Aura MLS


Contact: Michelle Santee

Chlorine monoxide (ClO) is the dominant form of reactive chlorine in the stratosphere and is thus the principal agent for chlorine-catalyzed destruction of stratospheric ozone.

The primary source of stratospheric chlorine is chlorofluorocarbons, or CFCs, chemical compounds composed of chlorine, fluorine, and carbon that are emitted by human activities at the surface. After they reach the upper stratosphere (primarily by upwelling in the tropics), the CFCs are broken down by high-energy UV radiation, liberating chlorine. Away from the polar regions, most of the chlorine released from CFCs resides in relatively benign reservoir species such as ClONO2 and HCl that do not directly destroy ozone. In the winter polar regions, however, heterogeneous chemical reactions on the surfaces of polar stratospheric clouds convert chlorine to highly reactive forms. Enhanced levels of ClO are a signal that ozone destruction is taking place.

How it is part of MLS Science Objectives

One of the main objectives of the Aura mission in general and MLS in particular is to track the stability of the stratospheric ozone layer. Simultaneous measurements of HCl and ClO from MLS provide information on reservoir and reactive chlorine and the partitioning between them that is crucial for understanding (and thus predicting) stratospheric ozone depletion.

How EOS MLS measures ClO

The standard ClO product is derived from radiances measured by the radiometer centered near 640GHz. (ClO is also retrieved using radiances from the 190-GHz radiometer, but those data have poorer precision.)

ClO Information from the Spectroscopy Database

Quick Product Information for data version v5

  • Swath Name: ClO
  • Status Flag: Only use profiles for which the Status field is zero.
  • Useful Range: 147 - 1.0 hPa
  • DAAC Short Name: ML2CLO
  • Precision: Only use values for which the estimated precision is a positive number.
  • Quality Threshold: >1.3
  • Convergence Threshold: <1.05

Download Aura MLS ClO v5 data

Latest Publications (ClO)

  1. Solomon, S., K. Stone, P. Yu, D.M. Murphy, D. Kinnison, A.R. Ravishankara and P. Wang
    Chlorine activation and enhanced ozone depletion induced by wildfire aerosol
  2. Ardra, D., J. Kuttippurath, R. Roy, P. Kumar, S. Raj, R. Müller and W. Feng
    The Unprecedented Ozone Loss in the Arctic Winter and Spring of 2010/2011 and 2019/2020
    ACS Earth and Space Chemistry doi:10.1021/acsearthspacechem.1c00333, 2022
  3. Blunden, J. and T. Boyer
    State of the Climate in 2021
    Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. doi:10.1175/2022bamsstateoftheclimate.1, 2022
  4. Froidevaux, L., D. Kinnison, M. Santee, L. Millán, N. Livesey, W. Read, C. Bardeen, J. Orlando and R. Fuller
    Upper stratospheric ClO and HOCl trends (2005-2020): Aura Microwave Limb Sounder and model results
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10.5194/acp-22-4779-2022, 2022
  5. Roy, R., J. Kuttippurath, F. Lefèvre, S. Raj and P. Kumar
    The sudden stratospheric warming and chemical ozone loss in the Antarctic winter 2019: comparison with the winters of 1988 and 2002
    Theoretical and Applied Climatology doi:10.1007/s00704-022-04031-6, 2022
  6. Salawitch, R. and L. McBride
    Australian wildfires depleted the ozone layer
  7. Santee, M.L., A. Lambert, G.L. Manney, N.J. Livesey, L. Froidevaux, J.L. Neu, M.J. Schwartz, L.F. Millán, F. Werner, W.G. Read, M. Park, R.A. Fuller and B.M. Ward
    Prolonged and Pervasive Perturbations in the Composition of the Southern Hemisphere Midlatitude Lower Stratosphere From the Australian New Year's Fires
    Geophys. Res. Lett. doi:10.1029/2021gl096270, 2022
  8. Strahan, S., D. Smale, S. Solomon, G. Taha, M. Damon, S. Steenrod, N. Jones, B. Liley, R. Querel and J. Robinson
    Unexpected Repartitioning of Stratospheric Inorganic Chlorine After the 2020 Australian Wildfires
    Geophys. Res. Lett. doi:10.1029/2022gl098290, 2022
  9. Blunden, J. and T. Boyer
    State of the Climate in 2020
    Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. doi:10.1175/2021bamsstateoftheclimate.1, 2021
  10. Feng, W., S. Dhomse, C. Arosio, M. Weber, J. Burrows, M. Santee and M. Chipperfield
    Arctic Ozone Depletion in 2019/20: Roles of Chemistry, Dynamics and the Montreal Protocol
    Geophys. Res. Lett. doi:10.1029/2020gl091911, 2021
  11. Gordon, E., A. Seppälä, B. Funke, J. Tamminen and K. Walker
    Observational evidence of energetic particle precipitation NOx (EPP-NOx) interaction with chlorine curbing Antarctic ozone loss
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-21-2819-2021, 2021
  12. Grooß, J. and R. Müller
    Simulation of Record Arctic Stratospheric Ozone Depletion in 2020
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1029/2020jd033339, 2021
  13. Hegglin, M., S. Tegtmeier, J. Anderson, A. Bourassa, S. Brohede, D. Degenstein, L. Froidevaux, B. Funke, J. Gille, Y. Kasai, E. Kyrölä, J. Lumpe, D. Murtagh, J. Neu, K. Pérot, E. Remsberg, A. Rozanov, M. Toohey, J. Urban, T. von Clarmann, K. Walker, H. Wang, C. Arosio, R. Damadeo, R. Fuller, G. Lingenfelser, C. McLinden, D. Pendlebury, C. Roth, N. Ryan, C. Sioris, L. Smith and K. Weigel
    Overview and update of the SPARC Data Initiative: comparison of stratospheric composition measurements from satellite limb sounders
    Earth System Science Data doi:10.5194/essd-13-1855-2021, 2021
  14. Kuttippurath, J., W. Feng, R. Müller, P. Kumar, S. Raj, G. Gopikrishnan and R. Roy
    Exceptional loss in ozone in the Arctic winter/spring of 2019/2020
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-21-14019-2021, 2021
  15. Barrera, J., R. Fernandez, F. Iglesias-Suarez, C. Cuevas, J. Lamarque and A. Saiz-Lopez
    Seasonal impact of biogenic very short-lived bromocarbons on lowermost stratospheric ozone between 60° N and 60° S during the 21st century
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-20-8083-2020, 2020
  16. Blunden, J. and D.S. Arndt
    State of the Climate in 2019
    Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. doi:10.1175/2020bamsstateoftheclimate.1, 2020
  17. Inness, A., S. Chabrillat, J. Flemming, V. Huijnen, B. Langenrock, J. Nicolas, I. Polichtchouk and M. Razinger
    Exceptionally Low Arctic Stratospheric Ozone in Spring 2020 as Seen in the CAMS Reanalysis
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1029/2020jd033563, 2020
  18. Manney, G., N. Livesey, M. Santee, L. Froidevaux, A. Lambert, Z. Lawrence, L. Millán, J. Neu, W. Read, M. Schwartz and R. Fuller
    Record‐Low Arctic Stratospheric Ozone in 2020: MLS Observations of Chemical Processes and Comparisons With Previous Extreme Winters
    Geophys. Res. Lett. 10.1029/2020gl089063, 2020
  19. Nakajima, H., I. Murata, Y. Nagahama, H. Akiyoshi, K. Saeki, T. Kinase, M. Takeda, Y. Tomikawa, E. Dupuy and N. Jones
    Chlorine partitioning near the polar vortex edge observed with ground-based FTIR and satellites at Syowa Station, Antarctica, in 2007 and 2011
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-20-1043-2020, 2020
  20. Nedoluha, G., R.M. Gomez, I. Boyd, H. Neal, A. Parrish, B. Connor, T. Mooney, D. Siskind, H. Sagawa and M. Santee
    Initial Results and Diurnal Variations Measured by a new Microwave Stratospheric ClO Instrument at Mauna Kea
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1029/2020jd033097, 2020
  21. Schwartz, M., M. Santee, H. Pumphrey, G. Manney, A. Lambert, N. Livesey, L. Millán, J. Neu, W. Read and F. Werner
    Australian New Year's PyroCb Impact on Stratospheric Composition
    Geophys. Res. Lett. doi:10.1029/2020gl090831, 2020
  22. Blunden, J. and D. Arndt
    State of the Climate in 2018
    Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. doi:10.1175/2019bamsstateoftheclimate.1, 2019
  23. Errera, Q., S. Chabrillat, Y. Christophe, J. Debosscher, D. Hubert, W. Lahoz, M. Santee, M. Shiotani, S. Skachko, T. von Clarmann and K. Walker
    Technical note: Reanalysis of Aura MLS chemical observations
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-19-13647-2019, 2019
  24. Johansson, S., M. Santee, J. Grooß, M. Höpfner, M. Braun, F. Friedl-Vallon, F. Khosrawi, O. Kirner, E. Kretschmer, H. Oelhaf, J. Orphal, B. Sinnhuber, I. Tritscher, J. Ungermann, K. Walker and W. Woiwode
    Unusual chlorine partitioning in the 2015/16 Arctic winter lowermost stratosphere: observations and simulations
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-19-8311-2019, 2019
  25. Zambri, B., S. Solomon, D. Kinnison, M. Mills, A. Schmidt, R. Neely, A. Bourassa, D. Degenstein and C. Roth
    Modeled and Observed Volcanic Aerosol Control on Stratospheric NOy and Cly
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1029/2019jd031111, 2019
  26. Dhomse, S., D. Kinnison, M. Chipperfield, R. Salawitch, I. Cionni, M. Hegglin, N.L. Abraham, H. Akiyoshi, A. Archibald, E. Bednarz, S. Bekki, P. Braesicke, N. Butchart, M. Dameris, M. Deushi, S. Frith, S. Hardiman, B. Hassler, L. Horowitz, R. Hu, P. Jöckel, B. Josse, O. Kirner, S. Kremser, U. Langematz, J. Lewis, M. Marchand, M. Lin, E. Mancini, V. Marécal, M. Michou, O. Morgenstern, F. O&ampaposConnor, L. Oman, G. Pitari, D. Plummer, J. Pyle, L. Revell, E. Rozanov, R. Schofield, A. Stenke, K. Stone, K. Sudo, S. Tilmes, D. Visioni, Y. Yamashita and G. Zeng
    Estimates of ozone return dates from Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative simulations
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-18-8409-2018, 2018
  27. Grooß, J., R. Müller, R. Spang, I. Tritscher, T. Wegner, M. Chipperfield, W. Feng, D. Kinnison and S. Madronich
    On the discrepancy of HCl processing in the core of the wintertime polar vortices
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-18-8647-2018, 2018
  28. Sandor, B. and R.T. Clancy
    First measurements of ClO in the Venus atmosphere – Altitude dependence and temporal variation
  29. Hegglin, M., S. Tegtmeier, J. Anderson, A. Bourassa, S. Brohede, D. Degenstein, L. Froidevaux, B. Funke, J. Gille, A. Jones, Y. Kasai, E. Kyrola, J. Lumpe, J. Neu, E. Remsberg, A. Rozanov, M. Toohey, J. Urban, T. von Clarmann, K.A. Walker and R. Wang
    The SPARC Data Initiative: Assessment of stratospheric trace gas and aerosol climatologies from satellite limb sounders
  30. Khosrawi, F., O. Kirner, B. Sinnhuber, S. Johansson, M. Höpfner, M. Santee, L. Froidevaux, J. Ungermann, R. Ruhnke, W. Woiwode, H. Oelhaf and P. Braesicke
    Denitrification, dehydration and ozone loss during the 2015/2016 Arctic winter
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-17-12893-2017, 2017
  31. Wohltmann, I., R. Lehmann and M. Rex
    A quantitative analysis of the reactions involved in stratospheric ozone depletion in the polar vortex core
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-17-10535-2017, 2017
  32. Akiyoshi, H., T. Nakamura, T. Miyasaka, M. Shiotani and M. Suzuki
    A nudged chemistry-climate model simulation of chemical constituent distribution at northern high-latitude stratosphere observed by SMILES and MLS during the 2009/2010 stratospheric sudden warming
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1002/2015jd023334, 2016
  33. Andersson, M.E., P.T. Verronen, D.R. Marsh, S.M. Paivarinta and J.M.C. Plane
    WACCM-D-Improved modeling of nitric acid and active chlorine during energetic particle precipitation
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1002/2015jd024173, 2016
  34. Huijnen, V., J. Flemming, S. Chabrillat, Q. Errera, Y. Christophe, A. Blechschmidt, A. Richter and H. Eskes
    C-IFS-CB05-BASCOE: stratospheric chemistry in the Integrated Forecasting System of ECMWF
    Geosci. Model Dev. doi:10.5194/gmd-9-3071-2016, 2016
  35. Manney, G. and Z. Lawrence
    The major stratospheric final warming in 2016: dispersal of vortex air and termination of Arctic chemical ozone loss
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10.5194/acp-16-15371-2016, 2016
  36. Nakajima, H., I. Wohltmann, T. Wegner, M. Takeda, M.C. Pitts, L.R. Poole, R. Lehmann, M.L. Santee and M. Rex
    Polar Stratospheric Cloud evolution and chlorine activation measured by CALIPSO and MLS, and modelled by ATLAS
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-16-3311-2016, 2016
  37. Nedoluha, G., B. Connor, T. Mooney, J. Barrett, A. Parrish, R.M. Gomez, I. Boyd, D. Allen, M. Kotkamp, S. Kremser, T. Deshler, P. Newman and M. Santee
    20 years of ClO measurements in the Antarctic lower stratosphere
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-16-10725-2016, 2016
  38. Siskind, D., G. Nedoluha, F. Sassi, P. Rong, S. Bailey, M. Hervig and C. Randall
    Persistence of upper stratospheric wintertime tracer variability into the Arctic spring and summer
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-16-7957-2016, 2016
  39. Stone, K., O. Morgenstern, D. Karoly, A. Klekociuk, W.J. French, N.L. Abraham and R. Schofield
    Evaluation of the ACCESS – chemistry–climate model for the Southern Hemisphere
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-16-2401-2016, 2016
  40. Guo, D., Y. Su, C. Shi, J. Xu and A. Powell
    Double core of ozone valley over the Tibetan Plateau and its possible mechanisms
    J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2015.05.018, 2015
  41. Kirner, O., R. Muller, R. Ruhnke and H. Fischer
    Contribution of liquid, NAT and ice particles to chlorine activation and ozone depletion in Antarctic winter and spring
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-15-2019-2015, 2015
  42. Kuttippurath, J., S. Godin-Beekmann, F. Lefevre, M.L. Santee, L. Froidevaux and A. Hauchecorne
    Variability in Antarctic ozone loss in the last decade 2004-2013: high-resolution simulations compared to Aura MLS observations
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-15-10385-2015, 2015
  43. Liberto, L.D., R. Lehmann, I. Tritscher, F. Fierli, J.L. Mercer, M. Snels, G.D. Donfrancesco, T. Deshler, B.P. Luo, J. Grooß, E. Arnone, B.M. Dinelli and F. Cairo
    Lagrangian analysis of microphysical and chemical processes in the Antarctic stratosphere: a case study
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-15-6651-2015, 2015
  44. Manney, G., Z. Lawrence, M. Santee, W. Read, N. Livesey, A. Lambert, L. Froidevaux, H. Pumphrey and M. Schwartz
    A minor sudden stratospheric warming with a major impact: Transport and polar processing in the 2014/2015 Arctic winter
    Geophys. Res. Lett. doi:10.1002/2015gl065864, 2015
  45. Manney, G.L., Z.D. Lawrence, M.L. Santee, N.J. Livesey, A. Lambert and M.C. Pitts
    Polar processing in a split vortex: Arctic ozone loss in early winter 2012/2013
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-15-5381-2015, 2015
  46. Pendlebury, D., D. Plummer, J. Scinocca, P. Sheese, K. Strong, K. Walker and D. Degenstein
    Comparison of the CMAM30 data set with ACE-FTS and OSIRIS: polar regions
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-15-12465-2015, 2015
  47. Tang, X., Y. Liu, W. Wang, L. Song and W. Li
    Changes in stratospheric ClO and HCl concentrations under different greenhouse gas emission scenarios
    J Meteorol Res doi:10.1007/s13351-015-4065-3, 2015
  48. Blunden, J. and D.S. Arndt
    State of the Climate in 2013
    Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 2014
  49. Damiani, A., B. Funke, M.L. Puertas, A. Gardini, T. von Clarmann, M.L. Santee, L. Froidevaux and R.R. Cordero
    Changes in the composition of the northern polar upper stratosphere in February 2009 after a sudden stratospheric warming
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres doi:10.1002/2014JD021698, 2014
  50. Blunden, J. and D.S. Arndt
    State of the Climate in 2012
    Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 2013
  51. Brakebusch, M., C.E. Randall, D.E. Kinnison, S. Tilmes, M.L. Santee and G.L. Manney
    Evaluation of Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model simulations of ozone during Arctic winter 2004–2005
    J. Geophys. Res. doi:10.1002/jgrd.50226, 2013
  52. Connor, B.J., T. Mooney, G.E. Nedoluha, J.W. Barrett, A. Parrish, J. Koda, M.L. Santee and R.M. Gomez
    Re-analysis of ground-based microwave ClO measurements from Mauna Kea, 1992 to early 2012
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10.5194/acp-13-8643-2013, 2013
  53. Khosravi, M., P. Baron, J. Urban, L. Froidevaux, A.I. Jonsson, Y. Kasai, K. Kuribayashi, C. Mitsuda, D.P. Murtagh, H. Sagawa, M.L. Santee, T.O. Sato, M. Shiotani, M. Suzuki, T. von Clarmann, K.A. Walker and S. Wang
    Diurnal variation of stratospheric and lower mesospheric HOCl, ClO and HO2 at the equator: comparison of 1-D model calculations with measurements by satellite instruments
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-13-7587-2013, 2013
  54. Sagawa, H., T.O. Sato, P. Baron, E. Dupuy, N. Livesey, J. Urban, T. von Clarmann, A.D. Lange, G. Wetzel, B.J. Connor, A. Kagawa, D. Murtagh and Y. Kasai
    Comparison of SMILES ClO profiles with satellite, balloon-borne and ground-based measurements
    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques doi:10.5194/amt-6-3325-2013, 2013
  55. Schwartz, M.J., W.J. Read, M.L. Santee, N.J. Livesey, L. Froidevaux, A. Lambert and G.L. Manney
    Convectively Injected Water Vapor in the North American Summer Lowermost Stratosphere
    Geophys. Res. Lett. doi:10.1002/grl.50421, 2013
  56. Sugita, T., Y. Kasai, Y. Terao, S. Hayashida, G.L. Manney, W.H. Daffer, H. Sagawa, M. Suzuki, M. Shiotani, K.A. Walker, C.D. Boone and P.F. Bernath
    HCl and ClO profiles inside the Antarctic vortex as observed by SMILES in November 2009: comparisons HCl and ClO profiles inside the Antarctic vortex as observed by SMILES in November 2009: comparisons with MLS and ACE-FTS instruments
    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques doi:10.5194/amt-6-3099-2013, 2013
  57. von Clarmann, T.
    Chlorine in the stratosphere
  58. Wohltmann, I., T. Wegner, R. Mueller, R. Lehmann, M. Rex, G.L. Manney, M.L. Santee, P. Bernath, O. Suminska-Ebersoldt, F. Strohl, M. von Hobe, C.M. Volk, E. Hoesen, F. Ravegnani, A. Ulanovsky and V. Yushkov
    Uncertainties in modelling heterogeneous chemistry and Arctic ozone depletion in the winter 2009/2010
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-13-3909-2013, 2013
  59. Blunden, J. and D.S. Arndt
    State of the Climate in 2011
    Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. doi:10.1175/2012BAMSStateoftheClimate.1, 2012
  60. Damiani, A., B. Funke, D.R. Marsh, M. Lopez-Puertas, M.L. Santee, L. Froidevaux, S. Wang, C.H. Jackman, T. von Clarmann, A. Gardini, R.R. Cordero and M. Storini
    Impact of January 2005 solar proton events on chlorine species
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-12-4159-2012, 2012
  61. Kuttippurath, J., S. Godin-Beekmann, F. Lefevre, G. Nikulin, M.L. Santee and L. Froidevaux
    Record-breaking ozone loss in the Arctic winter 2010/2011: comparison with 1996/1997
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-12-7073-2012, 2012
  62. Lange, A.D., M. Birk, G.D. Lange, F. Friedl-Vallon, O. Kiselev, V. Koshelets, G. Maucher, H. Oelhaf, A. Selig, P. Vogt, G. Wagner and J. Landgraf
    HCl and ClO in activated Arctic air first retrieved vertical profiles from TELIS submillimetre limb spectra
    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques doi:10.5194/amtd-4-6497-2011, 2012
  63. Sato, T.O., H. Sagawa, D. Kreyling, T. Manabe, S. Ochiai, K. Kikuchi, P. Baron, J. Mendrok, J. Urban, D. Murtagh, M. Yasui and Y. Kasai
    Strato-mesospheric ClO observations by SMILES: error analysis and diurnal variation
    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques doi:10.5194/amt-5-2809-2012, 2012
  64. Blunden, J., D.S. Arndt and M.O. Baringer
    State of the Climate in 2010
    Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. doi:10.1175/1520-0477-92.6.S1, 2011
  65. Feng, W., M.P. Chipperfield, S. Davies, G.W. Mann, K.S. Carslaw, S. Dhomse, L. Harvey, C. Randall and M.L. Santee
    Modelling the effect of denitrification on polar ozone depletion for Arctic winter 2004/2005
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-11-6559-2011, 2011
  66. Laat, A.T.J.d. and M. van Weele
    The 2010 Antarctic ozone hole: Observed reduction in ozone destruction by minor sudden stratospheric warmings
    Scientific Reports doi:10.1038/srep00038, 2011
  67. Manney, G.L., M.L. Santee, M. Rex, N.J. Livesey, M.C. Pitts, P. Veefkind, E.R. Nash, I. Wohltmann, R. Lehmann, L. Froidevaux, L.R. Poole, M.R. Schoeberl, D.P. Haffner, J. Davies, V. Dorokhov, H. Gernandt, B. Johnson, R. Kivi, E. Kyro, N. Larsen, P.F. Levelt, A. Makshtas, C.T. McElroy, H. Nakajima, M.C. Parrondo, D.W. Tarasick, P.D. von Gathen, K.A. Walker and N.S. Zinoviev
    Unprecedented Arctic ozone loss in 2011
  68. Nedoluha, G.E., B.J. Connor, J. Barrett, T. Mooney, A. Parrish, I. Boyd, J.E. Wrotny, R.M. Gomez, J. Koda, M.L. Santee and L. Froidevaux
    Ground-based measurements of ClO from Mauna Kea and intercomparisons with Aura and UARS MLS
    J. Geophys. Res. doi:10.1029/2010JD014732, 2011
  69. Pumphrey, H.C., M.L. Santee, N.J. Livesey, M.J. Schwartz and W.G. Read
    Microwave Limb Sounder observations of biomass-burning products from the Australian bush fires of February 2009
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-11-6285-2011, 2011
  70. Santee, M.L., G.L. Manney, N.J. Livesey, L. Froidevaux, M.J. Schwartz and W.G. Read
    Trace gas evolution in the lowermost stratosphere from Aura Microwave Limb Sounder measurements
    J. Geophys. Res. doi:10.1029/2011JD015590, 2011
  71. Arndt, D.S., M.O. Baringer and M.R. Johnson
    State of the Climate in 2009
    Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. doi:10.1175/BAMS-91-7-StateoftheClimate, 2010
  72. Kuttippurath, J., S. Godin-Beekmann, F. Lefevre and F. Goutail
    Spatial, temporal, and vertical variability of polar stratospheric ozone loss in the Arctic winters 2004/2005-2009/2010
    Atmos. Chem. Phys. doi:10.5194/acp-10-9915-2010, 2010
  73. Santee, M.L., S.P. Sander, N.J. Livesey and L. Froidevaux
    Constraining the chlorine monoxide (ClO) / chlorine peroxide (ClOOCl) equilibrium constant from Aura Microwave Limb Sounder measurements of nighttime ClO
    Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. doi:10.1073/pnas.0912659107, 2010
  74. Kuttippurath, J., S. Godin-Beekman, F. Lefevre and A. Pazmino
    Ozone depletion in the Arctic winter 2007-2008
    Int. Jnl. Remote Sensing doi:10.1080/01431160902821965, 2009
  75. Manson, A.H., C.E. Meek and T. Chshyolkova
    Regional stratospheric warmings in the Pacific-Western Canada (PWC) sector during winter 2004/2005: implications for temperatures, winds, chemical constituents and the characterization of the Polar vortex
    Annales Geophysicae doi:10.5194/angeo-26-3597-2008, 2008
  76. McConnell, J.C. and J.J. Jin
    Stratospheric Ozone Chemistry
    Atmosphere-Ocean doi:10.3137/ao.460104, 2008
  77. Santee, M.L., I.A. MacKenzie, G.L. Manney, M.P. Chipperfield, P.F. Bernath, K.A. Walker, C.D. Boone, L. Froidevaux, N.J. Livesey and J.W. Waters
    A study of stratospheric chlorine partitioning based on new
    J. Geophys. Res. doi:10.1029/2007JD009057, 2008
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