Aura MLS

HNO3 (Upper Troposphere)

Contact: Michelle Santee

Nitric acid (HNO3) plays several pivotal roles in the processes controlling stratospheric ozone depletion. It is a key component of the polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) that form in the very low temperatures of polar winter, removing HNO3 from the gas phase.

PSC particles provide surfaces on which heterogeneous chemical reactions occur, converting chlorine from its reservoir species (e.g., ClONO2, HCl) to the highly reactive forms that participate in the catalytic cycles of ozone destruction (e.g., ClO).

On the other hand, photolysis of HNO3 vapor releases NO2, enabling a major pathway for the deactivation of chlorine, via the reformation of ClONO2 from ClO and NO2. If PSC particles grow large enough, then they can settle out of the lower stratosphere, carrying the HNO3 with them in a process known as denitrification.

Severe denitrification curtails ClONO2 formation, allowing enhanced ClO and thus chemical ozone destruction to persist. Therefore, as a central participant in both the activation and the deactivation of chlorine, HNO3 indirectly regulates the extent, duration, and cumulative magnitude of stratospheric ozone depletion.

How it is part of MLS Science Objectives

One of the main objectives of the Aura mission in general and MLS in particular is to track the stability of stratospheric ozone. Despite international regulations controlling the production of ozone-depleting substances, the ozone layer may not recover as expected.

Potential changes in Earth's climate, including possible cooling and/or moistening of the stratosphere, may increase the prevalence and duration of PSC activity and lead to more severe denitrification, exacerbating chemical ozone loss. Measurement of HNO3 is critical to understanding these issues.

How EOS MLS measures HNO3

The standard product for HNO3 is taken from the 240 GHz retrieval at and below 22 hPa, and from the 190 GHz retrieval at and above 15 hPa.

HNO3 Information from the Spectroscopy Database

Quick Product Information for data version v5

  • Swath Name: HNO3
  • Status Flag: Only use profiles for which the Status field is an even number.
  • Useful Range: 215-1.5 hPa
  • (1.0 hPa under enhanced conditions)
  • Screening: See v5 data quality document.
  • DAAC Short Name: ML2HNO3
  • Precision: Only use values for which the estimated precision is a positive number.
  • Quality Threshold: See v5 data quality document.
  • Convergence Threshold: See v5 data quality document.

Download Aura MLS HNO3 v5 data

Latest Publications (HNO3)

  1. Mironova, I., M. Sinnhuber, G. Bazilevskaya, M. Clilverd, B. Funke, V. Makhmutov, E. Rozanov, M. Santee, T. Sukhodolov and T. Ulich
    Exceptional middle latitude electron precipitation detected by balloon observations: implications for atmospheric composition
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-22-6703-2022, 2022
  2. Roy, R., J. Kuttippurath, F. Lefèvre, S. Raj and P. Kumar
    The sudden stratospheric warming and chemical ozone loss in the Antarctic winter 2019: comparison with the winters of 1988 and 2002
    Theoretical and Applied Climatology doi:10.1007/s00704-022-04031-6, 2022
  3. Santee, M.L., A. Lambert, G.L. Manney, N.J. Livesey, L. Froidevaux, J.L. Neu, M.J. Schwartz, L.F. Millán, F. Werner, W.G. Read, M. Park, R.A. Fuller and B.M. Ward
    Prolonged and Pervasive Perturbations in the Composition of the Southern Hemisphere Midlatitude Lower Stratosphere From the Australian New Year's Fires
    Geophys. Res. Lett. doi:10.1029/2021gl096270, 2022
  4. Strahan, S., L. Coy, A. Douglass and M. Damon
    Faster Tropical Upper Stratospheric Upwelling Drives Changes in Ozone Chemistry
    Geophys. Res. Lett. doi:10.1029/2022gl101075, 2022
  5. Strahan, S., D. Smale, S. Solomon, G. Taha, M. Damon, S. Steenrod, N. Jones, B. Liley, R. Querel and J. Robinson
    Unexpected Repartitioning of Stratospheric Inorganic Chlorine After the 2020 Australian Wildfires
    Geophys. Res. Lett. doi:10.1029/2022gl098290, 2022
  6. Wespes, C., G. Ronsmans, L. Clarisse, S. Solomon, D. Hurtmans, C. Clerbaux and P. Coheur
    Polar stratospheric nitric acid depletion surveyed from a decadal dataset of IASI total columns
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-22-10993-2022, 2022
  7. Feng, W., S. Dhomse, C. Arosio, M. Weber, J. Burrows, M. Santee and M. Chipperfield
    Arctic Ozone Depletion in 2019/20: Roles of Chemistry, Dynamics and the Montreal Protocol
    Geophys. Res. Lett. doi:10.1029/2020gl091911, 2021
  8. Grooß, J. and R. Müller
    Simulation of Record Arctic Stratospheric Ozone Depletion in 2020
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1029/2020jd033339, 2021
  9. Hegglin, M., S. Tegtmeier, J. Anderson, A. Bourassa, S. Brohede, D. Degenstein, L. Froidevaux, B. Funke, J. Gille, Y. Kasai, E. Kyrölä, J. Lumpe, D. Murtagh, J. Neu, K. Pérot, E. Remsberg, A. Rozanov, M. Toohey, J. Urban, T. von Clarmann, K. Walker, H. Wang, C. Arosio, R. Damadeo, R. Fuller, G. Lingenfelser, C. McLinden, D. Pendlebury, C. Roth, N. Ryan, C. Sioris, L. Smith and K. Weigel
    Overview and update of the SPARC Data Initiative: comparison of stratospheric composition measurements from satellite limb sounders
    Earth System Science Data doi:10.5194/essd-13-1855-2021, 2021
  10. Kuttippurath, J., W. Feng, R. Müller, P. Kumar, S. Raj, G. Gopikrishnan and R. Roy
    Exceptional loss in ozone in the Arctic winter/spring of 2019/2020
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-21-14019-2021, 2021
  11. Livesey, N., W. Read, L. Froidevaux, A. Lambert, M. Santee, M. Schwartz, L. Millán, R. Jarnot, P. Wagner, D. Hurst, K. Walker, P. Sheese and G. Nedoluha
    Investigation and amelioration of long-term instrumental drifts in water vapor and nitrous oxide measurements from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder MLS and their implications for studies of variability and trends
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-21-15409-2021, 2021
  12. Shan, C., H. Zhang, W. Wang, C. Liu, Y. Xie, Q. Hu and N. Jones
    Retrieval of Stratospheric HNO3 and HCl Based on Ground-Based High-Resolution Fourier Transform Spectroscopy
    Remote Sens. doi:10.3390/rs13112159, 2021
  13. Steiner, M., B. Luo, T. Peter, M. Pitts and A. Stenke
    Evaluation of polar stratospheric clouds in the global chemistry–climate model SOCOLv3.1 by comparison with CALIPSO spaceborne lidar measurements
    Geoscientific Model Development doi:10.5194/gmd-14-935-2021, 2021
  14. Tritscher, I., M.C. Pitts, L.R. Poole, S.P. Alexander, F. Cairo, M.P. Chipperfield, J-U. Grooss, M. Höpfner, A. Lambert, B.P. Luo, S. Molleker, A. Orr, R. Salawitch, M. Snels, R. Spang, W. Woiwode and T. Peter
    Polar Stratospheric Clouds Satellite Observations, Processes, and Role in Ozone Depletion
    Rev. Geophys. doi:10.1029/2020rg000702, 2021
  15. von Gathen, P.D., R. Kivi, I. Wohltmann, R. Salawitch and M. Rex
    Climate change favours large seasonal loss of Arctic ozone
    Nature Communications doi:10.1038/s41467-021-24089-6, 2021
  16. Wilka, C., S. Solomon, D. Kinnison and D. Tarasick
    An Arctic ozone hole in 2020 if not for the Montreal Protocol
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-21-15771-2021, 2021
  17. Gordon, E., A. Seppälä and J. Tamminen
    Evidence for energetic particle precipitation and quasi-biennial oscillation modulations of the Antarctic NO2 springtime stratospheric column from OMI observations
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-20-6259-2020, 2020
  18. Inness, A., S. Chabrillat, J. Flemming, V. Huijnen, B. Langenrock, J. Nicolas, I. Polichtchouk and M. Razinger
    Exceptionally Low Arctic Stratospheric Ozone in Spring 2020 as Seen in the CAMS Reanalysis
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1029/2020jd033563, 2020
  19. Kuai, L., K. Bowman, K. Miyazaki, M. Deushi, L. Revell, E. Rozanov, F. Paulot, S. Strode, A. Conley, J. Lamarque, P. Jöckel, D. Plummer, L. Oman, H. Worden, S. Kulawik, D. Paynter, A. Stenke and M. Kunze
    Attribution of Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative CCMI ozone radiative flux bias from satellites
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-20-281-2020, 2020
  20. Manney, G., N. Livesey, M. Santee, L. Froidevaux, A. Lambert, Z. Lawrence, L. Millán, J. Neu, W. Read, M. Schwartz and R. Fuller
    Record‐Low Arctic Stratospheric Ozone in 2020: MLS Observations of Chemical Processes and Comparisons With Previous Extreme Winters
    Geophys. Res. Lett. 10.1029/2020gl089063, 2020
  21. Miyazaki, K., K. Bowman, K. Yumimoto, T. Walker and K. Sudo
    Evaluation of a multi-model, multi-constituent assimilation framework for tropospheric chemical reanalysis
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-20-931-2020, 2020
  22. Nakajima, H., I. Murata, Y. Nagahama, H. Akiyoshi, K. Saeki, T. Kinase, M. Takeda, Y. Tomikawa, E. Dupuy and N. Jones
    Chlorine partitioning near the polar vortex edge observed with ground-based FTIR and satellites at Syowa Station, Antarctica, in 2007 and 2011
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-20-1043-2020, 2020
  23. Schwartz, M., M. Santee, H. Pumphrey, G. Manney, A. Lambert, N. Livesey, L. Millán, J. Neu, W. Read and F. Werner
    Australian New Year's PyroCb Impact on Stratospheric Composition
    Geophys. Res. Lett. doi:10.1029/2020gl090831, 2020
  24. Strahan, S., D. Smale, A. Douglass, T. Blumenstock, J. Hannigan, F. Hase, N. Jones, E. Mahieu, J. Notholt, L. Oman, I. Ortega, M. Palm, M. Prignon, J. Robinson, M. Schneider, R. Sussmann and V. Velazco
    Observed Hemispheric Asymmetry in Stratospheric Transport Trends From 1994 to 2018
    Geophys. Res. Lett. doi:10.1029/2020gl088567, 2020
  25. Wargan, K., B. Weir, G. Manney, S. Cohn and N. Livesey
    The Anomalous 2019 Antarctic Ozone Hole in the GEOS Constituent Data Assimilation System With MLS Observations
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1029/2020jd033335, 2020
  26. Errera, Q., S. Chabrillat, Y. Christophe, J. Debosscher, D. Hubert, W. Lahoz, M. Santee, M. Shiotani, S. Skachko, T. von Clarmann and K. Walker
    Technical note: Reanalysis of Aura MLS chemical observations
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-19-13647-2019, 2019
  27. Froidevaux, L., D. Kinnison, R. Wang, J. Anderson and R. Fuller
    Evaluation of CESM1 WACCM free-running and specified dynamics atmospheric composition simulations using global multispecies satellite data records
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-19-4783-2019, 2019
  28. Johansson, S., M. Santee, J. Grooß, M. Höpfner, M. Braun, F. Friedl-Vallon, F. Khosrawi, O. Kirner, E. Kretschmer, H. Oelhaf, J. Orphal, B. Sinnhuber, I. Tritscher, J. Ungermann, K. Walker and W. Woiwode
    Unusual chlorine partitioning in the 2015/16 Arctic winter lowermost stratosphere: observations and simulations
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-19-8311-2019, 2019
  29. Miyazaki, K., T. Sekiya, D. Fu, K.W. Bowman, S.S. Kulawik, K. Sudo, T. Walker, Y. Kanaya, M. Takigawa, K. Ogochi, H. Eskes, K.F. Boersma, A.M. Thompson, B. Gaubert, J. Barre and L.K. Emmons
    Balance of Emission and Dynamical Controls on Ozone During the Korea-United States Air Quality Campaign From Multiconstituent Satellite Data Assimilation
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1029/2018jd028912, 2019
  30. Tritscher, I., J. Grooß, R. Spang, M. Pitts, L. Poole, R. Müller and M. Riese
    Lagrangian simulation of ice particles and resulting dehydration in the polar winter stratosphere
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10.5194/acp-19-543-2019, 2019
  31. Woiwode, W., M. Höpfner, L. Bi, F. Khosrawi and M.L. Santee
    Vortex‐Wide Detection of Large Aspherical NAT Particles in the Arctic Winter 2011/12 Stratosphere
    Geophys. Res. Lett. doi:10.1029/2019gl084145, 2019
  32. Zambri, B., S. Solomon, D. Kinnison, M. Mills, A. Schmidt, R. Neely, A. Bourassa, D. Degenstein and C. Roth
    Modeled and Observed Volcanic Aerosol Control on Stratospheric NOy and Cly
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1029/2019jd031111, 2019
  33. Johansson, S., W. Woiwode, M. Höpfner, F. Friedl-Vallon, A. Kleinert, E. Kretschmer, T. Latzko, J. Orphal, P. Preusse, J. Ungermann, M. Santee, T. Jurkat-Witschas, A. Marsing, C. Voigt, A. Giez, M. Krämer, C. Rolf, A. Zahn, A. Engel, B. Sinnhuber and H. Oelhaf
    Airborne limb-imaging measurements of temperature, HNO3, O3, ClONO2, H2O and CFC-12 during the Arctic winter 2015/2016: characterization, in situ validation and comparison to Aura/MLS
    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques doi:10.5194/amt-11-4737-2018, 2018
  34. Khosrawi, F., O. Kirner, G. Stiller, M. Höpfner, M. Santee, S. Kellmann and P. Braesicke
    Comparison of ECHAM5/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry EMAC simulations of the Arctic winter 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 with Envisat/MIPAS and Aura/MLS observations
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-18-8873-2018, 2018
  35. Kreyling, D., I. Wohltmann, R. Lehmann and M. Rex
    The Extrapolar SWIFT model version 1.0: fast stratospheric ozone chemistry for global climate models
    Geoscientific Model Development doi:10.5194/gmd-11-753-2018, 2018
  36. Millán, L., N. Livesey, M. Santee and T. von Clarmann
    Characterizing sampling and quality screening biases in infrared and microwave limb sounding
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-18-4187-2018, 2018
  37. Pitts, M., L. Poole and R. Gonzalez
    Polar stratospheric cloud climatology based on CALIPSO spaceborne lidar measurements from 2006 to 2017
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-18-10881-2018, 2018
  38. Zhu, Y., O. Toon, D. Kinnison, V.L. Harvey, M. Mills, C. Bardeen, M. Pitts, N. Bègue, J. Renard, G. Berthet and F. Jégou
    Stratospheric Aerosols, Polar Stratospheric Clouds, and Polar Ozone Depletion After the Mount Calbuco Eruption in 2015
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1029/2018jd028974, 2018
  39. Hegglin, M., S. Tegtmeier, J. Anderson, A. Bourassa, S. Brohede, D. Degenstein, L. Froidevaux, B. Funke, J. Gille, A. Jones, Y. Kasai, E. Kyrola, J. Lumpe, J. Neu, E. Remsberg, A. Rozanov, M. Toohey, J. Urban, T. von Clarmann, K.A. Walker and R. Wang
    The SPARC Data Initiative: Assessment of stratospheric trace gas and aerosol climatologies from satellite limb sounders
  40. Khosrawi, F., O. Kirner, B. Sinnhuber, S. Johansson, M. Höpfner, M. Santee, L. Froidevaux, J. Ungermann, R. Ruhnke, W. Woiwode, H. Oelhaf and P. Braesicke
    Denitrification, dehydration and ozone loss during the 2015/2016 Arctic winter
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-17-12893-2017, 2017
  41. Miyazaki, K., H. Eskes, K. Sudo, K.F. Boersma, K. Bowman and Y. Kanaya
    Decadal changes in global surface NOx emissions from multi-constituent satellite data assimilation
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-17-807-2017, 2017
  42. Miyazaki, K. and K. Bowman
    Evaluation of ACCMIP ozone simulations and ozonesonde sampling biases using a satellite-based multi-constituent chemical reanalysis
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-17-8285-2017, 2017
  43. Park, M., W.J. Randel, D.E. Kinnison, A.E. Bourassa, D.A. Degenstein, C.Z. Roth, C.A. McLinden, C.E. Sioris, N.J. Livesey and M.L. Santee
    Variability of Stratospheric Reactive Nitrogen and Ozone Related to the QBO
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1002/2017jd027061, 2017
  44. Santee, M.L., G.L. Manney, N.J. Livesey, M.J. Schwartz, J.L. Neu and W.G. Read
    A comprehensive overview of the climatological composition of the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone based on 10 years of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder measurements
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1002/2016jd026408, 2017
  45. Sheese, P., K. Walker, C. Boone, P. Bernath, L. Froidevaux, B. Funke, P. Raspollini and T. von Clarmann
    ACE-FTS ozone, water vapour, nitrous oxide, nitric acid, and carbon monoxide profile comparisons with MIPAS and MLS
    J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2016.06.026, 2017
  46. Wohltmann, I., R. Lehmann and M. Rex
    A quantitative analysis of the reactions involved in stratospheric ozone depletion in the polar vortex core
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-17-10535-2017, 2017
  47. Wohltmann, I., R. Lehmann and M. Rex
    Update of the Polar SWIFT model for polar stratospheric ozone loss Polar SWIFT version 2
    Geosci. Model Dev. doi:10.5194/gmd-10-2671-2017, 2017
  48. Zhu, Y., O. Toon, M. Pitts, A. Lambert, C. Bardeen and D. Kinnison
    Comparing simulated PSC optical properties with CALIPSO observations during the 2010 Antarctic winter
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1002/2016jd025191, 2017
  49. Zhu, Y., O. Toon, A. Lambert, D. Kinnison, C. Bardeen and M. Pitts
    Development of a Polar Stratospheric Cloud Model Within the Community Earth System Model: Assessment of 2010 Antarctic Winter
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1002/2017jd027003, 2017
  50. Andersson, M.E., P.T. Verronen, D.R. Marsh, S.M. Paivarinta and J.M.C. Plane
    WACCM-D-Improved modeling of nitric acid and active chlorine during energetic particle precipitation
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1002/2015jd024173, 2016
  51. Damiani, A., B. Funke, M.L. Puertas, M.L. Santee, R.R. Cordero and S. Watanabe
    Energetic particle precipitation: A major driver of the ozone budget in the Antarctic upper stratosphere
    Geophys. Res. Lett. doi:10.1002/2016gl068279, 2016
  52. Duderstadt, K.A., J.E. Dibb, C.H. Jackman, C.E. Randall, N.A. Schwadron, S.C. Solomon and H.E. Spence
    Comment on “Atmospheric ionization by high-fluence, hard spectrum solar proton events and their probable appearance in the ice core archive” by A. L. Melott et al.
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1002/2016jd025220, 2016
  53. Gu, Y., H. Liao and J. Bian
    Summertime nitrate aerosol in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere over the Tibetan Plateau and the South Asian summer monsoon region
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-16-6641-2016, 2016
  54. Lambert, A., M. Santee and N. Livesey
    Interannual variations of early winter Antarctic polar stratospheric cloud formation and nitric acid observed by CALIOP and MLS
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-16-15219-2016, 2016
  55. Manney, G. and Z. Lawrence
    The major stratospheric final warming in 2016: dispersal of vortex air and termination of Arctic chemical ozone loss
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10.5194/acp-16-15371-2016, 2016
  56. Millan, L., N. Livesey, M. Santee, J. Neu, G. Manney and R. Fuller
    Case studies of the impact of orbital sampling on stratospheric trend detection and derivation of tropical vertical velocities: solar occultation vs. limb emission sounding
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-16-11521-2016, 2016
  57. Nakajima, H., I. Wohltmann, T. Wegner, M. Takeda, M.C. Pitts, L.R. Poole, R. Lehmann, M.L. Santee and M. Rex
    Polar Stratospheric Cloud evolution and chlorine activation measured by CALIPSO and MLS, and modelled by ATLAS
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-16-3311-2016, 2016
  58. Paivarinta, S.M., P.T. Verronen, B. Funke, A. Gardini, A. Seppala and M.E. Andersson
    Transport versus energetic particle precipitation: Northern polar stratospheric NOx and ozone in January-March 2012
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1002/2015jd024217, 2016
  59. Sheese, P., K. Walker, C. Boone, C. McLinden, P. Bernath, A. Bourassa, J. Burrows, D. Degenstein, B. Funke, D. Fussen, G. Manney, C.T. McElroy, D. Murtagh, C. Randall, P. Raspollini, A. Rozanov, J. Russell III, M. Suzuki, M. Shiotani, J. Urban, T. von Clarmann and J. Zawodny
    Validation of ACE-FTS version 3.5 NOy species profiles using correlative satellite measurements
    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques doi:10.5194/amt-9-5781-2016, 2016
  60. Skachko, S., R. Menard, Q. Errera, Y. Christophe and S. Chabrillat
    EnKF and 4D-Var data assimilation with chemical transport model BASCOE version 05.06
    Geosci. Model Dev. doi:10.5194/gmd-9-2893-2016, 2016
  61. Frankland, V.L., A.D. James, W. Feng and J.M.C. Plane
    The uptake of HNO3 on meteoric smoke analogues
    J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2015.01.010, 2015
  62. Froidevaux, L., J. Anderson, H.J. Wang, R.A. Fuller, M.J. Schwartz, M.L. Santee, N.J. Livesey, H.C. Pumphrey, P.F. Bernath, J.M. Russell III and M.P. McCormick
    Global OZone Chemistry And Related trace gas Data records for the Stratosphere GOZCARDS: methodology and sample results with a focus on HCl, H2O, and O3
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-15-10471-2015, 2015
  63. Kaufmann, M., J. Blank, T. Guggenmoser, J. Ungermann, A. Engel, M. Ern, F. Friedl-Vallon, D. Gerber, J.U. Grooss, G. Guenther, M. Höpfner, A. Kleinert, E. Kretschmer, T. Latzko, G. Maucher, T. Neubert, H. Nordmeyer, H. Oelhaf, F. Olschewski, J. Orphal, P. Preusse, H. Schlager, H. Schneider, D. Schuettemeyer, F. Stroh, O. Suminska-Ebersoldt, B. Vogel, C.M. Volk, W. Woiwode and M. Riese
    Retrieval of three-dimensional small-scale structures in upper-tropospheric/lower-stratospheric composition as measured by GLORIA
    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques doi:10.5194/amt-8-81-2015, 2015
  64. Kirner, O., R. Muller, R. Ruhnke and H. Fischer
    Contribution of liquid, NAT and ice particles to chlorine activation and ozone depletion in Antarctic winter and spring
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-15-2019-2015, 2015
  65. Kuttippurath, J., S. Godin-Beekmann, F. Lefevre, M.L. Santee, L. Froidevaux and A. Hauchecorne
    Variability in Antarctic ozone loss in the last decade 2004-2013: high-resolution simulations compared to Aura MLS observations
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-15-10385-2015, 2015
  66. Liberto, L.D., R. Lehmann, I. Tritscher, F. Fierli, J.L. Mercer, M. Snels, G.D. Donfrancesco, T. Deshler, B.P. Luo, J. Grooß, E. Arnone, B.M. Dinelli and F. Cairo
    Lagrangian analysis of microphysical and chemical processes in the Antarctic stratosphere: a case study
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-15-6651-2015, 2015
  67. Manney, G., Z. Lawrence, M. Santee, W. Read, N. Livesey, A. Lambert, L. Froidevaux, H. Pumphrey and M. Schwartz
    A minor sudden stratospheric warming with a major impact: Transport and polar processing in the 2014/2015 Arctic winter
    Geophys. Res. Lett. doi:10.1002/2015gl065864, 2015
  68. Manney, G.L., Z.D. Lawrence, M.L. Santee, N.J. Livesey, A. Lambert and M.C. Pitts
    Polar processing in a split vortex: Arctic ozone loss in early winter 2012/2013
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-15-5381-2015, 2015
  69. Miyazaki, K., H.J. Eskes and K. Sudo
    A tropospheric chemistry reanalysis for the years 2005–2012 based on an assimilation of OMI, MLS, TES, and MOPITT satellite data
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-15-8315-2015, 2015
  70. Pendlebury, D., D. Plummer, J. Scinocca, P. Sheese, K. Strong, K. Walker and D. Degenstein
    Comparison of the CMAM30 data set with ACE-FTS and OSIRIS: polar regions
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-15-12465-2015, 2015
  71. Schwartz, M.J., G.L. Manney, M.I. Hegglin, N.J. Livesey, M.L. Santee and W.H. Daffer
    Climatology and variability of trace gases in extratropical double-tropopause regions from MLS, HIRDLS, and ACE-FTS measurements
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1002/2014JD021964, 2015
  72. Zhu, Y., O. Toon, A. Lambert, D. Kinnison, M. Brakebusch, C. Bardeen, M. Mills and J. English
    Development of a Polar Stratospheric Cloud Model within the Community Earth System Model using constraints on Type I PSCs from the 2010-2011 Arctic winter
    Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems doi:10.1002/2015ms000427, 2015
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  74. Miyazaki, K., H.J. Eskes, K. Sudo and C. Zhang
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  75. Brakebusch, M., C.E. Randall, D.E. Kinnison, S. Tilmes, M.L. Santee and G.L. Manney
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  76. Fiorucci, I., G. Muscari, L. Froidevaux and M.L. Santee
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  77. Pitts, M.C., L.R. Poole, A. Lambert and L.W. Thomason
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  78. Wohltmann, I., T. Wegner, R. Mueller, R. Lehmann, M. Rex, G.L. Manney, M.L. Santee, P. Bernath, O. Suminska-Ebersoldt, F. Strohl, M. von Hobe, C.M. Volk, E. Hoesen, F. Ravegnani, A. Ulanovsky and V. Yushkov
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  79. Blessmann, D., I. Wohldmann, R. Lehmann and M. Rex
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  80. Blunden, J. and D.S. Arndt
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  81. Jones, A., K.A. Walker, J.J. Jin, J.R. Taylor, C.D. Boone, P.F. Bernath, S. Brohede, G.L. Manney, S. McLeod, R. Hughes and W.H. Daffer
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  82. Kuttippurath, J., S. Godin-Beekmann, F. Lefevre, G. Nikulin, M.L. Santee and L. Froidevaux
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  83. Kvissel, O.K., Y.J. Orsolini, F. Stordal, I.S.A. Isaksen and M.L. Santee
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  84. Lambert, A., M.L. Santee, D.L. Wu and J.H. Chae
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  85. Miyazaki, K., H.J. Eskes, K. Sudo, M. Takigawa, M. van Weele and K.F. Boersma
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  86. Sovde, O.A., M.J. Prather, I.S.A. Isaksen, T.K. Berntsen, F. Stordal, X. Zhu, C.D. Holmes and J. Hsu
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  87. Wegner, T., J.U. Grooss, M. von Hobe, F. Stroh, O. Suminska-Ebersoldt, C.M. Volk, E. Hosen, V. Mitev, G. Shur and R. Mueller
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  88. Feng, W., M.P. Chipperfield, S. Davies, G.W. Mann, K.S. Carslaw, S. Dhomse, L. Harvey, C. Randall and M.L. Santee
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    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-11-6559-2011, 2011
  89. Fiorucci, I., G. Muscari and R.L. de Zafra
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    Annales Geophysicae doi:10.5194/angeo-29-1317-2011, 2011
  90. Jackman, C.H., D.R. Marsh, F.M. Vitt, R.G. Roble, C.E. Randall, P.F. Bernath, B. Funke, M. Lopez-Puertas, S. Versick, G.P. Stiller, A.J. Tylka and E.L. Flemming
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  91. Khosrawi, F., J. Urban, M.C. Pitts, P. Voelger, P. Achtert, M. Kaphlanov, M.L. Santee, G.L. Manney, D. Murtagh and K.H. Fricke
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  92. Kohma, M. and K. Sato
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  93. Laat, A.T.J.d. and M. van Weele
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  94. Manney, G.L., M.I. Hegglin, W.H. Daffer, M.L. Santee, E.A. Ray, S. Pawson, M.J. Schwartz, C.D. Boone, L. Froidevaux, N.J. Livesey, W.G. Read and K.A. Walker
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  95. Manney, G.L., M.L. Santee, M. Rex, N.J. Livesey, M.C. Pitts, P. Veefkind, E.R. Nash, I. Wohltmann, R. Lehmann, L. Froidevaux, L.R. Poole, M.R. Schoeberl, D.P. Haffner, J. Davies, V. Dorokhov, H. Gernandt, B. Johnson, R. Kivi, E. Kyro, N. Larsen, P.F. Levelt, A. Makshtas, C.T. McElroy, H. Nakajima, M.C. Parrondo, D.W. Tarasick, P.D. von Gathen, K.A. Walker and N.S. Zinoviev
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  96. Santee, M.L., G.L. Manney, N.J. Livesey, L. Froidevaux, M.J. Schwartz and W.G. Read
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  97. Verronen, P.T., M.L. Santee, G.L. Manney, R. Lehmann, S. Salmi and A. Seppälä
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  98. Chauhan, S., M. Hoepfner, G.P. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, U. Grabowski, A. Linden, S. Kellmann, M. Milz, T. Steck, H. Fischer, L. Froidevaux, A. Lambert, M. Santee, M. Schwartz, W.G. Read and N.J. Livesey
    MIPAS reduced spectral resolution UTLS-1 mode measurements of temperature, O3, HNO3, N2O, H2O and relative humidity over ice: retrievals and comparison to MLS
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  99. Jumelet, J., S. Bekki, P. Seifert, N. Montoux, J.P. Vernier and J. Pelon
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  100. Pitts, M.C., L.R. Poole and L.W. Thomason
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  101. Popp, P.J., T.P. Marcy, R.S. Gau, L.A. Watts, D.W. Fahey, E.C. Richard, S.J. Oltmans, M.L. Santee, N.J. Livesey, L. Froidevaux, B. Sen, G.C. Toon, K.A. Walker, C.D. Boone and P.F. Bernath
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    J. Geophys. Res. doi:10.1029/2008JD010875, 2009
  102. Urban, J., M. Pommier, D.P. Murtagh, M.L. Santee and Y.J. Orsolini
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  103. Wespes, C., D. Hurtmans, C. Clerbaux, M.L. Santee, R.V. Martin and P.F. Coheur
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    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-9-7949-2009, 2009
  104. Coffey, M.T., J.W. Hannigan, A. Goldman, D.E. Kinnison, J.C. Gille, J. Barnett, L. Froidevaux, A. Lambert, M.L. Santee, N.J. Livesey, B.M. Fisher, S.S. Kulawik and R. Beer
    Airborne Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) observations in support of EOS Aura validation
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  105. Kinnison, D.E., J.C. Gille, J.J. Barnett, C.E. Randall, V.L. Harvey, A. Lambert, R. Khosravi, M.J. Alexander, P.F. Bernath, C.D. Boone, C. Cavanaugh, M.T. Coffey, C. Craig, V. Dean, T. Eden, D. Ellis, D.W. Fahey, G. Francis, C. Halvorson, J.W. Hannigan, C. Hartsough, C. Hepplewhite, C. Krinsky, H. Lee, W.G. Mankin, T. Marcy, S.T. Massie, B. Nardi, D. Packman, P.J. Popp, M.L. Santee, V. Yudin and K.A. Walker
    Global Observations of HNO3 from the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS): First results
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  106. Manson, A.H., C.E. Meek and T. Chshyolkova
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  107. Santee, M.L., I.A. MacKenzie, G.L. Manney, M.P. Chipperfield, P.F. Bernath, K.A. Walker, C.D. Boone, L. Froidevaux, N.J. Livesey and J.W. Waters
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  108. Wolff, M.A., T. Kerzenmacher, K. Strong, K.A. Walker, M. Toohey, E. Dupuy, P.F. Bernath, C.D. Boone, S. Brohede, V. Catoire, T. von Clarmann, M. Coffey, W.H. Daffer, M. De Maziere, P. Duchatelet, N. Glatthor, J. Hannigan, F. Hase, M. Hopfner, N. Huret, N. Jones, K. Jucks, A. Kagawa, Y. Kasai, I. Kramer, H. Kullmann, J. Kuttippurath, E. Mahieu, G. Manney, C.T. McElroy, C. McLinden, Y. Mebarki, S. Mikuteit, D. Murtagh, C. Piccolo, P. Raspollini, M. Ridolfi, R. Ruhnke, M. Santee, C. Senten, D. Smale, C. Tetard, J. Urban and S. Wood
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  109. Manney, G.L., W.H. Daffer, J.M. Zawodny, P.F. Bernath, K.W. Hoppel, K.A. Walker, B.W. Knosp, C. Boone, E.E. Remsberg, M.L. Santee, V. Lynn Harvey, S. Pawson, D.R. Jackson, L. Deaver, C.T. McElroy, C.A. McLinden, J.R. Drummond, H.C. Pumphrey, A. Lambert, M.J. Schwartz, L. Froidevaux, S. McLeod, L.L. Takacs, M.J. Suarez, C.R. Trepte, D.T. Cuddy, N.J. Livesey, R.S. Harwood and J.W. Waters
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  112. Wang, D.Y., C.S. Singleton, G. Mengistu Tsidu, G.P. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, T. Blumenstock, N. Glatthor, U. Grabowski, F. Hase, S. Kellmann, A. Linden, M. Milz, H. Oelhaf, M. Schneider, T. Steck, G. Wetzel, M. pez-Puertas, B. Funke, M.E. Koukouli, H. Nakajima, T. Sugita, H. Irie, J. Urban, D. Murtagh, M.L. Santee, G. Toon, M.R. Gunson, F.W. Irion, C.D. Boone, K. Walker and P.F. Bernath
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  113. Barret, B., P. Ricaud, M.L. Santee, J-L. Attie, J. Urban, E. Le Flochmoen, G. Berthet, D. Murtagh, P. Eriksson, A. Jones, J. de La Noe, E. Dupuy, L. Froidevaux, N.J. Livesey, J.W. Waters and M.J. Filipiak
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    Early validation analyses of atmospheric profiles from EOS MLS on the Aura satellite
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  116. Irie, H., T. Sugita, H. Nakajima, T. Yokota, H. Oelhaf, G. Wetzel, G.C. Toon, B. Sen, M.L. Santee, Y. Terao, N. Saitoh, M.K. Ejiri, T. Tanaka, Y. Kondo, H. Kanzawa, H. Kobayashi and Y. Sasano
    Validation of stratospheric nitric acid concentration profiles observed by Improved Limb Atmospheric Sectrometer (ILAS)-II
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  117. Schoeberl, M.R., S.R. Kawa, A.R. Douglass, T.J. McGee, E.V. Browell, J.W. Waters, N.J. Livesey, W.G. Read, L. Froidevaux, M.L. Santee, H.C. Pumphrey, L.R. Lait and L. Twigg
    Chemical Observations of a Polar Vortex Intrusion
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  118. Davies, S., G.W. Mann, K.S. Carslaw, M.P. Chipperfield, J.A. Kettleborough, M.L. Santee, H. Oelhaf, G. Wetzel, Y. Sasano and T. Sugita
    3D microphysical model studies of Arctic denitrification: Comparison with observation
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  119. Orsolini, Y.J., G.L. Manney, M.L. Santee and C.E. Randall
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    Polar processing and development of the 2004 Antarctic ozone hole: First results from Aura MLS
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  121. Drouin, B.J., J.L. Fry and C.E. Miller
    Rotational Spectrum of cis-cis HOONO
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  123. Danilin, M.Y., M K.W. Ko, R.M. Bevilacqua, L.V. Lyjak, L. Froidevaux, M.L. Santee, J.M. Zawodny, K.W. Hoppel, E.C. Richard, J.R. Spackman, E.M. Weinstock, R.L. Herman, K.A. McKinney, P.O. Wennberg, F.L. Eisele, R.M. Stimpfle, C.J. Scott, J.W. Elkins and T.V. Bui
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    Trajectory hunting as an effective technique to validate multiplatform measurements: Analysis of the MLS, HALOE, SAGE-II, ILAS, and POAM-II data in October-November 1996
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  125. Muscari, G., M.L. Santee and R.L. de Zafra
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  126. Santee, M.L., A. Tabazadeh, G.L. Manney, M.D. Fromm, R.M. Bevilacqua, J.W. Waters and E.J. Jensen
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  127. Santee, M.L., G.L. Manney, N.J. Livesey and J.W. Waters
    UARS Microwave Limb Sounder Observations of Denitrification and Ozone Loss in the 2000 Arctic Late Winter
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  128. Tabazadeh, A., M.L. Santee, M.Y. Danilin, H.C. Pumphrey, P.A. Newman, P.J. Hamill and J.L. Mergenthaler
    Quantifying Denitrification and Its Effect on Ozone Recovery
  129. Dessler, A.E., J. Wu, M.L. Santee and M.R. Schoeberl
    Satellite observations of temporary and irreversible denitrification
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  130. Randel, W.J., F. Wu, J.M. Russell III and J. Waters
    Space-time patterns of trends in stratospheric constituents derived from UARS measurements
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  131. Santee, M.L., G.L. Manney, L. Froidevaux, W.G. Read and J.W. Waters
    Six years of UARS Microwave Limb Sounder HNO3 observations:
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  132. Ricaud, P., E. Monnier, F. Goutail, J.P. Pommereau, C. David, S. Godin, L. Froidevaux, J.W. Waters, J. Mergenthaler, A.E. Roche, H. Pumphrey and M.P. Chipperfield
    Stratosphere over Dumont d
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  133. Santee, M.L., A. Tabazadeh, G.L. Manney, R.J. Salawitch, L. Froidevaux, W.G. Read and J.W. Waters
    UARS MLS HNO3 observations: Implications for Antarctic PSCs
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  134. Engel, A., U. Schmidt and R.A. Stachnik
    Partitioning Between Chlorine Reservoir Species Deduced from Observations in the Arctic Winter Stratosphere
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  135. Massie, S.T., J.E. Dye, D. Baumbardner, W.J. Randel, F. Wu, X.X. Tie, L. Pan, F. Figarol, G.P. Brasseur, M.L. Santee, W.G. Read, R.G. Grainger, A. Lambert, J.L. Mergenthaler and A. Tabazadeh
    Simultaneous observations of Polar Stratospheric Clouds and HNO3 over Scandinavia in January, 1992
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    MLS observations of ClO and HNO3 in the 1996-97 Arctic polar vortex
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    Comparison of correlative data with HNO3 version 7 from the CLAES instrument deployed on the NASA Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite
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