Contact: Alyn Lambert

Cloud ice water content (IWC) is defined as cloud ice mass in unit volume of atmospheric air.

It can vary largely from 0.0001 g/m3 in thin cirrus to 1 g/m3 inside convective core. The vertically integrated column of IWC is ice water path (IWP).

How it is part of MLS Science Objectives

Clouds are a major source of uncertainty in understanding climate change of our home planet. Important to cloud radiative and hydrological properties, IWC is the key variable that connects cloud macrophysical and microphysical (such as ice particle sizes and shapes) properties. MLS cloud ice measurements can be used to reduce uncertainties in climate model parameterizations so that cloud physics/processes can be better represented. MLS IWC has units of g/m^3.

How EOS MLS Derives IWC

The standard product for IWC is retrieved from the 240 GHz cloud-induced radiances (Tcir) at 215 - 68 hPa. The IWC- Tcir relation is calculated using a radiative transfer model where ice particle size distribution is prescribed based on in-situ data. The modeled IWC-Tcir relation forms the basis of the operational IWC retrieval, which converts Tcir directly to IWC without any inversion.

The MLS IWC represents an average quantity over the volume of ~300 x 7 x 4 km3 (length, width, height) near the tangent point of each Tcir measurement. Cloud inhomogeneity and assumptions about particle size distribution are largest uncertainties. Averaging MLS IWC data (e.g. monthly) helps to reduce some of the inhomogeneity-induced uncertainties but the uncertainties induced by particle size assumptions (~100%) cannot be reduced.

Quick Product Information for data version v5

  • Swath Name: IWC
  • Status Flag: User is recommended to screen the IWC data using the Status field in the collocated temperature profile to exclude bad retrievals.
  • Useful Range: 215 - 83 hPa
  • DAAC Short Name: ML2IWC

Download Aura MLS IWC v5 data

Latest Publications (IWC)

  1. Dion, I., C. Dallet, P. Ricaud, F. Carminati, T. Dauhut and P. Haynes
    Ice injected into the tropopause by deep convection – Part 2: Over the Maritime Continent
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-21-2191-2021, 2021
  2. Wang, T., D. Wu, J. Gong and C. Wang
    Long‐Term Observations of Upper‐Tropospheric Cloud Ice From the MLS
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1029/2020jd034058, 2021
  3. Vignesh, P.P., J.H. Jiang, P. Kishore, H. Su, T. Smay, N. Brighton and I. Velicogna
    Assessment of CMIP6 Cloud Fraction and Comparison with Satellite Observations
    Earth and Space Science doi:, 2020
  4. Chen, Q., G. Gao, Y. Li, H. Cai, X. Zhou and Z. Wang
    Main Detrainment Height of Deep Convection Systems over the Tibetan Plateau and Its Southern Slope
    Advances in Atmospheric Sciences doi:10.1007/s00376-019-9003-3, 2019
  5. Dion, I., P. Ricaud, P. Haynes, F. Carminati and T. Dauhut
    Ice injected into the tropopause by deep convection – Part 1: In the austral convective tropics
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-19-6459-2019, 2019
  6. Dolinar, E.K., X. Dong, B. Xi, J.H. Jiang, N.G. Loeb, J.R. Campbell and H. Su
    A global record of single-layered ice cloud properties and associated radiative heating rate profiles from an A-Train perspective
    Climate Dynamics 2019
  7. Jiang, J.H., Q. Yue, H. Su, P. Kangaslahti, M. Lebsock, S. Reising, M. Schoeberl, L. Wu and R.L. Herman
    Simulation of Remote Sensing of Clouds and Humidity From Space Using a Combined Platform of Radar and Multifrequency Microwave Radiometers
    Earth and Space Science doi:, 2019
  8. Kubar, T.L. and J.H. Jiang
    Net Cloud Thinning, Low-Level Cloud Diminishment, and Hadley Circulation Weakening of Precipitating Clouds with Tropical West Pacific SST Using MISR and Other Satellite and Reanalysis Data
  9. Su, H., C. Zhai, J.H. Jiang, L. Wu, J. D, . Neelin and Y.L. Yung
    A dichotomy between model responses of tropical ascent and descent to surface warming
    NPJ Climate and Atmospheric Science 10.1038/s41612-019-0066-8, 2019
  10. Huang, H., Y. Gu, Y. Xue, J. Jiang and B. Zhao
    Assessing aerosol indirect effect on clouds and regional climate of East/South Asia and West Africa using NCEP GFS
    Climate Dynamics 2018
  11. Lambert, A. and M. Santee
    Accuracy and precision of polar lower stratospheric temperatures from reanalyses evaluated from A-Train CALIOP and MLS, COSMIC GPS RO, and the equilibrium thermodynamics of supercooled ternary solutions and ice clouds
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-18-1945-2018, 2018
  12. Jiang, J.H., Q. Yue, H. Su, S.C. Reising, P.P. Kangaslahti, W.R. Deal, E.T. Schlecht, L. Wu and K.F. Evans
    [PDF] from A Simulation of Ice Cloud Particle Size, Humidity and Temperature Measurements from the TWICE CubeSat
    Earth and Space Science 2017
  13. Liu, R., K. Liou, H. Su, Y. Gu, B. Zhao, J.H. Jiang and S. Liu
    High cloud variations with surface temperature from 2002 to 2015: Contributions to atmospheric radiative cooling rate and precipitation changes
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1002/2016JD026303, 2017
  14. Santee, M.L., G.L. Manney, N.J. Livesey, M.J. Schwartz, J.L. Neu and W.G. Read
    A comprehensive overview of the climatological composition of the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone based on 10 years of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder measurements
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1002/2016jd026408, 2017
  15. Shi, C., W. Cai and D. Guo
    Composition and Thermal Structure of the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere in a Penetrating Mesoscale Convective Complex Determined by Satellite Observations and Model Simulations
    Advances in Meteorology doi:10.1155/2017/6404796, 2017
  16. Su, H., J.H. Jiang, J.D. Neelin, T.J. Shen, C. Zhai, Q. Yue, Z. Wang, L. Huang, Y.S. Choi, G.L. Stephens and Y.L. Yung
    Tightening of tropical ascent and high clouds key to precipitation change in a warmer climate
    Nature Communications doi:DOI: 10.1038/ncomms15771, 2017
  17. Chakraborty, S., R. Fu, S. Massie and G. Stephens
    Relative influence of meteorological conditions and aerosols on the lifetime of mesoscale convective systems
    Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. doi:10.1073/pnas.1601935113, 2016
  18. Elsaesser, G.S., A.D. Genio, J.H. Jiang and M. van Lier-Walqui
    An Improved Convective Ice Parameterization for the NASA GISS Global Climate Model and Impacts on Cloud Ice Simulation
    J. Climate doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0346.1, 2016
  19. Elsaesser, G.S., A.D. Genio, J.H. Jiang and M. van Lier-Walqui
    An Improved Convective Ice Parameterization for the NASA GISS Global Climate Model and Impacts on Cloud Ice Simulation
    J. Climate doi:10.1175/JCLI-D, 2016
  20. Huang, L., J.H. Jiang, L. Murry, M. Damon, H. Su and N. Livesey
    Evaluation of UTLS carbon monoxide simulations in GMI and GEOS-Chem chemical transport models using Aura MLS observations
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-16-5641-2016, 2016
  21. Massie, S.T., J. Delanoë, C.G. Bardeen, J.H. Jiang and L. Huang
    Changes in the shape of cloud ice water content vertical structure due to aerosol variations
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-16-6091-2016, 2016
  22. Takahashi, H., H. Su and J.H. Jiang
    Error analysis of upper tropospheric water vapor in CMIP5 models using “A-Train” satellite observations and reanalysis data
    Climate Dynamics doi:10.1007/s00382-015-2732-9, 2016
  23. Wang, Y., H. Su, J.H. Jiang, N.J. Livesey, M.L. Santee, P.C. Stek, L. Froidevaux, W.G. Read and J. Anderson
    The linkage between stratospheric water vapor and surface temperature in an observation-constrained coupled general circulation model
    Climate Dynamics doi:10.1007/s00382-016-3231-3, 2016
  24. Wright, C.J., N.P. Hindley, A.C. Moss and N.J. Mitchell
    Multi-instrument gravity-wave measurements over Tierra del Fuego and the Drake Passage – Part 1: Potential energies and vertical wavelengths from AIRS, COSMIC, HIRDLS, MLS-Aura, SAAMER, SABER and radiosondes
    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques doi:10.5194/amt-9-877-2016, 2016
  25. Geller, M.A., T. Zhou and P.T. Love
    Tropical Gravity Wave Momentum Fluxes and Latent Heating Distributions
    J. Atmos. Sci. 2015
  26. Gong, J., D.L. Wu and V. Limpasuvan
    Meridionally tilted ice cloud structures in the tropical upper troposphere as seen by CloudSat
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10.5194/acp-15-6271-2015, 2015
  27. Huang, L., J.H. Jiang, Z. Wang, H. Su, M. Deng and S. Massie
    Climatology of Cloud Water Content Associated with Different Cloud Types Observed by A-Train Satellites
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1002/2014JD022779, 2015
  28. Jiang, J.H., H. Su, C. Zhai, L. Wu, K. Minschwaner, A.M. Molod and A.M. Tompkins
    An assessment of upper-troposphere and lower-stratosphere water vapor in MERRA, MERRA2 and ECMWF reanalyses using Aura MLS observations
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1002/2015JD023752, 2015
  29. Jiang, J.H., H. Su, C. Zhai, T.J. Shen, T. Wu, J. Zhang, J. Cole, K. von Salzen, L.J. Donner, C. Seman, A.D. Genio, L.S. Nazarenko, J.L. Dufresne, M. Watanabe, C. Morcrette, T. Koshiro, H. Kawai, A. Gettelman, L. Millan, W.G. Read, N.J. Livesey, Y. Kasai and M. Shiotani
    Evaluating the diurnal cycle of upper tropospheric ice clouds in climate models using SMILES observations
    J. Atmos. Sci. doi:10.1175/JAS-D-14-0124.1, 2015
  30. Kristiansen, N.I., A.J. Prata, A. Stohl and S.A. Carn
    Stratospheric volcanic ash emissions from the 13 February 2014 Kelut eruption
    Geophys. Res. Lett. doi:10.1002/2014GL062307, 2015
  31. Lee, J., J. Worden, D. Noone, J.H. Chae and C. Frankenberg
    Isotopic changes due to convective moistening of the lower troposphere associated with variations in the ENSO and IOD from 2005 to 2006
    Tellus B Chemical and Physical Meteorology doi:10.3402/tellusb.v67.26177, 2015
  32. Minschwaner, K., G.L. Manney, I. Petropavlovskikh, L.A. Torres, Z.D. Lawrence, B. Sutherland, A.M. Thompson, B.J. Johnson, Z. Butterfield, M.K. Dubey, L. Froidevaux, A. Lambert, W.G. Read and M.J. Schwartz
    Signature of a tropical Pacific cyclone in the composition of the upper troposphere over Socorro, NM
    Geophys. Res. Lett. doi:10.1002/2015gl065824, 2015
  33. Stanfield, R.E., J.H. Jiang, X. Dong, B. Xi, H. Su, L. Donner, L. Rotstayn, T. Wu, J. Cole and E. Shindo
    A Quantitative Assessment of Precipitation Associated With the ITCZ in the CMIP5 GCM Simulations Climate Dynamics
    Climate Dynamics doi:10.1007/s00382-015-2937-y, 2015
  34. Zhai, C., J.H. Jiang and H. Su
    Long term cloud change imprinted in seasonal cloud variation: more evidence of high climate sensitivity
    Geophys. Res. Lett. doi:10.1002/2015GL065911, 2015
  35. Bhawar, R.L., J.H. Jiang, H. Su and M.J. Schwartz
    Variation of upper tropospheric clouds and water vapour over the Indian Ocean
    International Journal of Climatology doi:10.1002/joc.3942, 2014
  36. Carminati, F., P. Ricaud, J.P. Pommereau, E. Riviere, S. Khaykin, J.L. Attie and J. Warner
    Impact of tropical land convection on the water vapour budget in the tropical tropopause layer
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-14-6195-2014, 2014
  37. Dolinar, E.K., X. Dong, B. Xi, J.H. Jiang and H. Su
    Evaluation of CMIP5 simulated clouds and TOA radiation budgets using NASA satellite observations
    Climate Dynamics doi:10.1007/s00382-014-2158-9, 2014
  38. Huang, L., R. Fu and J.H. Jiang
    Impacts of Fire Emissions and Transport Pathways on the Interannual Variation of CO in the Tropical Upper Troposphere
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-14-4087-2014, 2014
  39. Millan, L., M. Lebsock, N.J. Livesey, S. Tanellin and G. Stephens
    Differential absorption radar techniques: surface pressure
    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques doi:10.5194/amt-7-3959-2014, 2014
  40. Rong, P.P., J.M. Russell III, C.E. Randall, S.M. Bailey and A. Lambert
    Northern PMC brightness zonal variability and its correlation with temperature and water vapor
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1002/2013JD020513, 2014
  41. Stanfield, R.E., X. Dong, B. Xi, A. Kennedy, A.D.D. Genio, P. Minnis and J.H. Jiang
    Assessment of NASA GISS CMIP5 and Post-CMIP5 Simulated Clouds and TOA Radiation Budgets Using Satellite Observations: Part I: Cloud fraction and properties
  42. Wu, D.L., A. Lambert, W.G. Read, P. Eriksson and J. Gong
    MLS and CALIOP Cloud Ice Measurements in the Upper Troposphere: A Constraint from Microwave on Cloud Microphysics
    Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology doi:10.1175/JAMC-D-13-041.1, 2014
  43. Livesey, N.J., J.A. Logan, M.L. Santee, J.W. Waters, R.M. Doherty, W.G. Read, L. Froidevaux and J.H. Jiang
    Interrelated variations of O3, CO and deep convection in the tropical/subtropical upper troposphere observed by the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder MLS during 2004–2011
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-13-579-2013, 2013
  44. Millan, L., W. Read, Y. Kasai, A. Lambert, N. Livesey, J. Mendrok, H. Sagawa, T. Sano, M. Shiotani and D.L. Wu
    SMILES ice cloud products
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1002/jgrd.50322, 2013
  45. Su, H., J.H. Jiang, C. Zhai, V.S. Perun, J.T. Shen, A.D. Genio, L.S. Nazarenko, L.J. Donner, L. Horowitz, C. Seman, C. Morcrette, J. Petch, M. Ringer, J. Cole, M. Mesquita, T. Iversen, J.E. Kristjansson, A. Gettelman, L. Rotstayn, S. Jeffrey, J.L. Dufresne, M. Watanabe, H. Kawai, T. Koshiro, T. Wu, E.M. Volodin, T. L'Ecuyer, J. Teixeira and G.L. Stephens
    Diagnosis of Regime-dependent Cloud Simulation Errors in CMIP5 Models Using A-Train Satellite Observations
    J. Geophys. Res. doi:10.1029/2012JD018575, 2013
  46. Su, H. and J.H. Jiang
    Tropical Clouds and Circulation Changes During the 2006-07 and 2009-10 El Niños
  47. Gu, Y., K.N. Liou, J.H. Jiang, H. Su and X. Liu
    Dust aerosol impact on North Africa climate: a GCM investigation of aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions using A-Train satellite data
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-12-1667-2012, 2012
  48. Huang, L., R. Fu, J.H. Jiang, J.S. Wright and M. Luo
    Geographic and seasonal distributions of CO transport pathways and their roles in determining CO centers in the upper troposphere
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-12-4683-2012, 2012
  49. Jiang, J.H., H. Su, C. Zhai, V.S. Perun, A. Del Genio, L.S. Nazarenko, L.J. Donner, L. Horowitz, C. Seman, J. Cole, A. Gettelman, M. Ringer, L. Rotstayn, S. Jeffrey, T. Wu, F. Brient, J-L. Dufresne, H. Kawai, T. Koshiro, M. Watanabe, T.S. LÉcuyer, E.M. Volodin, T. Iversen, H. Drange, M.S. Mesquita, W.G. Read, J.W. Waters, B. Tian, J. Teixeira and G.L. Stephens
    Evaluation of Cloud and Water Vapor Simulations in CMIP5 Climate Models Using NASA A-Train Satellite Observations
    J. Geophys. Res. doi:10.1029/2011JD017237, 2012
  50. Wang, T. and A.E. Dessler
    Analysis of cirrus in the tropical tropopause layer from CALIPSO and MLS data: A water perspective
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1029/2011jd016442, 2012
  51. Yi, M., Y. Fu, P. Liu, Z. Heng, Y. Gao and X. Hong
    Analysis of the variation of atmospheric composition in the upper troposphere during a strong convection in eastern China in summer
    Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences doi:10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2012.11124, 2012
  52. Bhawar, R.L., J.H. Jiang and H. Su
    Variation of upper tropospheric clouds and water vapor over the Indian ocean
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. doi:10.5194/acpd-11-21769-2011, 2011
  53. Hendricks, J., B. Karcher and U. Lohmann
    Effects of ice nuclei on cirrus clouds in a global climate model
    J. Geophys. Res. doi:10.1029/2010JD015302, 2011
  54. Jiang, J.H., H. Su, C. Zhai, S.T. Massie, M.R. Schoeberl, P.R. Colarco, S. Platnick, Y. Gu and K.N. Liou
    Influence of convection and aerosol pollution on ice cloud particle effective radius
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-11-457-2011, 2011
  55. Jin, J.J., N.J. Livesey, J.H. Jiang, A. Lupu, J.W. Kaminski and J.C. McConnell
    Seasonal Variation of Trans-Pacific Transport of Carbon Monoxide (CO) in the Upper Troposphere: MLS Observations and GEOS-Chem and GEM-AQ simulations
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. doi:10.5194/acpd-11-3219-2011, 2011
  56. Su, H., J.H. Jiang, X. Liu, J.E. Penner, W.G. Read, S.T. Massie, M.R. Schoeberl, P. Colarco, N.J. Livesey and M.L. Santee
    Observed Increase of TTL Temperature and Water Vapor in Polluted Clouds over Asia
    J. Climate doi:10.1175/2010JCLI3749.1, 2011
  57. Zhang, L., Q.B. Li, J. Jin, H. Liu, N. Livesey, J.H. Jiang, Y. Mao, D. Chen, M. Luo and Y. Chen
    Impacts of 2006 Indonesian fires and dynamics on tropical upper tropospheric carbon monoxide and ozone
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-11-10929-2011, 2011
  58. Eriksson, P., B. Rydberg, M. Johnston, D.P. Murtagh, H. Struthers, S. Farrachat and U. Lohmann
    Diurnal variations of humidity and ice water content in the tropical upper troposphere
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-10-11519-2010, 2010
  59. Jiang, J.H., H. Su, S. Pawson, H.C. Liu, W. Read, J.W. Waters, M. Santee, D.L. Wu, M. Schwartz, N. Livesey, A. Lambert, R. Fuller and J.N. Lee
    Five-year (2004-2009) Observations of Upper Tropospheric Water Vapor and Cloud Ice from MLS and Comparisons with GEOS-5 analyses
    J. Geophys. Res. doi:10.1029/2009JD013256, 2010
  60. Luo, M., C. Boxe, J.H. Jiang, R. Nassar and N. Livesey
    Interpretation of Aura satellite observations of CO and aerosol index related to the December 2006 Australia fires
    J. Geophys. Res. doi:10.1016/j.rse.2010.07.003, 2010
  61. Su, H., J.H. Jiang, J.D. Neelin, B.H. Kahn, J.W. Waters, N.J. Livesey and Y. Gu
    Reply to comment by Roberto Rondanelli and Richard S. Lindzen on “Variations in convective precipitation fraction and stratiform area with sea surface temperature”
    J. Geophys. Res. doi:10.1029/2009JD012872, 2010
  62. Yan, X., N. Arnold and J. Remedios
    Global observations of gravity waves from High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder temperature measurements: A yearlong record of temperature amplitude and vertical wavelength
    J. Geophys. Res. doi:10.1029/2008JD011511, 2010
  63. Chauhan, S., M. Hoepfner, G.P. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, U. Grabowski, A. Linden, S. Kellmann, M. Milz, T. Steck, H. Fischer, L. Froidevaux, A. Lambert, M. Santee, M. Schwartz, W.G. Read and N.J. Livesey
    MIPAS reduced spectral resolution UTLS-1 mode measurements of temperature, O3, HNO3, N2O, H2O and relative humidity over ice: retrievals and comparison to MLS
    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques doi:10.5194/amt-2-337-2009, 2009
  64. Jiang, J.H., H. Su, S.T. Massie, P.R. Colarco, M.R. Schoeberl and S. Platnick
    Aerosol-CO relationship and aerosol effect on Ice cloud particle size: Analyses from Aura Microwave Limb Sounder and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer observations
    J. Geophys. Res. doi:10.1029/2009JD012421, 2009
  65. Rydberg, B., P. Eriksson, S.A. Buehler and D.P. Murtagh
    Non-Gaussian Bayesian retrieval of tropical upper tropospheric cloud ice and water vapour from Odin-SMR measurements
    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques doi:10.5194/amt-2-621-2009, 2009
  66. Su, H., J.H. Jiang, G.L. Stephens, D.G. Vane and N.J. Livesey
    Radiative effects of upper tropospheric clouds observed by Aura MLS and CloudSat
    Geophys. Res. Lett. doi:10.1029/2009GL037173, 2009
  67. Tao, W-K., J-D. Chern, D.D. Randall, M. Khairoutdinov, J-L. Li, D.E. Waliser, A. Hou, X. Lin, C. Peters-Lidard, W. Lau, J. Jiang and J. Simpson
    A Multiscaling Modeling System Developments, Applications, and Critical issues
    Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. doi:10.1175/2008BAMS2542.1, 2009
  68. Waliser, D.E., J.F. Li, C.P. Woods, R.T. Austin, J. Bacmeister, J. Chern, A. Del Genio, J.H. Jiang, Z. Kuang, H. Meng, P. Minnis, S. Platnick, W. B Rossow, G. L Stephens, S. Sun-Mack, W-K. Tao, A.M. Tompkins, D.G. Vane, C. Walker and D. Wu
    Cloud ice: A climate model challenge with signs and expectations of progress
    J. Geophys. Res. doi:10.1029/2008JD010015, 2009
  69. Wu, D.L., R. Austin, S. Durden, A. Heymsfield, J.H. Jiang, A. Lambert, J. Li, N.J. Livesey, G. McFarquhar, J. Pittman, G. Stephens, S. Tanelli, D. Vane and D. Waliser
    Comparisons of Global Cloud Ice from MLS, CloudSat, and Correlative Data Sets
    J. Geophys. Res. doi:10.1029/2008JD009946, 2009
  70. Ekstrom, M. and P. Eriksson
    Altitude resolved ice-fraction in the uppermost tropical troposphere
    Geophys. Res. Lett. doi:10.1029/2008GL034305, 2008
  71. Eriksson, P., M. Ekstrom, B. Rydberg, D.L. Wu, R.T. Austin and D.P. Murtagh
    Comparison between the first Odin-SMR, Aura MLS and CloudSat retrievals of cloud ice mass in the upper tropical troposphere
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acpd-7-12035-2007, 2008
  72. Jiang, J.H., H. Su, M. Schoeberl, S.T. Massie, P. Colarco, S. Platnick and N. Livesey
    Clean and polluted clouds: relationships among pollution, ice cloud and precipitation in South America
    Geophys. Res. Lett. doi:10.1029/2008GL034631, 2008
  73. Su, H., J.H. Jiang, D.G. Vane and G.L. Stephens
    Observed Vertical Structure of Tropical Oceanic Clouds Sorted in Large-scale Regimes
    Geophys. Res. Lett. doi:10.1029/2008GL035888, 2008
  74. Su, H., J.H. Jiang, Y. Gu, J.D. Neelin, B.H. Kahn, D. Feldman, Y.L. Yung, J.W. Waters, N.J. Livesey, M.L. Santee and W.G. Read
    Variations of tropical upper tropospheric clouds with sea surface temperature and implications for radiative effects
    J. Geophys. Res. doi:10.1029/2007JD009624, 2008
  75. Wu, D.L., H.M. Pickett and N.J. Livesey
    Aura MLS THz observations of global cirrus near the tropopause
    Geophys. Res. Lett. doi:10.1029/2008GL034233, 2008
  76. Wu, D.L., J.H. Jiang, W.G. Read, R.T. Austin, C.P. Davis, A. Lambert, G.L. Stephens, D.G. Vane and J.W. Waters
    Validation of the Aura MLS Cloud Ice Water Content (IWC) Measurements
    J. Geophys. Res. doi:10.1029/2007JD008931, 2008
  77. Davis, C.P., H.C. Pumphrey, K.F. Evans, S. Buehler and D.L. Wu
    3D polarised simulations of space-borne passive mm/sub-mm midlatitude cirrus observations: A case study
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-7-4149-2007, 2007
  78. Eriksson, P., M. Ekstrom, B. Rydberg and D.P. Murtagh
    First Odin sub-mm retrievals in the tropical upper troposphere: ice cloud properties
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-7-471-2007, 2007
  79. Kahn, B.H., A. Eldering, A.J. Braverman, E.J. Fetzer, J.H. Jiang, E. Fishbein and D.L. Wu
    Towards the characterization of upper tropospheric clouds using AIRS and MLS observations
    J. Geophys. Res. doi:10.1029/2006JD007336, 2007
  80. Li, J-L., J.H. Jiang, D.E. Waliser and A.M. Tompkins
    Assessing Consistency between EOS MLS and ECMWF Analyzed and Forecast Estimates of Cloud Ice
    Geophys. Res. Lett. doi:10.1029/2006GL029022, 2007
  81. Liu, C.
    Geographical and seasonal distribution of tropical tropopause thin clouds and their relation to deep convection and water vapor viewed from satellite measurements
    J. Geophys. Res. doi:10.1029/2006JD007479, 2007
  82. Cofield, R.E. and P.C. Stek
    Design and field-of-view calibration of 114-660 GHz optics of the Earth Observing System Microwave Limb Sounder
    IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing doi:10.1109/TGRS.2006.873234, 2006
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