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The MLS H2O Product

Contact: William Read for troposhpere
Alyn Lambert for stratosphere and mesosphere

Basic Information

Water vapor is the dominant greenhouse gas in the troposphere. Its greatest influences on climate forcing is in the upper troposphere, and it is generally believed that water vapor amplifies the radiative forcing associated with the anthropogenic increases in carbon dioxide. In the tropics upper tropospheric water vapor is closely linked to sea surface temperature and thus ocean-atmosphere coupling phenomena such as the El Nino southern oscillation can be observed. Energy is released when water vapor condenses and large values of relative humidity, which is derived from water vapor and temperature, show where cloud formation is likely. Stratospheric water vapor influences stratospheric ozone chemistry both by providing a source of odd-hydrogen that destroys ozone and by influencing the formation of polar stratospheric clouds that trigger processes leading to large ozone loss in polar winter. Water vapor has been increasing in the stratosphere, believed due to changes near the tropical troposphere where water vapor enters the stratosphere.
The H2O Molecule
H2O molecule visualization

How it is part of MLS Science Objectives

Scientific objectives of MLS include quantifying upper tropospheric processes affecting climate change, and tracking recovery of the ozone layer. The measurements of water vapor are crucial for both these objectives.

How EOS MLS measures H2O

The standard water vapor product is taken from the 190 GHz (Core+R2A) retrieval. Due to the magnitude of changes with height in the upper troposphere, the vertical profile of water vapor is represented as piecewise-linear in the logarithm of water vapor mixing ratio versus logarithm of atmospheric pressure. For this reason, scientific studies using averages of MLS water vapor data should perform the averaging in logarithm of mixing ratio.

Sample H2O observation map
(map from 2005d264)
H2O Information from the Spectroscopy Database

Quick Product Information for data version v3.3/v3.4

  • Swath Name: H2O
  • Vertical Resolution:
    ~2.5km at 316-215 hPa
    ~3.0km at 100-1.0 hPa
    >3.4 km at > 1.0 hPa
  • Useful Range: 316 - 0.002 hPa
  • DAAC Short Name: ML2H2O
  • Precision:
    65% at 316 hPa
    15% at 100hPa
    7% at 1 hPa
    20% at 0.1 hPa
  • Quality Threshold: 1.3
Download EOS Aura MLS H2O v3.3/v3.4 data

Publications related to the MLS H2O data product

Future Publications

  1. Dionisi, D., P. Keckhut, Y. Courcoux, A. Hauchecorne, J. Porteneuve, J.L. Baray, J. Leclair De Bellevue, H. Veremes, F. Gabarrot, G. Payen, R. Decoupes, J.P. Cammas, "Water vapor observations up to the lower stratosphere through the Raman lidar during the MAïdo LIdar Calibration Campaign", vol 10.5194/amtd-7-10361-2014, num 7, Not yet published.
  2. Wang, Y., H. Su, J.H. Jiang, N.J. Livesey, M.L. Santee, P.C. Stek, L. Froidevaux, W.G. Read, J. Anderson, "The Role of the Stratospheric Water Vapor in Global Warming", Not yet published.


  1. Fiedler, J., G. Baumgarten, U. Berger, A. Gabriel, R. Latteck, F.J. Lübken, "On the early onset of the NLC season 2013 as observed at ALOMAR", vol doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2014.07.011, 2015.
  2. Kawatani, Y., J.N. Lee, K. Hamilton, "Interannual variations of stratospheric water vapor in MLS observations and climate model simulations", vol doi:10.1175/JAS-D-14-0164.1, 2015.
  3. Schwartz, M.J., G.L. Manney, M.I. Hegglin, N.J. Livesey, M.L. Santee, W.H. Daffer, "Climatology and variability of trace gases in extratropical double-tropopause regions from MLS, HIRDLS, and ACE-FTS measurements", vol doi:10.1002/2014JD021964, 2015.


  1. Bhawar, R.L., J.H. Jiang, H. Su, M.J. Schwartz, "Variation of upper tropospheric clouds and water vapour over the Indian Ocean", vol 10.1002/joc.3942, 2014. Reprint
  2. Carminati, F., P. Ricaud, J.P. Pommereau, E. Riviere, S. Khaykin, J.L. Attie, . J, . Warner, "Impact of tropical land convection on the water vapor budget in the tropical tropopause layer", vol doi:10.5194/acp-14-6195-2014, num 14, 2014. Reprint
  3. Carminati, F., P. Ricaud, J.P. Pommereau, E. Riviere, S. Khaykin, J.L. Attie, J. Warner, "Impact of tropical land convection on the water vapour budget in the tropical tropopause layer", vol doi:10.5194/acp-14-6195-2014, num 14, 2014. Reprint
  4. Dessler, A.E., M.R. Schoeberl, T. Wang, M. Davis, K.H. Rosenlof, J.P. Vernier, "Variations of stratospheric water vapor over the past three decades", vol 10.1002/2014JD021712, num 119, 2014. Reprint
  5. Dolinar, E.K., X. Dong, B. Xi, J.H. Jiang, H. Su, "Evaluation of CMIP5 simulated clouds and TOA radiation budgets using NASA satellite observations", vol 10.1007/s00382-014-2158-9, 2014. Reprint
  6. Engel, I., B.P. Luo, S.M. Khaykin, F.G. Wienhold, H. Vomel, R. Kivi, C.R. Hoyle, J.U. Grooss, M.C. Pitts, T. Peter, "Arctic stratospheric dehydration – Part 2: Microphysical modeling", vol 10.5194/acp-14-3231-2014, num 14, 2014. Reprint
  7. Hegglin, M.I., D.A. Plummer, T.G. Shepherd, J.F. Scinocca, J. Anderson, L. Froidevaux, B. Funke, D. Hurst, A. Rozanov, J. Urban, T. von Clarmann, K.A. Walker, H.J. Wang, S. Tegtmeier, K. Weigel, "Vertical structure of stratospheric water vapour trends derived from merged satellite data", vol 10.1038/ngeo2236, num 7, 2014. Reprint
  8. Jain, S., A.R. Jain, T.K. Mandal, "Dry phase of tropical lower stratospheric water vapor: Role of the BDC, convection, and ozone variability", vol 10.1016/j.jasp.2014.08.018, num 121, 2014. Reprint
  9. Jain, S., A.R. Jain, T.K. Mandal, "Impact of monsoon-associated deep-penetrating clouds on the hydration of the tropical upper troposphere", vol 10.1002/asl2.517, 2014. Reprint
  10. Neu, J.L., T. Flury, G.L. Manney, M.L. Santee, N.J. Livesey, J. Worden, "Tropospheric ozone variations governed by changes in stratospheric circulation", vol doi:10.1038/ngeo2138, num 7, 2014. Reprint
  11. Pertsev, N., P. Dalin, V. Perminov, V. Romejko, A. Dubietis, R. Balčiunas, K. Černis, M. Zalcik, "Noctilucent clouds observed from the ground: sensitivity to mesospheric parameters and long-term time series", vol 10.1186/1880-5981-66-98, num 66, 2014. Reprint
  12. Rong, P.P., J.M. Russell, C.E. Randall, S.M. Bailey, A. Lambert, "Northern PMC brightness zonal variability and its correlation with temperature and water vapor", vol doi:10.1002/2013JD020513, num 119, pgs. 5, 2014. Reprint
  13. Scheiben, D., B. Tschanz, K. Hocke, N. Kämpfer, S. Ka, J.J. Oh, "The quasi 16-day wave in mesospheric water vapor during boreal winter 2011/2012", vol 10.5194/acp-14-6511-2014, num 14, 2014. Reprint
  14. Stanfield, R.E., X. Dong, B. Xi, A. Kennedy, A.D.D. Genio, P. Minnis, J.H. Jiang, "Assessment of NASA GISS CMIP5 and Post-CMIP5 Simulated Clouds and TOA Radiation Budgets Using Satellite Observations: Part I: Cloud fraction and properties", vol doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00558.1, 2014. Reprint
  15. Su, H., J.H. Jiang, C. Zhai, T.J. Shen, J.D. Neelin, G.L. Stephens, L.Y. Yung, "Weakening and Strengthening Structures in the Hadley Circulation Change under Global Warming and Implications for Cloud Response and Climate Sensitivity ", vol 10.1002/2014JD021642, num 119, pgs. 10, 2014. Reprint
  16. Uma, K.N., S.K. Das, S.S. Das, "A Climatological Perspective of Water Vapor at the UTLS Region over Different Global Monsoon Regions: Observations Inferred from the Aura-MLS and Reanalysis Data", vol 10.1007/s00382-014-2085-9, num 43, 2014. Reprint
  17. Urban, J., S. Lossow, G. Stiller, W. Read, "Another Drop in Water Vapor", num 95, pgs. 27, 2014.


  1. Berthet, G., J.B. Renard, M.G. Durry, B. Gaubicher, N. Amarouche, "Balloon-borne observations of mid-latitude stratospheric water vapour: comparisons with HALOE and MLS satellite data", vol 10.1007/s10874-013-9264-7, num 70, 2013. Reprint
  2. Brakebusch, M., C.E. Randall, D.E. Kinnison, S. Tilmes, M.L. Santee, G.L. Manney, "Evaluation of Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model simulations of ozone during Arctic winter 2004–2005", vol 10.1002/jgrd.50226, num 118, 2013. Reprint
  3. Dalin, P., M. Connors, I. Schofield, A. Dubietis, N. Pertsev, V. Perminov, M. Zalcik, A. Zadorozhny, T. McEwan, I. McEachran, J. Gronne, O. Hansen, H. Andersen, S. Frandsen, D. Melnikov, V. Romejko, I. Grigoryev, "First common volume ground-based and space measurements of the mesospheric front in noctilucent clouds", vol 10.1002/2013GL058553, num 40, pgs. 24, 2013. Reprint
  4. Dessler, A.E., M.R. Shoeberl, T. Wang, S.M. Davis, K.H. Rosenlof, "Stratospheric water vapor feedback", vol 10.1073/pnas.1310344110, num 110, pgs. 45, 2013. Reprint
  5. Evan, S., K.H. Rosenlof, J. Dudhia, B. Hassler, S.M. Davis, "The representation of the TTL in a tropical channel version of the WRF model", vol doi:10.1002/lgrd.50288, num 118, 2013. Reprint
  6. Fueglistaler, S., Y.S. Liu, T.J. Flannaghan, P.H. Haynes, D.P. Dee, W.J. Read, E.E. Remsberg, L.W. Thomason, D.F. Hurst, J.R. Lanzante, P.F. Bernath, "The relation between atmospheric humidity and temperature trends for stratospheric water", 2013.
  7. Hegglin, M.I., S. Tegtmeier, J. Anderson, L. Froidevaux, R. Fuller, B. Funke, A. Jones, G. Lingenfelser, J. Lumpe, D. Pendlebury, E. Remsberg, A. Rozanov, M. Toohey, J. Urban, T. von Clarmann, K.A. Walker, R. Wang, K. Weigel, "SPARC Data Initiative: Comparison of water vapor climatologies from international satellite limb sounders", vol 10.1002/jgrd.50752, num 118, 2013. Reprint
  8. Jain, S., A.R. Jain, T.K. Mandal, "Role of convection in hydration of tropical UTLS: implication of AURA MLS long-term observations", vol doi:10.5194/angeo-31-967-2013, num 31, 2013. Reprint
  9. Khaykin, S.M., I. Engel, H. Vomel, I.M. Formanyuk, R. Kivi, L.I. Korshunov, M. Kramer, A.D. Lykov, S. Meier, T. Naebert, M.C. Pitts, M.L. Santee, N. Spelten, F.G. Wienhold, V.A. Yushkov, T. Peter, "Arctic stratospheric dehydration – Part 1: Unprecedented observation of vertical redistribution of water", num 13, 2013.
  10. Nedoluha, G.E., R.M. Gomez, H. Neal, A. Lambert, D. Hurst, C. Boone, G. Stiller, "Validation of long-term measurements of water vapor from the midstratosphere to the mesosphere at two Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change sites", vol doi:10.1029/2012JD018900, num 118, pgs. 2, 2013. Reprint
  11. Nedoluha, G.E., R.M. Gomez, D.R. Allen, A. Lambert, C. Boone, G. Stiller, "Variations in middle atmospheric water vapor from 2004 to 2013", vol doi:10.1002/jgrd.50834, num 118, pgs. 19, 2013. Reprint
  12. Pitts, M.C., L.R. Poole, A. Lambert, L.W. Thomason, "An assessment of CALIOP polar stratospheric cloud composition classification", vol 10.5194/acp-13-2975-2013, 2013., num 13, pgs. 6, 2013. Reprint
  13. Ploeger, F., G. Guenther, P. Konopka, S. Fueglistaler, R. Mueller, C. Hoppe, A. Kunz, R. Spang, J.U. Grooß, M. Riese, "Horizontal water vapor transport in the lower stratosphere from subtropics to high latitudes during boreal summer", vol doi:10.1002/jgrd.50636, num 118, 2013. Reprint
  14. Santee, M.L., N.J. Livesey, G.L. Manney, A. Lambert, W.G. Read, "Methyl chloride from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder: First global climatology and assessment of variability in the upper troposphere and stratosphere", vol 10.1002/2013JD020235, num 118, 2013. Reprint
  15. Schwartz, M.J., W.J. Read, M.L. Santee, N.J. Livesey, L. Froidevaux, A. Lambert, G.L. Manney, "Convectively Injected Water Vapor in the North American Summer Lowermost Stratosphere", vol doi:10.1002/grl.50421, num 40, pgs. 10, 2013. Reprint
  16. Su, H., J.H. Jiang, C. Zhai, V.S. Perun, J.T. Shen, A. Del Genio, L.S. Nazarenko, L.J. Donner, L. Horowitz, C. Seman, C. Morcrette, J. Petch, M. Ringer, J. Cole, M. Mesquita, T. Iversen, J.E. Kristjansson, A. Gettelman, L. Rotstayn, S. Jeffrey, J.L. Dufresne, M. Watanabe, H. Kawai, T. Koshiro, T. Wu, E.M. Volodin, , "Diagnosis of Regime-dependent Cloud Simulation Errors in CMIP5 Models Using A-Train Satellite Observations", vol 10.1029/2012JD018575, num 118, pgs. 7, 2013. Reprint
  17. Su, H., J.H. Jiang, "Tropical Clouds and Circulation Changes During the 2006-07 and 2009-10 El Niños", vol doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00152.1, num 26, pgs. 2, 2013. Reprint
  18. Takahashi, H., H. Su, J.H. Jiang, Z.J. Luo, S.P. Xie, J. Hafner, "Tropical water vapor variations during the 2006–2007 and 2009–2010 El Niños: Satellite observation and GFDL AM2.1 simulation", vol doi:10.1002/jgrd.50684, num 118, pgs. 16, 2013. Reprint
  19. Tschanz, B., C. Straub, D. Scheiben, K.A. Walker, G.P. Stiller, N. Kämpfer, "Validation of middle-atmospheric campaign-based water vapour measured by the ground-based microwave radiometer MIAWARA-C, Atmospheric Measurement Techniques", vol 10.5194/amt-6-1725-2013, num 6, pgs. 7, 2013. Reprint
  20. Wohltmann, I., T. Wegner, R. Mueller, R. Lehmann, M. Rex, G.L. Manney, M.L. Santee, P. Bernath, O. Suminska-Ebersoldt, F. Strohl, M. von Hobe, C.M. Volk, E. Hoesen, F. Ravegnani, A. Ulanovsky, V. Yushkov, "Uncertainties in modelling heterogeneous chemistry and Arctic ozone depletion in the winter 2009/2010", vol doi:10.5194/acp-13-3909-2013, num 13, 2013. Reprint


  1. Azam, F., K. Bramstedt, A. Rozanov, K. Weigel, H. Bovensmann, G.P. Stiller, J.P. Burrows, "SCIAMACHY lunar occultation water vapor measurements: retrieval and validation results", vol doi:10.5194/amt-5-2499-2012, num 5, 2012. Reprint
  2. Blessmann, D., I. Wohldmann, R. Lehmann, M. Rex, "Persistence of ozone anomalies in the Arctic stratospheric vortex in autumn", vol doi:10.5194/acp-12-4817-2012, num 12, 2012. Reprint
  3. Chandran, A., D.W. Rusch, G.E. Thomas, S.E. Palo, G. Baumgarten, E.J. Jensen, A.W. Merkel, "Atmospheric gravity wave effects on polar mesospheric clouds: A comparison of numerical simulations from CARMA 2D with AIM observations", vol doi:10.1029/2012JD017794, num 117, 2012. Reprint
  4. Flury, T., D.L. Wu, W.G. Read, "Correlation among cirrus ice content, water vapor, and temperature in the TTL as observed by CALIPSO and Aura/MLS", vol doi:10.5194/acp-12-683-2012, num 12, 2012. Reprint
  5. Flury, T., D.L. Wu, W.G. Read, "Variability of the Brewer-Dobson circulation", vol doi:10.5194/acpd-12-21291-2012, num 12, 2012. Reprint
  6. Huang, L., R. Fu, J.H. Jiang, J.S. Wright, M. Luo, "Geographic and seasonal distributions of CO transport pathways and their roles in determining CO centers in the upper troposphere", vol doi:10.5194/acp-12-4683-2012, num 12, 2012. Reprint
  7. Jiang, J.H., H. Su, C. Zhai, V.S. Perun, A. Del Genio, L.S. Nazarenko, L.J. Donner, L. Horowitz, C. Seman, J. Cole, A. Gettelman, M. Ringer, L. Rotstayn, S. Jeffrey, T. Wu, F. Brient, J-L. Dufresne, H. Kawai, T. Koshiro, M. Watanabe, T.S. LÉcuyer, E.M. Volodin, T. Iversen, H. Drange, M.S. Mesquita, W.G. Read, J.W. Waters, B. Tian, J. Teixeira, G.L. Stephens, "Evaluation of Cloud and Water Vapor Simulations in CMIP5 Climate Models Using NASA A-Train Satellite Observations", vol doi:10.1029/2011JD017237, num 117, pgs. D1410, 2012. Reprint
  8. Johnston, M.S., P. Eriksson, S. Eliasson, C.G. Jones, R.M. Forbes, D.P. Murtagh, "The representation of tropical upper tropospheric water in EC Earth V2", vol doi:10.1007/s00382-012-1511-0, num 39, 2012. Reprint
  9. Jones, A., K.A. Walker, J.J. Jin, J.R. Taylor, C.D. Boone, P.F. Bernath, S. Brohede, G.L. Manney, S. McLeod, R. Hughes, W.H. Daffer, "Technical Note: A trace gas climatology derived from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer ACE-FTS data set", vol 10.5194/acp-12-5207-2012, num 12, 2012. Reprint
  10. Ploeger, F., P. Konopka, R. Muller, S. Fueglistaler, T. Schmidt, J.C. Manners, J.U. Grooss, G. Gunther, P.M. Forster, M. Riese, "Horizontal transport affecting trace gas seasonality in the Tropical Tropopause Layer TTL", vol doi:10.1029/2011JD017267, num 117, 2012. Reprint
  11. Rong, P.P., J.M. Russell, M.E. Hervig, S.M. Bailey, "The roles of temperature and water vapor at different stages of the polar mesospheric cloud season", vol doi:10.1029/2011JD016464, num 117, 2012. Reprint
  12. Scheiben, D., C. Straub, K. Hocke, N. Kampfer, "Observations of middle atmospheric H2O and O3 during the 2010 major sudden stratospheric warming by a network of microwave radiometers", vol doi:10.5194/acp-12-7753-2012, num 12, pgs. 16, 2012. Reprint
  13. Shapiro, A.V., E. Rozanov, A.I. Shapiro, S. Wang, T. Egorova, W. Schmutz, Th. Peter, "Signature of the 27-day solar rotation cycle in mesospheric OH and H2O observed by the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder", vol doi:10.5194/acp-12-3181-2012, num 12, 2012. Reprint
  14. Stiller, G.P., M. Kiefer, E. Eckert, T. von Clarmann, S. Kellmann, M. Garcia-Comas, B. Funke, T. Leblanc, E. Fetzer, L. Froidevaux, M. Gomez, E. Hall, D. Hurst, A. Jordan, N. Kampfer, A. Lambert, I.S. McDermid, T. McGee, L. Miloshevich, G. Nedoluha, W. Read, M. Schneider, M. Schwartz, C. Straub, G. Toon, L.W. Twigg, K. Walker, D.N. Whiteman, "Validation of MIPAS IMK/IAA temperature, water vapor, and ozone profiles with MOHAVE-2009 campaign measurements", vol doi:10.5194/amt-5-289-2012, num 5, 2012. Reprint
  15. Straub, C., B. Tschanz, K. Hocke, N. Kampfer, A.K. Smith, "Transport of mesospheric H2O during and after the stratospheric sudden warming of January 2010: observation and simulation", vol doi:10.5194/acp-12-5413-2012, num 12, 2012. Reprint
  16. Wu, L., H. Su, J.H. Jiang, W.G. Read, "Hydration or dehydration: competing effects of upper tropospheric cloud radiation on the TTL water vapor", vol doi:10.5194/acp-12-7727-2012, num 12, 2012. Reprint
  17. Yi, M., Y. Fu, P. Liu, Z. Heng, Y. Gao, X. Hong, "Analysis of the variation of atmospheric composition in the upper troposphere during a strong convection in eastern China in summer", vol doi:10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2012.11124, num 36, pgs. 5, 2012.


  1. Alexander, S.P., A.R. Klekociuk, M.C. Pitts, A.J. McDonald, A. Arevalo-Torres, "The effect of orographic gravity waves on Antarctic polar stratospheric cloud occurrence and composition", vol doi:10.1029/2010JD015184, num 116, 2011. Reprint
  2. Bhawar, R.L., J.H. Jiang, H. Su, "Variation of upper tropospheric clouds and water vapor over the Indian ocean", vol doi:10.5194/acpd-11-21769-2011, pgs. 11, 2011. Reprint
  3. Chae, J.H., D.L. Wu, W.G. Read, S.C. Sherwood, "The role of tropical deep convective clouds on temperature, water vapor, and dehydration in the tropical tropopause layer TTL", vol doi:10.5194/acp-11-3811-2011, num 11, 2011. Reprint
  4. Das, S.K., C-W. Chiang, J-B. Nee, "Influence of tropical easterly jet on upper tropical cirrus: An observational study from CALIPSO, Aura-MLS and NCEP/NCAR data", vol doi:10.1029/2011JD015923, num 116, 2011. Reprint
  5. Kishore, P., M.V. Ratnam, S.P. Namboothiri, I. Velicogna, G. Basha, J.H. Jiang, K. Igarashi, S.V.B. Rao, V. Sivakumar, "Global 501S­501N distribution of water vapor observed by COSMIC GPS RO: Comparison with GPS radiosonde, NCEP, ERA-Interim, and JRA-25 reanalysis data sets", vol doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2011.04.017, num 73, 2011. Reprint
  6. Kohma, M., K. Sato, "The effects of atmospheric waves on the amounts of polar stratospheric clodus", vol doi:10.5194/acp-11-11535-2011, num 11, 2011. Reprint
  7. Laat, A.T.J.d., M. van Weele, "The 2010 Antarctic ozone hole: Observed reduction in ozone destruction by minor sudden stratospheric warmings", vol doi:10.1038/srep00038, num 1, pgs. 38, 2011. Reprint
  8. Lahoz, W.A., Q. Errera, S. Viscardy, G.L. Manney, "The 2009 stratospheric major warming described from synergistic use of BASCOE water vapour analyses and MLS observations", vol doi:10.5194/acp-11-4689-2011, num 11, 2011. Reprint
  9. Lee, J.N., D.L. Wu, G.L. Manney, M.J. Schwartz, A. Lambert, N.J. Livesey, K.R. Minschwaner, H.C. Pumphrey, W.G. Read, "Aura Microwave Limb Sounder Observations of the Polar Middle Atmosphere: Dynamics and Transport of CO and H2O", vol doi:10.1029/2010JD014608, num 116, pgs. D5, 2011. Reprint
  10. Liang, C.K., A. Eldering, A. Gettelman, B. Tian, S. Wong, E.J. Fetzer, K.N. Liou, "Record of tropical interannual variability of temperature and water vapor from a combined AIRS-MLS data set", vol doi:10.1029/2010JD014841, num 116, 2011. Reprint
  11. Manney, G.L., M.L. Santee, M. Rex, N.J. Livesey, M.C. Pitts, P. Veefkind, E.R. Nash, I. Wohltmann, R. Lehmann, L. Froidevaux, L.R. Poole, M.R. Schoeberl, D.P. Haffner, J. Davies, V. Dorokhov, H. Gernandt, B. Johnson, R. Kivi, E. Kyro, N. Larsen, P.F. Levelt, A. Makshtas, C.T. McElroy, H. Nakajima, M.C. Parrondo, D.W. Tarasick, P. von der Gathen, K.A. Walker, N.S. Zinoviev, "Unprecedented Arctic ozone loss in 2011", vol doi:10.1038/nature10556, num 478, 2011. Reprint
  12. Minschwaner, K.R., G.L. Manney, S.H. Wang, R.S. Harwood, "Hydroxyl in the stratosphere and mesosphere - Part 1: Diurnal variability", vol doi:10.5194/acp-11-955-2011, num 11, 2011. Reprint
  13. Nedoluha, G.E., R.M. Gomez, B.C. Hicks, J. Helmboldt, R.M. Bevilacqua, A. Lambert, "Ground-based microwave measurements of water vapor from the midstratosphere to the mesosphere", vol doi:10.1029/2010JD014728 , num 116, pgs. D0230, 2011. Reprint
  14. Pumphrey, H.C., M.L. Santee, N.J. Livesey, M.J. Schwartz, W.G. Read, "Microwave Limb Sounder observations of biomass-burning products from the Australian bush fires of February 2009", vol doi:10.5194/acp-11-6285-2011, num 11, pgs. 2, 2011. Reprint
  15. Pumphrey, H.C., A. Lambert, N.J. Livesey, "Observation of the exhaust plume from the space shuttle main engines using the microwave limb sounder", vol doi:10.5194/amt-4-89-2011, num 4, pgs. 1, 2011. Reprint
  16. Russo, M.R., V. Marecal, C.R. Hoyle, J. Arteta, C. Chemel, M.P. Chipperfield, O. Dessens, W. Feng, J.S. Hosking, P.J. Telford, O. Wild, X. Yang, J.A. Pyle, "Representation of tropical deep convection in atmospheric models - Part 1: Meteorology and comparison with satellite observations", vol doi:10.5194/acp-11-2765-2011, num 11, 2011. Reprint
  17. Straub, C., A. Murk, N. Kampfer, S.H.W. Golchert, G. Hochschild, K. Hallgren, P. Hartogh, "ARIS-Campaign: intercomparison of three ground based 22 GHz radiometers for middle atmospheric water vapor at the Zugspitze in winter 2009", vol doi:10.5194/amt-4-1979-2011, num 4, 2011. Reprint
  18. Su, H., J.H. Jiang, X. Liu, J.E. Penner, W.G. Read, S.T. Massie, M.R. Schoeberl, P. Colarco, N.J. Livesey, M.L. Santee, "Observed Increase of TTL Temperature and Water Vapor in Polluted Clouds over Asia", vol doi:10.1175/2010JCLI3749.1, num 24, pgs. 11, 2011. Reprint
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  1. Damiani, A., M. Storini, C. Rafanelli, P. Diego, "The hydroxyl radical as an indicator of SEP fluxes in the high-latitude terrestrial atmosphere", vol doi:10.1016/j.asr.2010.06.022, num 46, 2010. Reprint
  2. Eguchi, N., K. Kodera, "Impacts of Stratospheric Sudden Warming Event on Tropical Clouds and Moisture Fields in the TTL: A Case Study", vol doi:10.2151/sola.2010-035, num 6, 2010. Reprint
  3. Eriksson, P., B. Rydberg, M. Johnston, D.P. Murtagh, H. Struthers, S. Farrachat, U. Lohmann, "Diurnal variations of humidity and ice water content in the tropical upper troposphere", vol doi:10.5194/acp-10-11519-2010, num 10, 2010. Reprint
  4. Jiang, J.H., H. Su, S. Pawson, H.C. Liu, W. Read, J.W. Waters, M. Santee, D.L. Wu, M. Schwartz, N. Livesey, A. Lambert, R. Fuller, J.N. Lee, "Five-year (2004-2009) Observations of Upper Tropospheric Water Vapor and Cloud Ice from MLS and Comparisons with GEOS-5 analyses", vol doi:10.1029/2009JD013256, num 115, 2010. Reprint
  5. L'Ecuyer, T.S., J.H. Jiang, "Touring the atmosphere aboard the A-Train", vol doi:10.1063/1.3463626, num 63, pgs. 7, 2010. Reprint
  6. Liang, C.K., A. Eldering, F.W. Irion, W.G. Read, E.J. Fetzer, B.H. Kahn, K-N. Liou, "Characterization of mereged AIRS and MLS water vapor sensitivity through integration of averaging kernels and retrievals", vol doi:10.5194/amtd-3-2833-2010, num 3, pgs. 4, 2010. Reprint
  7. Liu, Y.S., S. Fueglistaler, P.H. Haynes, "Advection-condensation paradigm for stratospheric water vapor", vol doi:10.1029/2010JD014352, num 115, 2010. Reprint
  8. Massie, S.T., J.C. Gille, C. Craig, R. Khosravi, J. Barnett, W. Read, D. Winker, "HIRDLS and CALIPSO observations of tropical cirrus", vol doi:10.1029/2009JD012100, num 114, 2010. Reprint
  9. Minschwaner, K., G.L. Manney, N.J. Livesey, H.C. Pumphrey, H.M. Pickett, L. Froidevaux, A. Lambert, M.J. Schwartz, P.F. Bernath, K.A. Walker, C.D. Boone, "The photochemistry of carbon monoxide in the stratosphere and mesosphere evaluated from observations by the Microwave Limb Sounder on the Aura satellite", vol doi:10.1029/2009JD012654, num 115, 2010. Reprint
  10. Ott, L., B. Duncan, S. Pawson, P. Colarco, M. Chin, C. Randles, T. Diehl, E. Nielsen, "Influence of the 2006 Indonesian biomass burning aerosols on tropical dynamics studies with the GEOS-5 AGCM", vol doi:10.1029/2009JD013181, num 115, 2010. Reprint
  11. Robert, C.E., C. von Savigny, N. Rahpoe, H. Bovensmann, J.P. Burrows, M.T. DeLand, M.J. Schwartz, "First evidence of a 27 day solar signature in noctilucent cloud occurrence frequency", vol doi:10.1029/2009JD012359, num 115, 2010. Reprint
  12. Rong, P., J.M. Russell, L.L. Gordley, M.E. Hervig, L. Deaver, P.F. Bernath, K.A. Walker, "Validation of v1.22 mesospheric water vapor observed by the Solar Occultation for Ice Experiment instrument on the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere satellite", vol doi:10.1029/2010JD014269, num 115, 2010. Reprint
  13. Shettle, E.P., G.E. Nedoluha, M.T. DeLand, G.E. Thomas, J.J. Olivero, "SBUV observations of polar mesospheric clouds compared with MLS temperature and water vapor measurements", vol doi:10.1029/2010GL044132, num 37, 2010. Reprint
  14. Solomon, S., K.H. Rosenlof, R.W. Portmann, J.S. Daniel, S.M. Davis, T.J. Sanford, G-K. Plattner, "Contributions of Stratospheric Water Vapor to Decadal Changes in the Rate of Global Warming", vol doi:10.1126/science.1182488, num 327, 2010. Reprint
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  16. Takashima, H., N. Eguchi, W. Read, "A short-duration cooling event around the tropical tropopause and its effect on water vapor", vol doi:10.1029/2010GL044505, num 37, 2010. Reprint
  17. Thomason, L.W., J.R. Moore, M.C. Pitts, J.M. Zawodny, E.W. Chiou, "An evaluation of the SAGE III Version 4 aerosol extinction coefficient and water vapor data products", vol doi:10.5194/acp-10-2159-2010, num 10, 2010. Reprint
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  1. Dessler, A.E., "Clouds and water vapor in the Northern Hemisphere summertime stratosphere", vol doi:10.1029/2009JD012075, num 113, 2009. Reprint
  2. Eckermann, S.D., K.W. Hoppel, L. Coy, J.P. McCormack, D.E. Sisskind, K. Nielsen, A. Kochenash, M.H. Stevens, C.R. Englert, W. Singer, M. Hervig, "High-altitude data assimilation system experiments for the northern summer mesosphere season of 2007", vol doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2008.09.036 , num 71, 2009. Reprint
  3. Flury, T., K. Hocke, A. Haefele, N. Kampfer, R. Lehmann, "Ozone depletion, water vapor increase, and PSC generation at midlatitudes by the 2008 major stratospheric warming", vol doi:10.1029/2009JD011940, num 114, 2009. Reprint
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  7. Jones, A., J. Urban, D.P. Murtagh, P. Eriksson, S. Brohede, C. Haley, D. Degenstein, A. Bourassa, C. von Savigny, T. Sonkaew, A. Rozanov, H. Bovensmann, J. Burrows, "Evolution of stratospheric ozone and water vapour time series studied with satellite measurements", vol doi:10.5194/acp-9-6055-2009, num 9, 2009. Reprint
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  17. Strahan, S.E., M.R. Schoeberl, S.D. Steenrod, "The impact of tropical recirculation on polar composition", vol doi:10.5194/acp-9-2471-2009, num 9, 2009. Reprint
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  1. Barnes, J.E., T. Kaplan, H. Vomel, W.G. Read, "NASA/Aura/Microwave Limb Sounder Water Vapor Validation at Mauna Loa Observatory by Raman Lidar", vol doi:10.1029/2007JD008842, num 113, 2008. Reprint
  2. Coffey, M.T., J.W. Hannigan, A. Goldman, D.E. Kinnison, J.C. Gille, J. Barnett, L. Froidevaux, A. Lambert, M.L. Santee, N.J. Livesey, B.M. Fisher, S.S. Kulawik, R. Beer, "Airborne Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) observations in support of EOS Aura validation", vol doi:10.1029/2007JD008833, num 113, 2008. Reprint
  3. Considine, D.B., M. Natarajan, T.D. Fairlie, G.S. Lingenfelser, R.B. Pierce, L. Froidevaux, A. Lambert, "Noncoincident validation of Aura MLS observations using the Langley Research Center Lagrangian chemistry and transport model", vol doi:10.1029/2007JD008770, num 113, 2008. Reprint
  4. Ekstrom, M., P. Eriksson, "Altitude resolved ice-fraction in the uppermost tropical troposphere", vol doi:10.1029/2008GL034305, num 35, 2008. Reprint
  5. Ekstrom, M., P. Eriksson, W.G. Read, M. Milz, D.P. Murtagh, "Comparison of satellite limb-sounding humidity climatologies of the uppermost tropical troposphere", vol doi:10.5194/acp-8-309-2008, num 8, 2008. Reprint
  6. Fetzer, E.J., W.G. Read, D. Waliser, B.H. Kahn, B. Tian, H. Vomel, F.W. Irion, H. Su, A. Eldering, M. de la Torre Juarez, J. Jiang, V. Dang, "Comparison of upper tropospheric water vapor observations from the Microwave Limb Sounder and Atmospheric Infrared Sounder", vol doi:10.1029/2008JD010000, num 113, 2008. Reprint
  7. Flury, T., S.C. Muller, K. Hocke, N. Kampfer, "Water vapor transport in the lower mesosphere of the subtropics: a trajectory analysis", vol doi:10.5194/acp-8-7273-2008, num 8, 2008. Reprint
  8. Hegglin, M.I., P.F. Bernath, C.D. Boone, W.H. Daffer, P. Hoor, G.L. Manney, C. Schiller, K. Strong, K.A. Walker, "Validation of ACE-FTS satellite date in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS) using non-coincident measurements", vol doi:10.5194/acp-8-1483-2008, num 8, 2008. Reprint
  9. James, R., M. Bonazzola, B. Legras, K. Surbled, S. Fueglistaler, "Water vapor transport and dehydration above convective outflow during Asian monsoon", vol doi:10.1029/2008GL035441, num 35, 2008. Reprint
  10. Manney, G.L., W.H. Daffer, K.B. Strawbridge, K.A. Walker, C.D. Boone, P.F. Bernath, T. Kerzenmacher, M.J. Schwartz, K. Strong, R.J. Sica, K. Kruger, H.C. Pumphrey, L. Froidevaux, A. Lambert, M.L. Santee, N.J. Livesey, E.E. Remsberg, M.G. Mlynczak, J.M. Russell, "The High Arctic in Extreme Winters: Vortex, Temperature, and MLS and ACE-FTS Trace Gas Evolution", vol doi:10.5194/acp-8-505-2008, num 8, 2008. Reprint
  11. McCormack, J.P., K.W. Hoppel, D.E. Siskind, "Parameterization of middle atmospheric water vapor photochemistry for high-altitude NWP and data assimilation", vol doi:10.5194/acp-8-7519-2008, num 8, 2008. Reprint
  12. Read, W.G., M.J. Schwartz, A. Lambert, H. Su, N.J. Livesey, W.H. Daffer, C.D. Boone, "The roles of convection, extratropical mixing, and in situ freeze-drying in the tropical tropopause layer", vol doi:10.5194/acp-8-6051-2008, num 8, 2008. Reprint
  13. Santee, M.L., I.A. MacKenzie, G.L. Manney, M.P. Chipperfield, P.F. Bernath, K.A. Walker, C.D. Boone, L. Froidevaux, N.J. Livesey, J.W. Waters, "A study of stratospheric chlorine partitioning based on new", vol doi:10.1029/2007JD009057, num 113, 2008. Reprint
  14. Schoeberl, M.R., A.R. Douglass, R.S. Stolarski, S. Pawson, S.E. Strahan, W. Read, "Comparison of lower stratospheric tropical mean vertical velocities", vol doi:10.1029/2008JD010221, num 113, 2008. Reprint
  15. Schoeberl, M.R., A.R. Douglass, P.A. Newman, L.R. Lait, D. Lary, J. Waters, N. Livesey, L. Froidevaux, A. Lambert, W. Read, M.J. Filipiak, H.C. Pumphrey, "QBO and Annual Cycle Variations in Tropical Lower Stratosphere Trace Gases from HALOE and Aura MLS Observations", vol doi:10.1029/2007JD008678, num 113, 2008. Reprint
  16. Schwartz, M.J., D.E. Waliser, B. Tian, D.L. Wu, J.H. Jiang, W.G. Read, "Characterization of MJO-Related Upper-Tropospheric Hydrological Processes Using MLS", vol doi:10.1029/2008GL033675, num 35, 2008. Reprint


  1. Chandra, S., J.R. Ziemke, M.R. Schoeberl, L. Froidevaux, W.G. Read, P.F. Levelt, P.K. Bhartia, "Effects of the 2004 El Nino on tropospheric ozone and water vapor", vol doi:10.1029/2006GL028779, num 34, 2007. Reprint
  2. Lambert, A., W.G. Read, N.J. Livesey, M.L. Santee, G.L. Manney, L. Froidevaux, D.L. Wu, M.J. Schwartz, H.C. Pumphrey, C. Jimenez, G.E. Nedoluha, R.E. Cofield, D.T. Cuddy, W.H. Daffer, B.J. Drouin, R.A. Fuller, R.F. Jarnot, B.W. Knosp, H.M. Pickett, V.S. Perun, W.V. Snyder, P.C. Stek, R.P. Thurstans, P.A. Wagner, J.W. Waters, K.W. Jucks, G.C. Toon, R.A. Stachnik, P.F. Bernath, C.D. Boone, K.A. Walker, J. Urban, D. Murtagh, J.W. Elkins, E. Atlas, "Validation of the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder middle atmosphere water vapor and nitrous oxide measurements", vol doi:10.1029/2007JD008724, num 112, 2007. Reprint
  3. Liu, C., E.J. Zipster, T.J. Garrett, J.H. Jiang, H. Su, "How do the water vapor and carbon monoxide 'tape recorders' start near the tropical tropopause", vol doi:10.1029/2006GL029234, num 34, 2007. Reprint
  4. Manney, G.L., W.H. Daffer, J.M. Zawodny, P.F. Bernath, K.W. Hoppel, K.A. Walker, B.W. Knosp, C. Boone, E.E. Remsberg, M.L. Santee, V. Lynn Harvey, S. Pawson, D.R. Jackson, L. Deaver, C.T. McElroy, C.A. McLinden, J.R. Drummond, H.C. Pumphrey, A. Lambert, M.J. Schwartz, L. Froidevaux, S. McLeod, L.L. Takacs, M.J. Suarez, C.R. Trepte, D.T. Cuddy, N.J. Livesey, R.S. Harwood, J.W. Waters, "Solar Occultation Satellite Data and Derived Meteorological Products: Sampling Issues and Comparisons with Aura MLS", vol doi:10.1029/2007JD008709, num 112, 2007. Reprint
  5. Nedoluha, G.E., R.M. Gomez, B.C. Hicks, R.M. Bevilacqua, J.M. Russell, B.J. Connor, A. Lambert, "A comparison of middle atmospheric water vapor as measured by WVMS, EOS-MLS, and HALOE", vol doi:10.1029/2007JD008757, num 112, 2007. Reprint
  6. Pitts, M.C., L.W. Thomason, L.R. Poole, D.M. Winker, "Characterization of Polar Stratospheric Clouds with spaceborne lidar: CALIPSO and the 2006 Antarctic season", vol doi:10.5194/acp-7-5207-2007, num 7, 2007. Reprint
  7. Read, W.G., A. Lambert, J. Bacmeister, R.E. Cofield, L.E. Christensen, D.T. Cuddy, W.H. Daffer, B.J. Drouin, E. Fetzer, L. Froidevaux, R. Fuller, R. Herman, R.F. Jarnot, J.H. Jiang, Y.B. Jiang, K. Kelly, B.W. Knosp, H.C. Pumphrey, K.H. Rosenlof, X. Sabounchi, M.L. Santee, M.J. Schwartz, W.V. Snyder, P.C. Stek, H. Su, L.L. Takacs, R.P. Thurstans, H. Vomel, P.A. Wagner, J.W. Waters, C.R. Webster, E.M. Weinstock, D.L. Wu, "Aura Microwave Limb Sounder upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric H2O and relative humidity with respect to ice validation", vol doi:10.1029/2007JD008752, num 112, 2007. Reprint
  8. Vomel, H., J.E. Barnes, R.N. Forno, M. Fujiwara, F. Hasebe, S. Iwasaki, R. Kivi, N. Komala, E. Kyro, T. Leblanc, B. Morel, S.Y. Ogino, W. Read, S.C. Ryan, S. Saraspriya, H. Selkirk, M. Shiotani, J. Valverde-Canossa, D.N. Whiteman, "Validation of Aura MLS Water Vapor by Balloon Borne Cryogenic Frostpoint Hygrometer Measurements", vol doi:10.1029/2007JD008698, num 112, 2007. Reprint
  9. Wong, S., A.E. Dessler, "Regulation of H2O and CO in Tropical Tropopause Layer by the Madden-Julian Oscillation", vol doi:10.1029/2006JD007940, num 112, 2007. Reprint
  10. Ziemke, J.R., S. Chandra, M.R. Schoeberl, L. Froidevaux, W.G. Read, P.F. Levelt, P.K. Bhartia, "Intra-seasonal variability in tropospheric ozone and water vapor in the tropics", vol doi:10.1029/2007GL030965, num 34, 2007. Reprint


  1. Cofield, R.E., P.C. Stek, "Design and field-of-view calibration of 114-660 GHz optics of the Earth Observing System Microwave Limb Sounder", vol doi:10.1109/TGRS.2006.873234, num 44, pgs. no. 5, 2006. Reprint
  2. Folkins, I., P. Bernath, C. Boone, L.J. Donner, A. Eldering, G. Lesins, R.V. Martin, B-M. Sinnhuber, K. Walker, "Testing convective parameterizations with tropical measurements of HNO3, CO, H2O, and O3: Implications fotr the water vapor budget", vol doi:10.1029/2006JD007325, num 111, 2006. Reprint
  3. Froidevaux, L., N.J. Livesey, W.G. Read, Y.B. Jiang, C.J. Jimenez, M.J. Filipiak, M.J. Schwartz, M.L. Santee, H.C. Pumphrey, J.H. Jiang, D.L. Wu, G.L. Manney, B.J. Drouin, J.W. Waters, E.J. Fetzer, P.F. Bernath, C.D. Boone, K.A. Walker, K.W. Jucks, G.C. Toon, J.J. Margitan, B. Sen, C.R. Webster, L.E. Christensen, J.W. Elkins, E. Atlas, R.A. Lueb, R. Hendershot, "Early validation analyses of atmospheric profiles from EOS MLS on the Aura satellite", vol doi:10.1109/TGRS.2006.864366, num 44, pgs. no. 5, 2006. Reprint
  4. Fu, R., Y. Hu, J.S. Wright, J.H. Jiang, R.E. Dickinson, M. Chen, M. Filipiak, W.G. Read, J.W. Waters, D.L. Wu, "Short circuit of water vapor and polluted air to the global stratosphere by convective transport over the Tibetan Plateau", vol doi:10.1175/JAS-D-12-0171.1, num 103, 2006. Reprint
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  6. Hilsenrath, E., M.R. Schoeberl, A.R. Douglass, P.K. Bhartia, J. Barnett, R. Beer, J. Waters, M. Gunson, L. Froidevaux, J. Gille, P.F. Levelt, "Early Data from Aura and Continuity from UARS and TOMS", vol doi:10.1007/s11214-006-9074-1, num 125, 2006. Reprint
  7. Jimenez, C.J., H.C. Pumphrey, I.A. MacKenzie, G.L. Manney, M.L. Santee, M.J. Schwartz, R.S. Harwood, J.W. Waters, "EOS MLS observations of dehydration in the 2004-2005 polar winters", vol doi:10.1029/2006GL025926, num 33, 2006. Reprint
  8. Manney, G.L., N.J. Livesey, C.J. Jimenez, H.C. Pumphrey, M.L. Santee, I.A. MacKenzie, J.W. Waters, "EOS Microwave Limb Sounder Observations of 'frozen-in' anticyclone air in Arctic summer", vol doi:10.1029/2005GL025418, num 33, 2006. Reprint
  9. Oikonomou, E.K., A. O'Neill, "Evaluation of ozone and water vapor fields from the ECMWF reanalysis ERA-40 during 1991-1999 in comparison with UARS satellite and MOZAIC aircraft observations", vol doi:10.1029/2004JD005341, num 111, 2006. Reprint
  10. Su, H., W.G. Read, J.H. Jiang, J.W. Waters, D.L. Wu, E.J. Fetzer, "Enhanced positive water vapor feedback associated with tropical deep convection: New evidence from Aura MLS", vol doi:10.1029/2005GL025505, num 33, 2006. Reprint
  11. Su, H., D.E. Waliser, J.H. Jiang, J-L. Li, W.G. Read, J.W. Waters, A.M. Tompkins, "Relationships of upper tropospheric water vapor, clouds and SST: MLS observations, ECMWF analyses and GCM simulations", vol doi:10.1029/2006GL027582, num 33, 2006. Reprint


  1. Folkins, I., R.V. Martin, " The Vertical Structure of Tropical Convection and Its Impact on the Budgets of Water Vapor and Ozone", vol doi:10.1175/JAS3407.1, num 62, 2005. Reprint
  2. Manney, G.L., M.L. Santee, N.J. Livesey, L. Froidevaux, W.G. Read, H.C. Pumphrey, J.W. Waters, S. Pawson, "EOS Microwave Limb Sounder Observations of the Antarctic Polar Vortex Breakup in 2004", vol doi:10.1029/2005GL022823, num 32, 2005. Reprint
  3. Santee, M.L., G.L. Manney, N.J. Livesey, L. Froidevaux, H.C. Pumphrey, W.G. Read, M.J. Schwartz, J.W. Waters, "Polar processing and development of the 2004 Antarctic ozone hole: First results from Aura MLS", vol doi:10.1029/2005GL022582, num 32, 2005. Reprint
  4. Waugh, D.W., "Impact of potential vorticity intrusions on subtropical upper tropospheric humidity", vol doi:10.1029/2004JD005664, num 110, 2005. Reprint
  5. Wu, D.L., J.H. Jiang, "Interannual and Seasonal Variations of Diurnal Tide, Gravity Wave, Ozone, and Water Vapor as Observed by MLS during 1991-1994", vol doi:10.1016/j.asr.2004.12.018, num 35, 2005. Reprint


  1. Dessler, A.E., S.C. Sherwood, "Effect of convection on the summertime extratropical lower stratosphere", vol doi:10.1029/2004JD005209, num 109, 2004. Reprint
  2. Eguchi, N., M. Shiotani, "Intraseasonal variations of water vapor and cirrus clouds in the tropical upper troposphere", vol doi:10.1029/2003JD004314, num 109, 2004. Reprint
  3. Jiang, J.H., B. Wang, K. Goya, K. Hocke, S.D. Eckermann, J. Ma, D.L. Wu, W.G. Read, "Geographical Distribution and Inter-Seasonal Variability of Tropical Deep Convection: UARS MLS Observations and Analyses", vol doi:10.1029/2003JD003756, num 109, 2004. Reprint
  4. Minschwaner, K., A.E. Dessler, "Water Vapor Feedback in the Tropical Upper Troposphere: Model Results and Observations", vol doi:10.1175/1520-0442(2004)017<1272:WVFITT>2.0.CO;, num 17, 2004. Reprint
  5. Read, W.G., D.L. Wu, J.W. Waters, H.C. Pumphrey, "A New 147-56 hPa Water Vapor Product from the UARS Microwave Limb Sounder", vol doi:10.1029/2003JD004366, num 109, 2004. Reprint
  6. Read, W.G., D.L. Wu, J.W. Waters, H.C. Pumphrey, "Dehydration in the Tropical Tropopause Layer: Implications from UARS MLS", vol doi:10.1029/2003JD004056, num 109, 2004. Reprint


  1. Clark, H.L., R.S. Harwood, A. Billingham, H.C. Pumphrey, "Cirrus and water vapor in the tropical tropopause layer observed by the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite", vol doi:10.1029/2003JD003748, num 108, pgs. D24, 2003. Reprint
  2. Clark, H.L., R.S. Harwood, "Upper-Tropospheric Humidity from MLS and ECMWF Reanalyses", vol doi:10.1175/1520-0493(2003)131<0542:UTHFMA>2.0.CO;, num 131, 2003. Reprint
  3. Limpasuvan, V., D.L. Wu, "Two-day wave observations of UARS Microwave Limb Sounder mesospheric water vapor and temperature", vol doi:10.1029/2002JD002903, num 108, pgs. D10, 2003. Reprint
  4. Salby, M., F. Sassi, P. Callaghan, W. Read, H. Pumphrey, "Fluctuations of Cloud, Humidity, and Thermal Structure near the Tropical Tropopause", vol doi:10.1175/1520-0442(2003)016%3C3428%3AFOCHAT%3E2, num 16, 2003. Reprint


  1. Folkins, I., K.K. Kelly, E.M. Weinstock, "A simple explanation for the increase in relative humidity between 11 and 14 km in the tropics", vol doi:10.1029/2002JD002185, num 107, pgs. D23, 2002. Reprint
  2. Kley, D., J.M. Russell, C. Phillips, "SPARC assessment of upper tropospheric and stratospheric water vapour", num 2, pgs. WMO/ICSU/IOC, 2002.
  3. Michelsen, H.A., G.L. Manney, F.W. Irion, G.C. Toon, M.R. Gunson, C.P. Rinsland, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, M.J. Newchurch, P.N. Purcell, , J.M. Russell, H.C. Pumphrey, J.W. Waters, R.M. Bevilacqua, K.K. Kelly, E.J. Hintsa, E.M. Weinstock, E-W. Chiou, W.P. Chu, M.P. McCormick, C.R. Webster, "ATMOS Version 3 water vapor measurements: Comparisons with observations from two ER-2 Lyman-alpha hygrometers, MkIV, HALOE, SAGE II, MAS, and MLS", vol doi:10.1029/2001JD000587, num 107, pgs. D3, 2002. Reprint
  4. Offerman, D., B. Schaeler, M. Riese, M. Langfermann, M. Jarisch, G. Eidmann, C. Schiller, H G.J. Smit, W.G. Read, "Water vapor at the tropopause during the CRISTA 2 mission", vol doi:10.1029/2001JD000700, num 107, pgs. D23, 2002. Reprint
  5. Sassi, F., M. Salby, H.C. Pumphrey, W.G. Read, "Influence of the Madden-Julian Oscillation on upper tropospheric humidity", vol doi:10.1029/2001JD001331, num 107, pgs. D23, 2002. Reprint
  6. Spichtinger, P., K. Gierens, W. Read, "The statistical distribution law of relative humidity in the global tropopause region", vol doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2002/0011-0083, num 11, 2002. Reprint


  1. Clark, H.L., A. Billingham, R.S. Harwood, H.C. Pumphrey, "Water vapour in the tropical lower stratosphere during the driest phase of the atmospheric 'tape recorder'", vol doi:10.1029/2000JD000021, num 106, pgs. D19, 2001. Reprint
  2. Folkins, I., "Origin of Lapse Rate Changes in the Upper Tropical Tropopause", vol doi:10.1175/1520-0469(2002)059<0992:OOLRCI>2.0.CO;, num 59, 2001. Reprint
  3. Gettleman, A., W.J. Randel, S. Massie, F. Wu, W.G. Read, J.M. Russell, "El-Nino as a natural experiment for studying the Tropical Tropause Region", vol doi:10.1175/1520-0442(2001)014<3375:ENOAAN>2.0.CO;, num 14, 2001. Reprint
  4. Lee, A.M., H.K. Roscoe, A.E. Jones, P.H. Haynes, E.F. Shuckburgh, M.W. Morrey, H.C. Pumphrey, "The impact of the mixing properties within the Antarctic stratospheric vortex on ozone loss in spring", vol doi:10.1029/2000JD900398, num 106, pgs. D3, 2001. Reprint
  5. Pawson, S., L. Takacs, A. Molod, S. Nebuda, M. Chen, W. Read, M. Fiorino, "The Tropical Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere in the GEOS-2 GCM", vol doi:10.1016/S0273-1177(01)00214-9, num 27, 2001. Reprint
  6. Read, W.G., J.W. Waters, D.L. Wu, E.M. Stone, Z. Shippony, A.C. Smedley, C.C. Smallcomb, S. Oltmans, D. Kley, H G.J. Smit, J.L. Mergenthaler, M.K. Karki, "UARS Microwave Limb Sounder Upper Tropospheric Humidity Measurement: Method and Validation", vol doi:10.1029/2000JD000122, num 106, pgs. D23, 2001. Reprint
  7. Sassi, F., M. Salby, W.G. Read, "Relationship between upper tropospheric humidity and deep convection", vol doi:10.1029/2001JD900121, num 106, pgs. D15, 2001. Reprint
  8. Stone, E.M., A. Tabazadeh, E. Jensen, H.C. Pumphrey, M.L. Santee, J.L. Mergenthaler, "The onset, extent and duration of dehydration in the Southern Hemisphere polar vortex", vol doi:10.1029/2000JD000101, num 106, pgs. D19, 2001. Reprint


  1. Dessler, A.E., S.C. Sherwood, "Simulations of tropical upper tropospheric humidity", vol doi:10.1029/2000JD900231, num 105, pgs. D15, 2000. Reprint
  2. Gettleman, A., J.R. Holton, A.R. Douglass, "Simulations of water vapor in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere", vol doi:10.1029/1999JD901133, num 105, pgs. D7, 2000. Reprint
  3. Gray, L.J., "A model study of the influence of the quasi-biennial oscillation on trace gas distributions in the middle and upper stratosphere", num 105, pgs. D4, 2000.
  4. Kley, D., J.M. Russell, C. Phillips, "SPARC Assessment of Upper Tropospheric and Stratospheric Water Vapor", 2000.
  5. McCormack, J.P., R. Fu, W.G. Read, "The influence of convective outflow on water vapor mixing ratios in the tropical upper troposphere: An analyses based on UARS MLS measurements", vol doi:10.1029/1999GL010477, num 27, 2000. Reprint
  6. Morris, G.A., J.F. Gleason, J. Ziemke, M.R. Schoeberl, "Trajectory Mapping: A tool for validation of trace gas observations", vol doi:10.1029/1999JD901118, num 105, pgs. D14, 2000. Reprint
  7. Mote, P.W., H.L. Clark, T.J. Dunkerton, R.S. Harwood, H.C. Pumphrey, "Intraseasonal Variations of Water Vapor in the Tropical Upper Troposphere and Tropopause Region", vol doi:10.1029/2000JD900158, num 105, pgs. D13, 2000. Reprint
  8. Pan, L.L., E.J. Hintsa, E.M. Stone, E.M. Weinstock, W.J. Randel, "The seasonal cycle of water vapor and saturation mixing ratio in the extratropical lowermost stratosphere", vol doi:10.1029/2000JD900401, num 105, pgs. D21, 2000. Reprint
  9. Pumphrey, H.C., H.L. Clark, R.S. Harwood, "Lower stratospheric water vapor measured by UARS MLS", vol doi:10.1029/1999GL011339, num 27, 2000. Reprint
  10. Sandor, B.J., E.J. Jensen, E.M. Stone, W.G. Read, J.W. Waters, J.L. Mergenthaler, "Upper Tropospheric Humidity and Thin Cirrus", vol doi:10.1029/1999GL011194, num 27, 2000. Reprint
  11. Stone, E.M., L. Pan, B.J. Sandor, W.G. Read, J.W. Waters, "Spatial distributions of upper tropospheric water vapor measurements from the UARS Microwave Limb Sounder", vol doi:10.1029/2000JD900125, num 105, pgs. D10, 2000. Reprint
  12. Zhu, Y., R.E. Newell, W.G. Read, "Factors controlling upper tropospheric water vapor", vol doi:10.1175/1520-0442(2000)013<0836:FCUTWV>2.0.CO;, num 13, 2000. Reprint


  1. Chen, M., R.B. Rood, W.G. Read, "Seasonal variations of upper tropospheric water vapor and high clouds observed from satellites", vol doi:10.1029/1998JD200124, num 104, pgs. D6, 1999. Reprint
  2. Jensen, E.J., W.G. Read, J. Mergenthaler, B.J. Sandor, L. Pfister, A. Tabazadeh, "High humidities and subvisible cirrus near the tropical tropopause", vol doi:10.1029/1999GL900266, num 26, pgs. D15, 1999. Reprint
  3. Khattatov, B.V., J.C. Gille, L.V. Lyjak, G.P. Brasseur, V.L. Dvortsov, A.E. Roche, J.W. Waters, "Assimilation of photochemically active species and a case analysis of UARS data", vol doi:10.1029/1999JD900225, num 104, pgs. D15, 1999. Reprint
  4. Mlynczak, M.G., C.J. Mertens, R.R. Garcia, R.W. Portmann, "A Detailed Evaluation of the Stratospheric Heat Budget, 2. Global Radiation Balance and Diabatic Circulations", vol doi:10.1029/1998JD200099, num 104, pgs. D6, 1999. Reprint
  5. Plane, J., C. Gardner, H.C. Pumphrey, , C.Y. She, R. Garcia, "Mesospheric Na Layer at 40 degrees N: Modelling and Observations", vol doi:10.1029/1998JD100015, num 104, pgs. D3, 1999. Reprint
  6. Pumphrey, H.C., S. Buehler, R.S. Harwood, "Instrumental and spectral parameters: their effect on and measurement by microwave limb sounding of the atmosphere", vol doi:10.1016/S0022-4073(99)00106-5, num 64, 1999. Reprint
  7. Pumphrey, H.C., "Validation of a new prototype water vapor rertrieval for the UARS Microwave Limb Sounder", vol doi:10.1029/1998JD200113, num 104, pgs. D8, 1999. Reprint


  1. Chandra, S., J.R. Ziemke, W. Min, W.G. Read, "Effects of 1997-1998 El Nino on tropospheric ozone and water vapor", vol doi:10.1029/98GL02695, num 25, 1998. Reprint
  2. Chen, M., R.B. Rood, W.G. Read, "Upper Tropospheric Water Vapor from GEOS Reanalysis and UARS MLS Observation", vol doi:10.1029/98JD02122, num 103, pgs. D16, 1998. Reprint
  3. Clark, H.L., R.S. Harwood, P.W. Mote, W.G. Read, "Variability of water vapor in the tropical upper troposphere as measured by the Microwave Limb Sounder on UARS", vol doi:10.1029/98JD02702, num 103, pgs. D24, 1998. Reprint
  4. Haas, M.R., L. Pfister, "A High-Altitude Site Survey for SOFIA", vol doi:10.1086/316132, num 110, 1998. Reprint
  5. Hu, H., W.T. Liu, "The impact of upper tropospheric humidity from Microwave Limb Sounder on the midlatitude greenhouse effect", vol doi:10.1029/98GL02252, num 25, 1998. Reprint
  6. Manney, G.L., Y.J. Orsolini, H.C. Pumphrey, A.E. Roche, "The 4-Day Wave and Transport of UARS Tracers in the Austral Polar Vortex", vol doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1998)055<3456:TDWATO>2.0.CO;, num 55, 1998. Reprint
  7. Morrey, M.W., R.S. Harwood, "Interhemispheric differences in stratospheric water vapour during late winter, in version 4 MLS measurements", vol doi:10.1029/97GL53637, num 25, 1998. Reprint
  8. Mote, P.W., T.J. Dunkerton, H.C. Pumphrey, "Sub-seasonal variations in lower stratospheric water vapor", vol doi:10.1029/98GL51847, num 25, 1998. Reprint
  9. Nair, H., M. Allen, L. Froidevaux, R.W. Zurek, "Localized Rapid Ozone Loss in the Northern Winter Stratosphere: An Analysis of UARS Observations", vol doi:10.1029/97JD03072, num 103, pgs. D1, 1998. Reprint
  10. Pumphrey, H.C., D. Rind, J.M. Russell, J.E. Harries, "A preliminary zonal mean climatology of water vapour in the stratosphere and mesosphere", vol doi:10.1016/S0273-1177(97)00750-3, num 21, 1998. Reprint
  11. , , "Nonlinear retrievals of water vapour from the UARS Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS)", vol doi:10.1016/S0273-1177(97)00918-6, num 21, 1998. Reprint
  12. Randel, W.J., F. Wu, J.M. Russell, A. Roche, J.W. Waters, "Seasonal Cycles and QBO Variations in Stratospheric CH4 and H2O Observed in UARS HALOE Data", vol doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1998)055<0163:SCAQVI>2.0.CO;, num 55, 1998. Reprint
  13. Ricaud, P., E. Monnier, F. Goutail, J-P. Pommereau, C. David, S. Godin, L. Froidevaux, J.W. Waters, J. Mergenthaler, A.E. Roche, H. Pumphrey, M.P. Chipperfield, "Stratosphere over Dumont d'Urville, Antarctica, in winter 1992", vol doi:10.1029/98JD00689, num 103, pgs. D11, 1998. Reprint
  14. Sandor, B.J., W.G. Read, J.W. Waters, K.H. Rosenlof, "Seasonal Behavior of Tropical to Mid-Latitude Upper Tropospheric Water Vapor from UARS MLS", vol doi:10.1029/98JD02272, num 103, pgs. D20, 1998. Reprint


  1. Nedoluha, G.E., R.M. Bevilacqua, R.M. Gomez, W.B. Waltman, B.C. Hicks, D.L. Thacker, J.M. Russell, M. Abrams, H.C. Pumphrey, B.J. Connor, "A comparative study of mesospheric water vapor measurements from the ground-based water vapor millimeter-wave spectrometer and space-based instruments", vol doi:10.1029/97JD01095, num 102, pgs. D14, 1997. Reprint
  2. Newell, R.E., Y. Zhu, W.G. Read, J.W. Waters, "Relationship between tropical upper tropospheric moisture and eastern tropical Pacific sea surface temperature on seasonal and interannual time scales", vol doi:10.1029/96GL03776, num 24, 1997. Reprint
  3. Pumphrey, H.C., R.S. Harwood, "Water Vapour and Ozone in the Mesosphere as measured by UARS MLS", vol doi:10.1029/97GL01158, num 24, 1997. Reprint
  4. Rood, R.B., A.R. Douglass, M.C. Cerniglia, W.G. Read, "Synoptic-Scale Mass Exchange from the Troposphere to the Stratosphere", vol doi:10.1029/97JD01598, num 102, pgs. D19, 1997. Reprint


  1. Elson, L.S., W.G. Read, J.W. Waters, P.W. Mote, J.S. Kinnersley, R.S. Harwood, "Space-time variations in water vapor as observed by the UARS Microwave Limb Sounder", vol doi:10.1029/95JD03653, num 101, pgs. D4, 1996. Reprint
  2. Eluszkiewicz, J., D. Crisp, R.W. Zurek, L.S. Elson, E.F. Fishbein, L. Froidevaux, J.W. Waters, R. Grainger, A. Lambert, R.S. Harwood, G.E. Peckham, "Residual circulation in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere as diagnosed from Microwave Limb Sounder data", vol doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1996)053%3C0217:RCITSA%3E2.0, num 53, 1996. Reprint
  3. Lahoz, W.A., M.R. Suttie, L. Froidevaux, R.S. Harwood, C.L. Lau, T.A. Lungu, G.E. Peckham, H.C. Pumphrey, W.G. Read, Z. Shippony, R.A. Suttie, J.W. Waters, G.E. Nedoluha, S.J. Oltmans, J.M. Russell, W.A. Traub, "Validation of UARS Microwave Limb Sounder 183 GHz H2O measurements", vol doi:10.1029/95JD02325, num 101, pgs. D6, 1996. Reprint
  4. Lahoz, W.A., A. O'Neill, A. Heaps, V.D. Pope, R. Swinbank, R.S. Harwood, L. Froidevaux, W.G. Read, J.W. Waters, G.E. Peckham, "Vortex dynamics and the evolution of water vapour in the stratosphere of the southern hemisphere", num 122, 1996.
  5. Massie, S.T., J.C. Gille, D.P. Edwards, P.L. Bailey, L.V. Lyjak, C.A. Craig, C.P. Cavanaugh, J.L. Mergenthaler, A.E. Roche, J.B. Kumer, A. Lambert, R.G. Grainger, C.D. Rodgers, F.W. Taylor, J.M. Russell, J.H. Park, T. Deshler, M.E. Hervig, E.F. Fishbein, J.W. Waters, W.A. Lahoz, "Validation studies using multiwavelength Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) observations of stratospheric aerosol", vol doi:10.1029/95JD03225, num 101, pgs. D6, 1996. Reprint
  6. Mote, P.W., K.H. Rosenlof, M.E. McIntyre, E.S. Carr, J.R. Holton, J.S. Kinnersley, H.C. Pumphrey, J.M. Russell, J.W. Waters, J.C. Gille, "An atmospheric tape recorder: the imprint of tropical tropopause temperatures on stratospheric water vapor", vol doi:10.1029/95JD03422, num 101, pgs. D2, 1996. Reprint
  7. Newell, R.E., Y. Zhu, E.V. Browell, S. Ismail, W.G. Read, J.W. Waters, K.K. Kelly, S.C. Liu, "Upper tropospheric water vapor and cirrus: Comparison of DC-8 Observations, preliminary UARS microwave limb sounder measurements and meteorological analyses", vol doi:10.1029/95JD01373, num 101, pgs. D1, 1996. Reprint
  8. Newell, R.E., Y. Zhu, E.V. Browell, W.G. Read, J.W. Waters, "Walker circulation and tropical upper tropospheric water vapor", vol doi:10.1029/95JD02275, num 101, pgs. D1, 1996. Reprint
  9. Schoeberl, M.R., A.R. Douglass, S.R. Kawa, A.E. Dessler, P.A. Newman, R.S. Stolarski, A.E. Roche, J.W. Waters, J.M. Russell, "The development of the Antarctic ozone hole", vol doi:10.1029/96JD01707, num 101, pgs. D15, 1996. Reprint
  10. Stone, E.M., W.J. Randel, J.L. Stanford, W.G. Read, J.W. Waters, "Baroclinic wave variations observed in MLS upper tropospheric water vapor", vol doi:10.1029/96GL02576, num 23, 1996. Reprint


  1. Carr, E.S., R.S. Harwood, P.W. Mote, G.E. Peckham, R.A. Suttie, W.A. Lahoz, A. O'Neill, L. Froidevaux, R.F. Jarnot, W.G. Read, J.W. Waters, R. Swinbank, "Tropical stratospheric water vapor measured by the microwave limb sounder (MLS)", vol doi:10.1029/95GL00626, num 22, 1995. Reprint
  2. Limpasuvan, V., C.B. Leovy, "Observations of the two-day wave near the southern summer stratopause", vol doi:10.1029/96GL02897, num 22, 1995. Reprint
  3. Manney, G.L., R.W. Zurek, W.A. Lahoz, R.S. Harwood, J.B. Kumer, J. Mergenthaler, A.E. Roche, A. O'Neill, R. Swinbank, J.W. Waters, "Lagrangian transport calculations using UARS data. Part I: Passive tracers", vol doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1995)052<3049:LTCUDP>2.0.CO;, num 52, 1995. Reprint
  4. Morris, G.A., M.R. Schoeberl, L. Sparling, P.A. Newman, L.R. Lait, L.S. Elson, J.W. Waters, A.E. Roche, J.B. Kumer, J.M. Russell, "Trajectory mapping of Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) data", vol doi:10.1029/95JD01072, num 100, pgs. D8, 1995. Reprint
  5. Mote, P.W., K.H. Rosenlof, J.R. Holton, R.S. Harwood, J.W. Waters, "Seasonal variation of water vapour in the tropical lower stratosphere", vol doi:10.1029/95GL01234, num 22, 1995. Reprint
  6. Randel, W.J., F. Wu, J.M. Russell, J.W. Waters, L. Froidevaux, "Ozone and temperature changes in the stratosphere following the eruption of Mount Pinatubo", vol doi:10.1029/95JD01001, num 100, pgs. D8, 1995. Reprint
  7. Read, W.G., J.W. Waters, L. Froidevaux, D.A. Flower, R.F. Jarnot, D.L. Hartmann, R.S. Harwood, R.B. Rood, "Upper-tropospheric water vapor from UARS MLS", vol doi:10.1175/1520-0477(1995)076<2381:UTWVFM>2.0.CO;, num 76, 1995. Reprint
  8. Ricaud, P.D., E.S. Carr, R.S. Harwood, W.A. Lahoz, L. Froidevaux, W.G. Read, J.W. Waters, J.L. Mergenthaler, J.B. Kumer, A.E. Roche, G.E. Peckham, "Polar stratospheric clouds as deduced from MLS and CLAES measurements", vol doi:10.1029/95GL00479, num 22, 1995. Reprint
  9. Rosenlof, K.H., "Seasonal cycle of the residual mean meridional circulation in the stratosphere", vol doi:10.1029/94JD03122, num 100, pgs. D3, 1995. Reprint
  10. Santee, M.L., W.G. Read, J.W. Waters, L. Froidevaux, G.L. Manney, D.A. Flower, R.F. Jarnot, R.S. Harwood, G.E. Peckham, "Interhemispheric differences in polar stratospheric HNO3, H2O, ClO and O3", vol doi:10.1126/science.267.5199.849, num 267, 1995. Reprint


  1. Lahoz, W.A., A. O'Neill, E.S. Carr, R.S. Harwood, L. Froidevaux, W.G. Read, J.W. Waters, J.B. Kumer, J.L. Mergenthaler, A.E. Roche, G.E. Peckham, R. Swinbank, "Three-dimensional evolution of water vapour distributions in the northern hemisphere as observed by MLS", vol doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1994)051<2914:TDEOWV>2.0.CO;, num 51, 1994. Reprint
  2. Massie, S., P.L. Bailey, J.C. Gille, E.C. Lee, J.L. Mergenthaler, A.E. Roche, J.B. Kumer, E.F. Fishbein, J.W. Waters, W.A. Lahoz, "Spectral signatures of polar stratospheric clouds and sulfate aerosol", vol doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1994)051<3027:SSOPSC>2.0.CO;, num 51, 1994. Reprint


  1. Elson, L.S., L. Froidevaux, "The use of Fourier transforms for asynoptic mapping: Early results from the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite Microwave Limb Sounder", vol doi:10.1029/93JD01987, num 98, 1993. Reprint
  2. Harwood, R.S., E.S. Carr, L. Froidevaux, R.F. Jarnot, W.A. Lahoz, C.L. Lau, G.E. Peckham, W.G. Read, P.D. Ricaud, R.A. Suttie, J.W. Waters, "Springtime stratospheric water vapour in the southern hemisphere as measured by MLS", vol doi:10.1029/93GL00832, num 20, 1993. Reprint
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