Aura MLS

CO

Contact: Michael Schwartz for Troposphere, Hugh Pumphrey for stratosphere, mesosphere

CO is a long-lived tracer that is valuable for diagnosing atmospheric transport and identifying the source of air masses.

CO in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere results from the lofting of polluted air from near the Earth's surface. CO in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere has descended from the thermosphere, where it is produced by the photodissociation of CO2.

How it is part of MLS Science Objectives

As a long-lived tracer, CO is valuable for diagnosing atmospheric transport and identifying the source of air masses. The MLS CO data help quantify long-range transport of pollution in the upper troposphere and the impact of upwelling from the troposphere and downwelling from the mesosphere on stratospheric chemistry.

How EOS MLS measures CO

Carbon monoxide is retrieved from radiance measurements of two bands in the MLS 240GHz radiometer.

CO Information from the Spectroscopy Database

Quick Product Information for data version v5

  • Swath Name: CO
  • Status Flag: Only use profiles for which the Status field is an even number.
  • Useful Range: 215-0.001 hPa
  • DAAC Short Name: ML2CO
  • Precision: Only use values for which the estimated precision is a positive number.
  • Quality Threshold: >1.5
  • Convergence Threshold: <1.03

Download Aura MLS CO v5 data

Latest Publications (CO)

  1. Eswaraiah, S., K. Seo, K. Kumar, M. Ratnam, A. Koval, J. Jeong, C. Mengist, Y. Lee, K. Greer, J. Hwang, W. Lee, M. Pramitha, G.V. Chalapathi, M.V. Reddy and Y. Kim
    Anthropogenic Influence on the Antarctic Mesospheric Cooling Observed during the Southern Hemisphere Minor Sudden Stratospheric Warming
    Atmosphere doi:10.3390/atmos13091475, 2022
  2. Kumar, A.H., M.V. Ratnam and C. Jain
    Influence of background dynamics on the vertical distribution of trace gases CO/WV/O3 in the UTLS region during COVID-19 lockdown over India
  3. Manney, G., L. Millán, M. Santee, K. Wargan, A. Lambert, J. Neu, F. Werner, Z. Lawrence, M. Schwartz, N. Livesey and W. Read
    Signatures of Anomalous Transport in the 2019/2020 Arctic Stratospheric Polar Vortex
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1029/2022jd037407, 2022
  4. Pan, L., D. Kinnison, Q. Liang, M. Chin, M. Santee, J. Flemming, W. Smith, S. Honomichl, J. Bresch, L. Lait, Y. Zhu, S. Tilmes, P. Colarco, J. Warner, A. Vuvan, C. Clerbaux, E. Atlas, P. Newman, T. Thornberry, W. Randel and O. Toon
    A Multimodel Investigation of Asian Summer Monsoon UTLS Transport Over the Western Pacific
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1029/2022jd037511, 2022
  5. Peng, K., J. Luo, J. Mu, X. Cao, H. Tian, L. Shang and Y. Guo
    Impact of intensity variability of the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone on the chemical distribution in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere
    Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters 10.1016/j.aosl.2021.100144, 2022
  6. Qie, K., W. Wang, W. Tian, R. Huang, M. Xu, T. Wang and Y. Peng
    Enhanced upward motion through the troposphere over the tropical western Pacific and its implications for the transport of trace gases from the troposphere to the stratosphere
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-22-4393-2022, 2022
  7. Santee, M.L., A. Lambert, G.L. Manney, N.J. Livesey, L. Froidevaux, J.L. Neu, M.J. Schwartz, L.F. Millán, F. Werner, W.G. Read, M. Park, R.A. Fuller and B.M. Ward
    Prolonged and Pervasive Perturbations in the Composition of the Southern Hemisphere Midlatitude Lower Stratosphere From the Australian New Year's Fires
    Geophys. Res. Lett. doi:10.1029/2021gl096270, 2022
  8. Babu, S.R., M.V. Ratnam, G. Basha, S. Pani and N. Lin
    Structure, dynamics, and trace gas variability within the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone in the extreme El Niño of 2015–2016
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-21-5533-2021, 2021
  9. Bossolasco, A., F. Jegou, P. Sellitto, G. Berthet, C. Kloss and B. Legras
    Global modeling studies of composition and decadal trends of the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-21-2745-2021, 2021
  10. He, X., J. Luo, X. Xu, L. Ren, H. Tian, L. Shang and P. Xu
    The QBO Modulation on CO Distribution in the UTLS Over the Asian Monsoon Region During Boreal Summer
    Front. Earth Sci. doi:10.3389/feart.2021.625990, 2021
  11. Hegglin, M., S. Tegtmeier, J. Anderson, A. Bourassa, S. Brohede, D. Degenstein, L. Froidevaux, B. Funke, J. Gille, Y. Kasai, E. Kyrölä, J. Lumpe, D. Murtagh, J. Neu, K. Pérot, E. Remsberg, A. Rozanov, M. Toohey, J. Urban, T. von Clarmann, K. Walker, H. Wang, C. Arosio, R. Damadeo, R. Fuller, G. Lingenfelser, C. McLinden, D. Pendlebury, C. Roth, N. Ryan, C. Sioris, L. Smith and K. Weigel
    Overview and update of the SPARC Data Initiative: comparison of stratospheric composition measurements from satellite limb sounders
    Earth System Science Data doi:10.5194/essd-13-1855-2021, 2021
  12. Karagodin-Doyennel, A., E. Rozanov, A. Kuchar, W. Ball, P. Arsenovic, E. Remsberg, P. Jöckel, M. Kunze, D. Plummer, A. Stenke, D. Marsh, D. Kinnison and T. Peter
    The response of mesospheric H2O and CO to solar irradiance variability in models and observations
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-21-201-2021, 2021
  13. Kloss, C., P. Sellitto, M. von Hobe, G. Berthet, D. Smale, G. Krysztofiak, C. Xue, C. Qiu, F. Jégou, I. Ouerghemmi and B. Legras
    Australian Fires 2019–2020: Tropospheric and Stratospheric Pollution Throughout the Whole Fire Season
    Front. Environ. Sci doi:10.3389/fenvs.2021.652024, 2021
  14. Park, M., H. Worden, D. Kinnison, B. Gaubert, S. Tilmes, L. Emmons, M. Santee, L. Froidevaux and C. Boone
    Fate of pollution emitted during the 2015 Indonesian Fire Season
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1029/2020jd033474, 2021
  15. Pumphrey, H., M. Schwartz, M. Santee, G. Kablick III, M. Fromm and N. Livesey
    Microwave Limb Sounder MLS observations of biomass burning products in the stratosphere from Canadian forest fires in August 2017
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-21-16645-2021, 2021
  16. Tinney, E. and C. Homeyer
    A 13‐year Trajectory‐Based Analysis of Convection‐Driven Changes in Upper Troposphere Lower Stratosphere Composition Over the United States
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1029/2020jd033657, 2021
  17. von Gathen, P.D., R. Kivi, I. Wohltmann, R. Salawitch and M. Rex
    Climate change favours large seasonal loss of Arctic ozone
    Nature Communications doi:10.1038/s41467-021-24089-6, 2021
  18. French, W.J.R., F. Mulligan and A. Klekociuk
    Analysis of 24 years of mesopause region OH rotational temperature observations at Davis, Antarctica – Part 1: long-term trends
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-20-6379-2020, 2020
  19. Girach, I., P. Nair, N. Ojha and L. Sahu
    Tropospheric carbon monoxide over the northern Indian Ocean during winter: influence of inter-continental transport
    Climate Dynamics doi:10.1007/s00382-020-05269-4, 2020
  20. Grieco, F., K. Pérot, D. Murtagh, P. Eriksson, P. Forkman, B. Rydberg, B. Funke, K. Walker and H. Pumphrey
    Recovery and validation of Odin/SMR long-term measurements of mesospheric carbon monoxide
    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques doi:10.5194/amt-13-5013-2020, 2020
  21. Honomichl, S. and L. Pan
    Transport From the Asian Summer Monsoon Anticyclone Over the Western Pacific
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1029/2019jd032094, 2020
  22. Kablick, G.P., D.R. Allen, M.D. Fromm and G.E. Nedoluha
    Australian pyroCb smoke generates synoptic‐scale stratospheric anticyclones
    Geophys. Res. Lett. doi:10.1029/2020gl088101, 2020
  23. Schoeberl, M.R., L. Pfister, T. Wang, J. Kummer, A.E. Dessler and W. Yu
    Erythemal Radiation, Column Ozone, and the North American Monsoon
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1029/2019jd032283, 2020
  24. Schwartz, M., M. Santee, H. Pumphrey, G. Manney, A. Lambert, N. Livesey, L. Millán, J. Neu, W. Read and F. Werner
    Australian New Year's PyroCb Impact on Stratospheric Composition
    Geophys. Res. Lett. doi:10.1029/2020gl090831, 2020
  25. Tweedy, O., L. Oman and D. Waugh
    Seasonality of the MJO impact on upper troposphere/lower stratosphere temperature, circulation and composition.
    Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences doi:10.1175/jas-d-19-0183.1, 2020
  26. Errera, Q., S. Chabrillat, Y. Christophe, J. Debosscher, D. Hubert, W. Lahoz, M. Santee, M. Shiotani, S. Skachko, T. von Clarmann and K. Walker
    Technical note: Reanalysis of Aura MLS chemical observations
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-19-13647-2019, 2019
  27. Harvey, V.L., C. Randall, E. Becker, A. Smith, C. Bardeen, J. France and L. Goncharenko
    Evaluation of the Mesospheric Polar Vortices in WACCM
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 10.1029/2019jd030727, 2019
  28. Miyazaki, K., T. Sekiya, D. Fu, K.W. Bowman, S.S. Kulawik, K. Sudo, T. Walker, Y. Kanaya, M. Takigawa, K. Ogochi, H. Eskes, K.F. Boersma, A.M. Thompson, B. Gaubert, J. Barre and L.K. Emmons
    Balance of Emission and Dynamical Controls on Ozone During the Korea-United States Air Quality Campaign From Multiconstituent Satellite Data Assimilation
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1029/2018jd028912, 2019
  29. RavindraBabu, S., M. Ratnam, G. Basha, Y. Liou and N. Reddy
    Large Anomalies in the Tropical Upper Troposphere Lower Stratosphere UTLS Trace Gases Observed during the Extreme 2015–16 El Niño Event by Using Satellite Measurements
    Remote Sens. doi:10.3390/rs11060687, 2019
  30. Ryan, N., M. Palm, C. Hoffmann, J. Goliasch and J. Notholt
    Ground-based millimetre-wave measurements of middle-atmospheric carbon monoxide above Ny-Alesund 78.9 degrees N, 11.9 degrees E
    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques doi:10.5194/amt-12-4077-2019, 2019
  31. Stanfield, R., H. Su, J. Jiang, S. Freitas, A. Molod, Z. Luo, L. Huang and M. Luo
    Convective Entrainment Rates Estimated From Aura CO and CloudSat/CALIPSO Observations and Comparison With GEOS‐5
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1029/2019jd030846, 2019
  32. Wang, Y., V. Shulga, G. Milinevsky, A. Patoka, O. Evtushevsky, A. Klekociuk, W. Han, A. Grytsai, D. Shulga, V. Myshenko and O. Antyufeyev
    Winter 2018 major sudden stratospheric warming impact on midlatitude mesosphere from microwave radiometer measurements
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-19-10303-2019, 2019
  33. Yan, X., P. Konopka, F. Ploeger, A. Podglajen, J. Wright, R. Müller and M. Riese
    The efficiency of transport into the stratosphere via the Asian and North American summer monsoon circulations
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-19-15629-2019, 2019
  34. Yang, S., Z. Wei, B. Chen and X. Xu
    Influences of atmospheric ventilation on the composition of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere during the two primary modes of the South Asia high
    Meteorol Atmos Phys doi:10.1007/s00703-019-00706-4, 2019
  35. Yu, P., O. Toon, C. Bardeen, Y. Zhu, K. Rosenlof, R. Portmann, T. Thornberry, R. Gao, S. Davis, E. Wolf, J.D. Gouw, D. Peterson, M. Fromm and A. Robock
    Black carbon lofts wildfire smoke high into the stratosphere to form a persistent plume
  36. Yuan, C., W. Lau, Z. Li and M. Cribb
    Relationship between Asian monsoon strength and transport of surface aerosols to the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer ATAL: interannual variability and decadal changes
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-19-1901-2019, 2019
  37. Yung, Y., J. Long, J. Jiang, S. Fan, X. Jiang and R. Shia
    Effect of the Quasi‐Biennial Oscillation on Carbon Monoxide in the Stratosphere
    Earth and Space Science doi:10.1029/2018ea000534, 2019
  38. Das, S., K.V. Suneeth, M.V. Ratnam, I.A. Girach and Das, S.
    Upper tropospheric ozone transport from the sub-tropics to tropics over the Indian region during Asian summer monsoon
    Climate Dynamics doi:10.1007/s00382-018-4418-6, 2018
  39. Harvey, V.L., C. Randall, L. Goncharenko, E. Becker and J. France
    On the Upward Extension of the Polar Vortices Into the Mesosphere
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 10.1029/2018jd028815, 2018
  40. Huang, H., Y. Gu, Y. Xue, J. Jiang and B. Zhao
    Assessing aerosol indirect effect on clouds and regional climate of East/South Asia and West Africa using NCEP GFS
    Climate Dynamics 2018
  41. Jiang, J.H., H. Su, L. Huang, Y. Wang, S. Massie, B. Zhao, A. Omar and Z. Wang
    Contrasting effects on deep convective clouds by different types of aerosols
    Nature Communications 2018
  42. Kreyling, D., I. Wohltmann, R. Lehmann and M. Rex
    The Extrapolar SWIFT model version 1.0: fast stratospheric ozone chemistry for global climate models
    Geoscientific Model Development doi:10.5194/gmd-11-753-2018, 2018
  43. Lau, W., C. Yuan and Z. Li
    Origin, Maintenance and Variability of the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer ATAL: The Roles of Monsoon Dynamics
    Scientific Reports doi:10.1038/s41598-018-22267-z, 2018
  44. Lee, J., D. Wu, A. Ruzmaikin and J. Fontenla
    Solar cycle variations in mesospheric carbon monoxide
    J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2018.02.001, 2018
  45. Luo, J., L. Pan, S. Honomichl, J. Bergman, W. Randel, G. Francis, C. Clerbaux, M. George, X. Liu and W. Tian
    Space–time variability in UTLS chemical distribution in the Asian summer monsoon viewed by limb and nadir satellite sensors
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-18-12511-2018, 2018
  46. Millán, L., N. Livesey, M. Santee and T. von Clarmann
    Characterizing sampling and quality screening biases in infrared and microwave limb sounding
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-18-4187-2018, 2018
  47. Ryan, N., D. Kinnison, R. Garcia, C. Hoffmann, M. Palm, U. Raffalski and J. Notholt
    Assessing the ability to derive rates of polar middle-atmospheric descent using trace gas measurements from remote sensors
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-18-1457-2018, 2018
  48. Strode, S., J. Liu, L. Lait, R. Commane, B. Daube, S. Wofsy, A. Conaty, P. Newman and M. Prather
    Forecasting carbon monoxide on a global scale for the ATom-1 aircraft mission: insights from airborne and satellite observations and modeling
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-18-10955-2018, 2018
  49. Tian, P., L. Zhang, J. Ma, K. Tang, L. Xu, Y. Wang, X. Cao, J. Liang, Y. Ji, J.H. Jiang, Y. Yung and R. Zhang
    Radiative absorption enhancement of dust mixed with anthropogenic pollution over East Asia
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. 2018
  50. Funke, B., W. Ball, S. Bender, A. Gardini, V.L. Harvey, A. Lambert, M. López-Puertas, D. Marsh, K. Meraner, H. Nieder, S. Päivärinta, K. Pérot, C. Randall, T. Reddmann, E. Rozanov, H. Schmidt, A. Seppälä, M. Sinnhuber, T. Sukhodolov, G. Stiller, N. Tsvetkova, P. Verronen, S. Versick, T. von Clarmann, K. Walker and V. Yushkov
    HEPPA-II model-measurement intercomparison project:
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-17-3573-2017, 2017
  51. Hegglin, M., S. Tegtmeier, J. Anderson, A. Bourassa, S. Brohede, D. Degenstein, L. Froidevaux, B. Funke, J. Gille, A. Jones, Y. Kasai, E. Kyrola, J. Lumpe, J. Neu, E. Remsberg, A. Rozanov, M. Toohey, J. Urban, T. von Clarmann, K.A. Walker and R. Wang
    The SPARC Data Initiative: Assessment of stratospheric trace gas and aerosol climatologies from satellite limb sounders
  52. Luo, J., J. Song, H. Tian, L. Liu and X. Liang
    A Case Study of Mass Transport during the East-West Oscillation of the Asian Summer Monsoon Anticyclone
    Advances in Meteorology doi:10.1155/2017/5174025, 2017
  53. Ochiai, S., P. Baron, T. Nishibori, Y. Irimajiri, Y. Uzawa, T. Manabe, H. Maezawa, A. Mizuno, T. Nagahama, H. Sagawa, M. Suzuki and M. Shiotani
    SMILES-2 Mission for Temperature, Wind, and Composition in the Whole Atmosphere
  54. Ploeger, F., P. Konopka, K. Walker and M. Riese
    Quantifying pollution transport from the Asian monsoon anticyclone into the lower stratosphere
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-17-7055-2017, 2017
  55. Ryan, N., M. Palm, U. Raffalski, R. Larsson, G. Manney, L. Millan and J. Notholt
    Strato-mesospheric carbon monoxide profiles above Kiruna, Sweden 67.8 ° N, 20.4 ° E, since 2008
    Earth System Science Data doi:10.5194/essd-9-77-2017, 2017
  56. Santee, M.L., G.L. Manney, N.J. Livesey, M.J. Schwartz, J.L. Neu and W.G. Read
    A comprehensive overview of the climatological composition of the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone based on 10 years of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder measurements
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1002/2016jd026408, 2017
  57. Sheese, P., K. Walker, C. Boone, P. Bernath, L. Froidevaux, B. Funke, P. Raspollini and T. von Clarmann
    ACE-FTS ozone, water vapour, nitrous oxide, nitric acid, and carbon monoxide profile comparisons with MIPAS and MLS
    J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2016.06.026, 2017
  58. Wohltmann, I., R. Lehmann and M. Rex
    A quantitative analysis of the reactions involved in stratospheric ozone depletion in the polar vortex core
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-17-10535-2017, 2017
  59. Zhao, B., W. Wu, S. Wang, J. Xing, X. Chang, K.N. Liou, J.H. Jiang, Y. Gu, C. Jang, J.S. Fu, Y. Zhu, J. Wang, Y. Lin and J. Hao
    A modeling study of the nonlinear response of fine particles to air pollutant emissions in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region
  60. Zhao, B., K.N. Liou, Y. Gu, Q. Li, J.H. Jiang, H. Su, C. He, H.R. Tseng, S. Wang, R. Liu, L. Qi, W. Lee and J. Hao
    Enhanced PM 2.5 pollution in China due to aerosol-cloud interactions
    Scientific Reports doi:10.1038/s41598-017-04096-8, 2017
  61. Eguchi, N., K. Kodera, B. Funatsu, H. Takashima and R. Ueyama
    Rapid Convective Transport of Tropospheric Air into the Tropical Lower Stratosphere during the 2010 Sudden Stratospheric Warming
  62. Field, R., G.D. van Werf, T. Fanin, E. Fetzer, R. Fuller, H. Jethva, R. Levy, N. Livesey, M. Luo, O. Torres and H. Worden
    Indonesian fire activity and smoke pollution in 2015 show persistent nonlinear sensitivity to El Niño-induced drought
    Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. doi:10.1073/pnas.1524888113, 2016
  63. Field, R., M. Luo, M. Fromm, A. Voulgarakis, S. Mangeon and J. Worden
    Simulating the Black Saturday 2009 smoke plume with an interactive composition-climate model: Sensitivity to emissions amount, timing, and injection height
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1002/2015jd024343, 2016
  64. Garny, H. and W. Randel
    Transport pathways from the Asian monsoon anticyclone to the stratosphere
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-16-2703-2016, 2016
  65. Huang, L., J.H. Jiang, L. Murry, M. Damon, H. Su and N. Livesey
    Evaluation of UTLS carbon monoxide simulations in GMI and GEOS-Chem chemical transport models using Aura MLS observations
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-16-5641-2016, 2016
  66. Manney, G. and Z. Lawrence
    The major stratospheric final warming in 2016: dispersal of vortex air and termination of Arctic chemical ozone loss
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10.5194/acp-16-15371-2016, 2016
  67. Massie, S.T., J. Delanoë, C.G. Bardeen, J.H. Jiang and L. Huang
    Changes in the shape of cloud ice water content vertical structure due to aerosol variations
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-16-6091-2016, 2016
  68. Millan, L., N. Livesey, M. Santee, J. Neu, G. Manney and R. Fuller
    Case studies of the impact of orbital sampling on stratospheric trend detection and derivation of tropical vertical velocities: solar occultation vs. limb emission sounding
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-16-11521-2016, 2016
  69. Xie, F., J. Li, W. Tian, D. Hu, J. Zhang, J. Shu and C. Wang
    A Quantitative Estimation of the Transport of Surface Emissions from Different Regions into the Stratosphere
  70. Field, R., M. Luo, D. Kim, A.D. Genio, A. Voulgarakis and J. Worden
    Sensitivity of simulated tropospheric CO to subgrid physics parameterization: A case study of Indonesian biomass burning emissions in 2006
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1002/2015jd023402, 2015
  71. Gaudel, A., H. Clark, V. Thouret, L. Jones, A. Inness, J. Flemming, O. Stein, V. Huijnen, H. Eskes, P. Nedelec and D. Boulanger
    On the use of MOZAIC-IAGOS data to assess the ability of the MACC reanalysis to reproduce the distribution of ozone and CO in the UTLS over Europe
    Tellus B Chemical and Physical Meteorology doi:10.3402/tellusb.v67.27955, 2015
  72. Harvey, V.L., C.E. Randall and R.L. Collins
    Chemical definition of the mesospheric polar vortex
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1002/2015jd023488, 2015
  73. Jensen, E.J., L. Pfister, R. Ueyama, J.W. Bergman and D. Kinnison
    Investigation of the transport processes controlling the geographic distribution of carbon monoxide at the tropical tropopause
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1002/2014jd022661, 2015
  74. Minschwaner, K. and G.L. Manney
    Derived Methane in the Stratosphere and Lower Mesosphere from Aura Microwave Limb Sounder Measurements of Nitrous Oxide, Water Vapor, and Carbon Monoxide
    J. Atmos. Chem. doi:10.1007/s10874-015-9299-z, 2015
  75. Schwartz, M.J., G.L. Manney, M.I. Hegglin, N.J. Livesey, M.L. Santee and W.H. Daffer
    Climatology and variability of trace gases in extratropical double-tropopause regions from MLS, HIRDLS, and ACE-FTS measurements
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1002/2014JD021964, 2015
  76. Strode, S.A., B.N. Duncan, E.A. Yegorova, J. Kouatchou, J.R. Ziemke and A.R. Douglass
    Implications of carbon monoxide bias for methane lifetime and atmospheric composition in chemistry climate models
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10.5194/acp-15-11789-2015, 2015
  77. Vogel, B., G. Günther, R. Müller, J.U. Grooß and M. Riese
    Impact of different Asian source regions on the composition of the Asian monsoon anticyclone and on the extratropical lowermost stratosphere
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-15-13699-2015, 2015
  78. Wang, C., W. Tian, J. Zhang, D. Hu, S. Dhomse, J. Shu and J. Luo
    Model study of the impacts of emissions, chemical and dynamical processes on the CO variability in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere
    Tellus B Chemical and Physical Meteorology doi:10.3402/tellusb.v67.27475, 2015
  79. Yan, R.C. and J.C. Bian
    Tracing the boundary layer sources of carbon monoxide in the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone using WRF-Chem
    Advances in Atmospheric Sciences doi:10.1007/s00376-014-4130-3, 2015
  80. Huang, L., R. Fu and J.H. Jiang
    Impacts of Fire Emissions and Transport Pathways on the Interannual Variation of CO in the Tropical Upper Troposphere
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-14-4087-2014, 2014
  81. Isono, Y., A. Mizuno, T. Nagahama, Y. Miyoshi, T. Nakamura, R. Kataoka, M. Tsutsumi, M.K. Ejiri, H. Fujiwara, H. Maezawa and M. Uemura
    Ground-based observations of nitric oxide in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere over Antarctica in 2012–2013
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1002/2014JA019881, 2014
  82. Ruzmaikin, A., J.N. Lee and D.L. Wu
    Patterns of carbon monoxide in the middle atmosphere and effects of solar variability
    Adv. Space Res. doi:10.1016/j.asr.2013.06.033, 2014
  83. Wang, T., W.J. Randel, A.E. Dessler, M.R. Schoeberl and D.E. Kinnison
    Trajectory model simulations of ozone O3 and carbon monoxide CO in the lower stratosphere
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-14-7135-2014, 2014
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